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cA Semi-Montbly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


July i to December 16, 189?. 




Alps from End to End 

Abgtio Book, A Nbw 


Abt, Bases of Appbboiation in 

Art Criticism, Modern 

Asia at my Study Table 

Backboned Animals, Lowest of the 

Baker, Sir Samuel, Story of 

BiRD-I^oTE, Studies of 

Birds, Books about 

<< Bismarck of Bulgaria,*' The 

Books for the Young 

Books of the Fall Season of 1895 

Botanies, Some New 

Boyesen, Professor, Gratitude to 

British Consul-General, Correspondence of a 

Chautauqua Books 

Coleridge's Note-Books, Leaves from 

Coming Continbnt, The 

Continental Ltteraturb, A Year of 

Cyclopedia of History, Larned's 

Danish Litbraturb, Holger Drachmann's Place in 

Darwinism and Bace Progress 

Decadence of a Scholar, The 

Defoe, New Presentments of 

Education, A Few Words about 

Education, A New History of 

England, Another Short History of 

England in Tudor Times 

English Poetry, History of 

English, Retrogression in 

English Teaching and Making of Writers . . . 

English, Teaching of 

Ethical Theory and Moral Life, Recent Works on 

Faith, Irrepressible Nature of 

Fiction-Reading in the Country 

Fiction, Rbckht 

Financier of France, A 

FitzGerald Letters, More 

Flaubert's Life and Letters 

France and England in North America . . . 
Freedom of Teaching at University of Chicago . 

Freeman, Edward A 

Glacial Geology, Progress of 

High School, The American 

Historical Novel, The 

History of the United States, Rhodes's .... 

Holiday Publications 

Huguenots, Conclusion of Baird's History of . . 

Huxley, Thomas Henry 

Indian Religions 

Inspiration and Interpretation 

Italian Novel of thx Year 

Lincoln, More Books about 

Mayan Hieroglyphics 

New England's Fast-Days 

Newspaper Myth, A . . . • 

Hiram M. StanLey 178 

Hiram M. Statdey 253 


Edward E. Hale, Jr 141 

John C. Van Dyke 70 

Selim ff. Feabody 47 

David S. Jordan 112 

Selim ff. Feabody 283 

Sara A. Hvbbard 329 

Sara A, Hvbbard 16 

Charles H. Cooper 212 



John M. Coulter 74 

George Merriam, Hyde 323 

Reuben Gold Thwaites 43 

William Morton Fayne 287 

Tuley Francis Huntington .... 244 



Arthur Howard Noll 90 

M. Wergdand 135 

Frederick Starr 89 

W.F.Reeves 171 

Josiah Renick Smith 14 


B.A.Hinsdale 282 

James West/all Thompson .... 250 

A. B. Woodford 87 

William Morton Fayne 179 

Ferey F. BiekneU 204 

Richard Burton 277 

Frederic Ives Carpenter 181 

Frank Chapman Sharp 183 

John Baseom 112 

Fanny Bates 10 

WiUiam Morton Fayne . 18, 91, 254, 384 

D.L.Shorey 138 


Josiah Renick Smith 208 

B.A.Hinsdale 110 


Benjamin S. Terry 37 

RoUin D. Salisbury 246 


WiUiam Herbert Carruth .... 8 

Greorge W, Julian 68 

\ . . . 335,385 

Henry E. Bourne 285 


G. S. Goodepeed 289 

John Biueom 213 

Aline Gorren 169 


Frederick Starr 46 

Alice Morse Earle 41 




Obigin of Spbcibs, Present Knowledge of . . . David S, Jordan . . . 

Pateb's Last Volume Edward E, MaUy Jr. . 

Philanthbopic Englishwoman, Life of a . . . . Anna B, McMahan . . 

Pike, Zebttlon Montgomeby J. J. HaUey .... 

PoBTBY, Recent WiUicum Morton Payne . 

Pbince of Obange, Life of CharUs H. Cooper . . 

Real and Ideal, A Hint fbom Natube .... John Burroughs . . . 

Shakespeabian Scholab, Oub Edward E. Hale, Jr. . 

Shebman*s Axttobiogbaphy George W, Julian . . 

Society, Phenomena and Problems of C. R, Henderson . . . 

SuMMEB Reading 

Tbaoheb as an Individual, The 

Tbavel, Seven Books of Hiram M, Stanley . . 

Travels, A Medley of Hiram M. Stanley . . 

Typical Englishman, Life of a 


VntGiL, Middle-Age Conception of W. H. Johnson . . . 

Wagnbb in Chicago 

Wab-Times, a Congbbssman's Recollections of Oeorge W. Julian . . 




Announcements of Fall Books, 1895 150, 190 

Books for Summer Reading, Classified List of 26 

Briefs on New Books 22, 50, 76, 95, 120, 147, 185, 215, 256, 290 

Briefer Mention 24, 53, 78, 98, 122, 148, 188, 220, 260 

Literary Notes 25, 53, 78, 98, 123, 149, 188, 221, 260, 205, 344, 397 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 28, 54, 79, 124, 191, 222, 262 

Lists of New Books 28, 54, 79, 99, 124, 191, 223, 262, 296, 345, 398 


American Historical Review 222 

American School of Classical Studies at Rome . 22 

Ballade of Poets. A. T. Schuman 25 

Bates, Clara Doty, Death of 221 

Besant, Walter, on Literary Affairs in Chicago . 189 

Besant, Walter, upon his Knighthood .... 25 

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth, Death of .... 203 
Bull of Divorce between Henry YIIL and Kath- 

erine. Charles McK. Looser 375 

California Guild of Letters 188 

Campbell, James Dykes, Death of 11 

Carlyle Centenary 397 

Correction, A. Charles Eliot Norton . . . . 173 
Courts of Love in Olden Time. Poem by Martha 

FooteCrow 53 

Crime in Prohibition States. D. C. Milner . . 172 

« Decadence of a Scholar," The. W. R. K. . . 207 

De Tabley, Lord, Death of 344 

Dumas ^iff. Death of 344 

England. Poem by Charles Leonard Moore . . 220 
English at the University of Pennsylvania. Felix 

E. ScheUing 375 

Experimental Psychology at American Univer- 
sities 295 

Field, Eugene, Death of 278 

Gower, Newly Discovered Poem of 86 

Grolier Club Reprint of Dr. Donne's Poems . . 261 

Hale, Robert Beverley, Death of 221 

Higher Aim, The. Sonnet by William Morton 

Payne 105 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Poem by Charles G. 

D. Roberts 169 

Houghton, Henry O., Death of 123 

Huxley's Tombstone, Epitaph for 188 

Individuality in Teaching, Obstacles to. Anna 

Lemira Moore 324 

Japan, Language and Literature in. Ernest W. 

Clement 137 

Keats Centenary in Chicago 260 

Literary Chicago, Mrs. Reid on 397 

Literary Conference in France in 1896 . . . 221 
Locker-Lampson, Frederick, Death of . . . 25, 54 

Modem Language Conference for the West . . 26 

Mona Lisa. Poem by W. P. Trent .... 240 

Norton, Prof. C. £., on Popular Education . . 149 

Opium Dreamer, The. Poem by Clifford Lanier 37 

Pasteur, Louis, Death of 172 

Poe, The Complete Works of. William Nelson 207 

Poet-Laureate, The Appointment of .... 397 

« Reformate Worthsworthian," A 79 

Reformed Spelling Proposed 25 

Root, Dr. George F., Death of 86 

Rydberg, Victor, Death of 204 

Saint-Hilaire, Barthdmely, Death of .... 344 

Sala, George A., Death of 397 

Saunders, Frederick, Eighty-eighth Birthday of 98 

Schopenhauer Monument at Frankfort .... 44 

Smith, Samuel F., Death of 344 

Story, William Wetmore, Death of 204 

Stuffed-Animal Hoax in Colorado, The . . . 189 
« Thomson's " Biographer. A Card from W. P. 

Reeves 240 

« Thomson " the Decadent. W. H. Johnson . . 240 
University of California, Location of the. W. H. 

V. Raymond 207 

Yon Sybel, Heinrich, Death of 86 

Wrong Spelling, The Craze for. W. W. Anderson 173 

Zupitza, Julius, Death of 86 




Abbey, £. A. Quest of the BdLj Grail ... 387 

Abbey, £. A. The Comedies of Shakespeare . 335 

Abbot, Willis J. Carter Henry Harrison . . 186 

A. £. Homeward Songs by the Way .... 117 

Alexander, J. M. The Islands of the Pacific . 380 

Allen, Willis B. The Mammoth Hunters . . 343 

Amicis, Edmondo de. Cnore, Crowell's edition . 341 

Amiois, Edmondo de. Spain 389 

Appletons' Guide to the United States and Canada 78 

As Others Saw Him 113 

Ashmore, Ruth. Side Talks with Girls ... 187 

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice, Macmillan'sed. 397 

Austin, Jane G. Standish of Standish, holiday ed. 337 

Bagby, Albert M. Miss Trttumerei .... 384 

Bain, R. Nisbet. Russian Fairy Tales ... 291 

Baird, H. M. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 285 

Baldwin, C. S. Specimens of Pkose Description 294 

Baldwin, James. The Horse Fair 341 

Balfour, A. J. Foundations of Belief . . . . 114 

Ballantine, Henry. On India's Frontier ... 49 

Balzac's Novels, Dent-Maomillan edition 97, 123, 221 

Baring^Gould, S. Nursery Songs and Rhymes . 338 

Baring^Gould, S. Old English Fairy Tales . . 340 

Barrett, Frank. A Set of Rogues 255 

Bascom, John. Social Theory 331 

Bassett, George. Hippolyte and Golden-Beak . 95 

Bates, Mrs. Lindon. Bunch-Grass Stories . . 384 

Beaman, A. Hulme. M. Stambuloff .... 212 

Bedlow, Henry. The White Tsar 24 

Beers, H. A. Initial Studies in American Letters 289 

Beesly, A. H. Ballads and Other Verse ... 117 

Bell, Mrs. Arthur. Great Artists' Masterpieces 336 

Bellew,F.P. << Chip's " Dogs, and Old Woodcuts 339 

Benson, Margaret. Subject to Vanity . . . 393 

Besant, Walter. In Deacon's Orders .... 94 

Beyle, Marie-Henry. La Chartreuse de Parme 390 

Bickerdyke, John. Days of my Life .... 95 

Bicknell, Anna L. Life in the Tuileries . . . 258 

Bigelow, Edith. Diplomatic Disenchantments . 93 

Bigelow, Poultney. Borderland of Czar and Kaiser 145 

Biggie, John W. Religious Doubt 214 

Bj5mson, BjSmstjeme. Ame 24 

Blanc, Madame. Woman in the United States . 147 

Blanchard, Amy E. Girls Together .... 395 

Bhmey, Henry R. Old Boston 390 

Block, Louis J. The New World 117 

Bloundelle-Burton, John. The Desert Ship . . 343 

Bolles, Frank. Chocorua's Tenants .... 119 

Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Leaders among Women 341 

Boothby, Guy. A Lost Endeavor 93 

Boothby, Guy. The Marriage of Esther ... 93 

Bourget, Paul. Outre Mer 22 

Bouvet, Marguerite. A Child of Tuscany . . 394 

Bowen, E. W. The e-Vowel in Accented Syllables 188 

Bradley, C. B. Orations and Arguments . . 53 

Branch, Mary L. B. The Kanter Girls . . . 395 

Brandt, Francis B. Friedrich Eduard Beneke . 25 

Brewster, W. T. Specimens of Narration . . 294 

Briggs, Charles A. The Messiah of the Apostles 215 

Brinton, D. G. Primer of Mayan Hieroglyphics 46 

Brooke, Stopford A. Golden Book of Coleridge 96 

Brooks, E. S. A Boy of the First Empire . . 342 

Brooks, E. S. Great Men's Sons 396 

Brooks, Noah. Washington in Lincoln's Time . 241 

Brown, Helen D. Littie Miss Phcsbe Gay . . 395 

Browne, G. F. Off the Mill 122 

Browning's Poetic Works, ** Cambridge " edition 294 

Bruce, Miner W. Alaska 24 

Burnett, Frances H. Two Little Pilgrims' Progress 341 

Burroughs, John, Works of, new ** Riverside " ed. 390 

Butterworth, Hezekiah. The Knight of Liberty 396 

Carey, Rosa N. Cousin Mona 395 

Carpenter, F. I. Metaphor in Minor Elizabethan 

Drama 295 

Champfleury. The Faience Violin, Crowell's ed. 392 

Champney, Mrs. £. W. Paddy O'Leary ... 394 

Champney, Mrs. Witch Winnie at Versailles . 394 

Chapman, F.M. Birds of Eastern North America 16 

Cheney, C. Emma. Number 49 Tinkham Street 394 

Chittenden, L. E. Lincoln's Speeches . . . 243 

Church, A. J. Roman life in tiie Days of Cicero 341 

Church, A. J. Stories from English History 394 

Church, A. J. Stories from Vi^;il 341 

Claflin, Mary B. Under the Old Elms ... 217 

Clark, George H. Oliver Cromwell .... 218 

Clark, Victor S. Selections from Erasmus . . 78 
Coates, H. T. Fireside Encydopiedia of Poetry, 

revised edition 389 

Cobbe, Frances Power, Autobiography of . . . 44 

Coit, Stanton. The Message of Man .... 183 

Cole, T. Old Dutch and Flemish Masters . . 335 

Coleridge, Ernest Hartiey. Anima Poetss . . 244 

Collar, W. C. Gradatim 78 

Comparetti, D. Vergil in the Middle Ages . . 382 

Compton, Margaret. Snow Bird and Water Tiger 340 

Conrad, Joseph. Almayer's Folly 92 

Conway, Sir W. M. The Alps from End to End 178 

Cooke, M. C. Studies in Wild Flowers ... 78 

Corbin, John. The Elizabethan Hamlet ... 51 

Cones, Elliott Expeditions of Pike .... 210 

Couperus, Louis. Majesty 21 

Courthope, W. J. English Poetry, Vol. I. . . 179 

Cox, Palmer. Brownies Through the Union 340 
Craddock, Charles Egbert. Phantoms of the 

Foot-Bridge 95 

Crawford, F. Marion. Casa Braccio .... 384 

Crawford, F. Marion. Constantinople . . . 338 

Crickmore, H. Hovell. Old Chester .... 390 

Crowns of P^mise 392 

Cummings, John. Poor^Laws of Mass. and N. Y. 334 

Dana, Charles A. Art of Newspaper Making . 51 

Dana, Mrs. W. S. How to Know the Wild Flowers 60 

Daudet's La Belle Nivemaise, Crowell's edition . 339 

Daudet's Tartarin of Tarasoon, Croweirs edition 392 

Davidson, John. Pictures from Rustic Landscape 336 

Davies, Henry E. General Sheridan .... 259 

Davis, Noah K. Elements of Inductive Logic . 98 

Davis, Richard Harding. About Paris . . . 215 

Dear Little Marchioness 395 

Defoe's History of the Plague, school edition 16 
Defoe's Works, edited by G. A. Aitken . . 15,123 

Deland, Ellen Douglas. Oakleigh 394 

De Tabley, Lord. Poems 115 

Dixon, E. More Fairy Tales from Arabian Nighto 340 

Dodd,Wm. Beauties of Shakespeare, Crowell's ed. 339 

Dorr, Julia C. R. The Flower of England's Face 219 

Dougall, L. The Mermaid 93 

DougaU, L. The Zeit-Geist 93 



Douglas, Amanda M. A Sherburne Romance . 395 

Douglas, Robert K. Life of Li Hungohang . . 121 

Dowden, Edward. New Studies in Literature . 185 

Downing, Marlton. The Young Casoarillero 396 

Doyle, A. Conan. The Stark-Munro Letters . 256 

Drage, Geoffrey. F^blem of the Aged Poor . 333 

Driver, S. R. A Commentary on Deuteronomy 215 
Dnmas's Romances, new series, Little, Brown, & 

Co.'s edition 391 

Dumas's Three Musketeers, Appletons' edition . 388 

Dyer, H. Evolution of Industry 333 

Earle, Alice Morse. Margaret Winthrop . . 216 

Easel, Jack. Our Square and Cirde .... 96 

Eastman, Alfred C. Poems of the Farm . . . 390 

Eastman, Morton W, Readings in Grower . . 98 

Edgeworth, Maria. Popular TaleSyMacmillan'sed. 295 

Edwards, 6. W. Long and Short Codiao . . 338 

Effinger, J. R., Jr. Essays from Sainte-Beuve . 294 

Elliott, D. G. North American Shore Birds . 329 

Ellis, Havelock. Man and Woman .... 120 

Ethical Addresses 183 

Fawoett, Millicent G. Life of Queen Yiotoria . 187 

Fenn, George Manville. Cormorant Crag . . 343 

Fenn, George Manville. The Young Castellan . 396 

Field, Henry M. Our Western Archipelago 145 

Finok, H. T. Lotus-Time in Japan .... 50 

Finley, Martha. Elsie on Inland Waters • . 395 

FitzGerald's Rub^yit, « Bibelot ** edition ... 387 

Fletcher, Horace. Mentionltnre 292 

Fletcher, J. S. When Charles First was King . 256 

Flory, M. A Book about Fans 391 

Foa, Eugenie. Boy Life of Napoleon .... 396 

Foote,MaryH. Life of Christ for Young People 397 

Ford, Paul L. Jefferson's Writings, Yd. Y. . 77 

Fowler, Edith H. The Young Pretenders . . 395 

Fowler, W. W. Birds and Books 18 

Eraser, Marie. In Stevenson's Samoa .... 76 

Eraser, Mrs. Hugh. The Brown Ambassador . 396 

Freeman, E. A. History of SioUy, Yol. lY. . 218 

Fuller, Henry B. With the Procession ... 18 

Furchheim, Friedrich. Bibliografia di Pompei . 149 
Fnmess, H. H. Yariorum edition of A Midsom* 

mer Night's Dream 176 

Furtwttngler, A. Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture 70 

Gage, A. P. Principles of Physics 123 

Garrett, Edmund H. Yictorian Songs . . . 335 

Gates, L. E. Selections from Cardiiud Newman 187 

Geikie, James. The Great Ice Age .... 246 

Gibson, Louis D. Beautiful Houses .... 389 

Gibson, W. H. Edible Toad-Stools and Mushrooms 386 

Gissing, Greorge. In the Year of Jubilee ... 92 

Gissing, George. The Emancipated .... 255 

Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer, holiday ed. . 337 
Grollancz, IsraeL A Midsummer Night's Dream, 

holiday edition 392 

Gollancz's « Temple " Shakespeare 149, 188, 295, 344 
Goodloe, Abbe Carter. College Girls .... 385 
Groodwin, Maud W. The Colonial Cavalier, hol- 
iday edition 221 

Goodwin, Maud W. The Head of a Hundred . 94 

Gordon, Julien. A Wedding 385 

Goes, Warren Lee. Jack Alden 343 

Graham, P. A. Country Pastimes for Boys . . 343 

Grahame, Kenneth. The Grolden Age .... 94 

Grant's Memoirs, Century Co.'s new libraiy ed. . 344 

Green, Belle C. The Hobbledehoy 396 

Green, T. H. Principles of Political Obligation 218 

GrifBs, William E, Townsend Harris . ... 256 

Grosvenor, E. A. Constantinople 385 

Gruelle, R.B. Notes on Walters Art Collection 98 

Gnerber, H. A. Legends of the Rhine . . . 291 

Guerber, H. A. Myths of Northern Lands . . 290 

«Gyp." Le Marriage de Chiffon 148 

Haggard, H. Rider. Heart of the World . . 19 

Halyard, H. Rider. Joan Haste 255 

Hale, Edward E., Jr. Seleotions from Herriek . 260 

Hallam, Frank. The Breath of God . . , . 214 

Halle, E. von. Trusts 334 

Hallook, Julia Sherman. Broken Notes • . . 392 

Hamerton, P. G. Landscape Painting • . . 389 
Hamerton, P. G. Painting in Fiance after the 

Decline of Classicism 389 

Hi4>good, Isabel F. Russian Rambles ... 144 
Hardy, Thomas, Novels of, libimiy ed. 24, 123, 188, 260 

Harland, Henry. Gray Roses 95 

Harper's Round Table for 1895 397 

Harris, Joel C. Mr. Rabbit at Home .... 330 

Harris, Joel C. Uncle Remus, holiday edition . 337 

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. An Errant Wooing . . 93 

Hart, Albert B. American Education .... 293 

Hassall, Arthur. Louis XIY 219 

Haycraft, J. B. Darwinism and Race Pkogress 89 

Hayens, Herbert. Under the Lone Star . . . 396 
Henley, W.E. English Classics Series . .220,261 

Henty, G. A. A Knight of the White Cross . 342 

Henly, G. A. The Tiger of Mysore .... 342 

Henty, G. A. Through Russian Snows . . . 342 

Hiatt, Charles. Pistuie Posters 388 

Hichens, Robert S. An Imaginative Man • . 255 

HiU, A. S. Prindples of Rhetoric 293 

Hill, Grace L. Katharine's Yesterday ... 395 

Hinsdale, B. A. The American Grovemment 123 

Hobbes, John Oliver. The Grods, ete . . . . 91 

Holcombe, Chester. The Real Chinaman . . 49 

Holden, E. S. Mogul Emperors of Hindustan . 258 

Holknd, H. S. A Lent in London 333 

Hopkins, Edward W. Religions of India . . 289 

HoTstnum, C. Richard Rolls of Hampole . . 260 

Howells, W. D. My Literary Passions ... 78 

Howells, W. D. Stops of Yarious QdUs . . 388 

Hudson, W.H. British Birds 329 

Hutton,W. H. Life of William Laud ... 23 
Hyde, M. Carrie. Under the Stable Floor, Groostie, 

and Yan and Nochie of Tiq>pan Sea . . . 395 

Hyde, Wm. De Witt. Outlines of Social Theology 214 

Hyslop, J. H. The Elements of Ethics ... 184 

Imitation of Christ, Oxford India-paper edition . 295 

International Congress of Charities Papers . . 334 

Irving's Tales of a Traveller, « Bnckthome " ed. 336 

Jackson, F. G. The Great Frozen Land ... 144 

James, G. P. R. Richelieu, Fontainebleau edition 260 
Jameson, Anna, Art Histories of ... 289, 388 

Johnson, LioneL Poems 116 

Johnston, Annie F. Joel, a Boy of Galilee . . 396 

Jones, A. H. Renascence of the English Drama 121 

Judson, H. P. Growth of the American Nation 289 

Keats's Poetical Works, Crowell's edition ... 391 

Keith, Alyn Yates. Aunt Billy 394 

Kelly, Edmund. Evolution and Effort . . . 333 

Ker, David. The Wizard King 342 

Kerner, Anton. Natural History of Plants . • 75 

Kies, Marietta. Institutional Ethics .... 183 

King, Anna Eichberg. Kitwyk Stories . . . 385 

King, Charles. Trooper Ross, and Signal Butte 396 

King, Edward. Under the Red Flag .... 343 
Kingsley, Charles, Novels of, pocket edition 149, 295 



Kipling, Radyud. Seoood Jungle Book . . . 339 

Kmg)it» M. J. Passageg from Plato .... 260 

Ko^JeYSl^, Sonyny Ltfe of 147 

Laaion, Wa^ H. Beoolleetions of Lincoln . . 242 

Lamoiity Hammond. Specimens of Exposition . 53 

Lang, Andiew. Anoaasin and Nioolete . . . 387 

Lang, Andiew. My Own Faity Book .... 393 

Lang, Andrew. Bed Tmb Story Book ... 398 

Lano, Pierre de. Kapoleen III 258 

Laasdell, Henry. Chineae Central Asia ... 48 

Lamed, Augusta. In Woods and Fields . . . 119 

Lamed, J. N. History for Beady Beferenoe 90 

Laughton, J. K. Life of Nelson 259 

Lanrie,S.S. Surrey of Pro-Cluristian Education 282 

Lazams, Josephine. Spirit of Judaism . . . 291 

Le Baaran, Giaee. Little Daughter 395 

Leland, Cfaariea G. Legends of Florence . . 216 

Lever, Charles, Novels of, new library edition . 220 

List of Books for a School Classical Library . . 219 

Lodge, H. C. Anaariean Hero Tales .... 341 

Lombroso, C. The Female Offender .... 62 

LoiigfeUow's Miles Standish, holiday edition . . 337 

Loi^ellow's Hiawatha, holiday edition . . . 337 

Lord, William S. Blue and Gold 119 

Love, W. DeL., Jr. Fast Days of New England 41 

Maartens, Maarten. My Lady Nobody . . . 254 

MacCoU, Malcolm. life Here and Hereafter . 114 
Maclaren, Ian. A Doctor of the Old School, hoi* 

iday edition 391 

MacLean^J. P. Study of Gospel of St. John . 215 

Magrader, Julia. Child Sketches from Eliot . 394 

Ma]look,W. H. The Heart of Life .... 254 

Margueritte, Paul. L'Avril, FaXenoe edition . 392 

MarmontoPs Moral Tales, Cranford edition . . 387 

Manyafs Midshipman Easy, Malta edition . . 342 

Marshall, A. M. Leetnres on Darwinian Theory 140 

Marshall, Henry B. JEsthetic Principles . . 141 
Martinengo-Cesaresoo, Countess. The Liberation 

of Italy 52 

Mason, Otis T. Origins of Invention .... 97 

Maspero^ G. Egyptian Archeology .... 123 

Massey, Susanna. God's Parable 119 

Mathews, F. Schuyler. Familiar Flowers . . 51 

Matthews, Brander. His Father's Son ... 384 

May, Sophie. Eyade Dunlee 395 

Mayo<Smith, B. Statistics and Sociology . . 332 

Miller, EUcD. Northeastern States WUd Flowers 50 

Mitohell, S. Weir. A Madeira Party .... 338 

Mitchell, S. Wetr. PhiUp Vernon 22 

Mkford, Bixs. Conntiy Stories, Cranford ed. . 387 

Molesworth, Mrs. The Carved Lions .... 394 

Mommsen's History of Bome, Soribners' edition 188 

Monroe, J. P. The Educational Ideal ... 294 

Montorgttiel, G. Three Apprentices of Moon Si. 343 

Montrtfsor, F. F. Into the Highways and Hedges 91 

Moods, Vohime U 121 

Mooney, Margaret S. Studies in Literature . . 290 

Mooro, George. Celibates 94 

Morgaa»T. J. Patriotic Citizenship .... 294 

Morris, J. Advance Japan 257 

Morrison, Sarah E. ChiUiowee Boys in Wartime 342 

Moulton, B, G. Four Years of Novel Beading . 78 

Moulton, B, G. The Proverbs 344 

Mnnroe, Kirk. At War with Pontiac .... 342 

Mnnroe, Kirk. Snow-Shoes and Sledges . . . 342 

Murray, A. S. Manual of Mytbdegy, revised ed. 397 

Murray, David C. The Martyred Fool ... 92 

Murray, J. A. H. Oxford English Dictionary . 261 

Murray, T. D. Sir Samuel White Baker . . 

My Honey 

Nadal, E. S. Notes of a Professional Exile . . 

Nesmith, J. E. Philoctetes 

Nitti, Francisco S. Catholic Socialism . . . 
O'Grady, Standish. The Chain of Gold . . . 

Old South Leaflets, Nos. 58 to 64 

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Optic, Oliver. A Lieutenant at Eighteen . . 
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Pkge, T. N. Unc' Edinburg, holiday edition 
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Parkhurst, H. E. The Birds' Calendar . . . 
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Pater, Walter. Misoellaanous Stodies . . . 
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Payne, W. M. English in American Universities 
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Ussher, SirT. Napoleon's Last Voyages . . 259 

Vald^ Armando P. The Grandee .... 21 

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Vines, S.H. Students' Text-Book of Botany . 75 

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Way, Arthur, and Spencer, F. Song of Boland 261 

Waylen, H. S. H. Thoughts from Jefferies . . 391 

Webster's International Dictionaiy, new edition 391 

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Weeks, E. L. From the Black Sea .... 381 

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Weyman, S. J. Memoirs of a Mmiatoi' of France 256 

Wharton, Anne H. A Last Century Maid . . 894 

Whateley, B. Historic DoubU as to Napoleon . 148 
White, GUbert. Natural History of Selbome, 

Appletons' edition 337 

WiUard,A. B. Lif e and Work of MoieUi . • 186 

Willcox,M. A. Land Birds of New England . 18 

Willey, Arthur. Amphioxus 112 

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Literary Pilgrimage • . . ' 891 

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Woolson, Constance F. Dorothy 885 

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Wright, Henrietta C. Children's Stories from 

American Literature ........ 898 

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Wright, Wm. A. Letters of Edward Fitzgerald 174 

Yale, Catharine B. Nim and Cum 340 

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No. $17. 

JULY 1, 1895. 

Vd. XIX. 





Carruth 8 


Bates 10 



TIMES. George W. Julian 12 


Smith 14 

Wrig'ht's Life of Daniel Defoe. — Aitken's Romanoes 
and Namtiyes by Daniel Defoe. — Defoe's History 
of the Plagoe in London. 

BOOKS ABOUT BIRDS. Sara A. Hubbard ... 16 
Chapman's Handbook of Birds of Eastern North 
Axnerioa. — Mrs. Wrifcht's Birdoraft. — Parkhnrst's 
The Birds' Calendar. — Fowler's Sommer Studies of 
Birds and Books. — Willoox's Pocket Guide to the 
Common Land Birds of New England. 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 18 
Fuller's With the Procession. — Mrs. Prince's The 
Story of Christine Roohef ort. — Stockton's The Ad- 
ventures of Captain Horn. — Hansard's Heart of the 
World. — Rhoscomyl's The Jewel of Ynys Galon. — 
Zangwill's The Master. — Sienkiewicz's Children of 
the Soil. — Coupems's Majesty. — Vald^'s The Gran- 
dees. — Prince Sohoenaich-Carolath's Melting Snows. 
— Sohnlze-Smidt's A Madonna of the Alps. — Sader- 
nymn's The Wish. 


M. Bomget's impressions of America. — An effective 
piece of dramatic writing. — A drama for the closet. 
— Chronicles of Border Warfare. — Tronbadoors and 
Courts of Love. — A new life of Archbishop Land. — 
War correspondence of the Crimea. — Music study in 


A BALLADE OF POETS. A. T. Schuman .... 25 






There are many, doabtless, to whom the sug- 
gestion of a summer vacation largely devoted 
to reading, particularly if undertaken with 
profitable intent, will seem little better than a 
counsel of perfection. The strained nerves and 
the weary brain demand, they will urge, that 
whatever weeks or months may be annually 
snatched from the grasp of toil should be given 
up to recreation in its primitive sense, to the 
renewing of the exhausted vitality, to the re- 
building of the wasted tissue. At such times, 
the only books of which they will hear are 
those which the best authority tells us are to be 
found in running brooks, and the only sermons 
to which they are disposed to listen are the 
mute discourses of the stones upon sea-cliff or 
mountain-side. And there is undoubtedly a 
degree of tension, reached by many in our fever- 
ish latter-age life, from which relief is only 
possible upon condition of a complete, if tem- 
porary, abandonment of civilization with all its 
devices. We are impelled for a brief space 
to relapse into barbarism, and, seeking new 
strength by contact with the bare earth, to real- 
ize in our own experience the myth of Antaeus. 

But such relapses are not for long, and, the 
first joy of freedom and relaxation being at an 
end, the mental activities quickly reassert their 
need of occupation. The pendulum of life has 
soon swung all the way from the unendurable 
strain of daily recurrent labor to the equally 
unendurable ennui of prolonged idleness. The 
pure joy of existence may suffice for the mo- 
ment, but the sense of vacuity sets in after a 
while, and imperatively calls for some form of 
diversion that shall not leave Nature to do all 
the recreative work. At such times, more forci- 
bly perhaps than at any others, books offer us 
their serviceable solace, and we congratulate 
ourselves upon the instinctive foresight that 
led us to provide ourselves with such compan- 
ions. Then, reclining upon shaded lawn or 
veranda, upon deck or seashore, or pine-clad 
mountain slope, fortified against the intrusions 
of care, and at peace with all the world, we 
enjoy in equal measure the ministries of Nar 
ture and of Art, as far removed from ennui as 
from toil, and the discords of life are resolved 
into the richest of harmonies. 



[Jaly 1, 

Wliat books are best suited to the needs of 
the long summer days ? We have known a 
young man, in contemplation of an ocean voy- 
age, to take with him the ^^ Kritik der Beinen 
Yernunft." Luckily there was a library on the 
ship, and Kant remained undisturbed at the 
bottom of the traveller's trunk. On the other 
hand, there are too many people whose idea 
of a summer's literary prevision becomes em- 
bodied in a package of ephemeral novels of 
varying degrees of unreality or imbecility, and 
an armful of illustrated periodicals. We hardly 
know which of the two extremes thus illustrated 
deserves the severer censure, but if either case 
is to have our sympathies it must be that of the 
Kantian student rather than that of the ^^Dodo"- 
laden excursionist. The former, at least, has 
a rational motive, if his judgment be woefully 
at fault ; the latter is, however unconsciously, 
doing his best to waste a golden opportunity. 

The rational person will take neither Kant 
nor ^^ Dodo " to his place of summer resort, for 
he will know that there is a grateful mean be- 
tween the substantial but not easily digestible 
quality of the one and the mere frothiness of 
the odier. He will know, for one thing, that 
there is an abundance of literature which is of 
the very best, yet which makes no strenuous 
demand upon the faculties, which can hold the 
attention without conscious effort, so smooth is 
the flow and so harmonious the form. What 
reading, for example, could be more ideally 
fit for the long summer afternoons than the 
poetry of the " Faery Queene " or the " Earthly 
Paradise," the prose of the ^^ Pentameron " or 
*^ Marius the Epicurean " ? Such reading as 
this becomes a permanent intellectual posses- 
sion, an influence moulding imagination and 
character, and the retrospective charm natu- 
rally attaching to the memory of a summer out- 
ing will be not a little enhanced by association 
with the imperishable beauty of such works of 
literary art. There is a passage in one of Fitz- 
Gerald's letters which embodies the whole gos- 
pel of summer reading. ^* I am now a good 
deal about," he says, ^^ in a new Boat I have 
built, and thought (as Johnson took Cocker's 
Arithmetic with him on travel, because he 
shouldn't exhaust it) so I would take Dante 
and Homer with me, instead of Mudie's Books, 
which I read through directly. I took Dante 
by way of slow Digestion : not having looked 
at him for some years : but I am glad to find 
I relish him as much as ever : he atones with 
the Sea ; as you know does the Odyssey — these 
are the Men ! " 

What shall we do, then, with what Mr. Rus- 
kin calls the good books of the hour — telling 
us that ^^ we ought to be entirely thankful for 
them, and entirely ashamed of ourselves if we 
make no good use of them " — if we are not to 
put them in our trunk when we start upon our 
vacation ? We have no disposition to under- 
rate the usefulness of '' these bright accounts 
of travels, good-humored and witty discussions 
of questions, lively or pathetic story-telling in 
the form of novel, firm fact-telline by the real 
agents concerned in the events of p4ing his- 
tory." But we think that the time for them 
is tiie hour left us after a hard day's work, or 
the occasional holiday, rather than the sum- 
mer's weeks or months of continuous rest. 
When that happy season comes round, we can 
put it to better uses, and, if we are going to 
do any reading at all, it surely offers the occa- 
sion of occasions for that close acquaintance 
with ^^ the authors '* that we can never hope to 
make during the ordinary routine of active life. 
If we are well-advised, we will leave the ephem- 
eral and scrappy literature of the day for the 
day which brings it forth, and not allow it to 
usurp our attention during the only part of 
the year when we are really free to enter upon * 
enjoyment of our great heritage of Books in 
the higher and better sense. ^^Who would 
think of taking up the ' Faery Queene ' for a 
stopgap ? " while waiting for the sound of the 
dinner-bell. Lamb asks us. And, to point the 
obverse of the moral, let us in turn ask : Who 
would think, or who ought to think, of devot- 
ing the long summer days to books whose final 
cause is to supply us with stopgaps, and which, 
when put to other uses, are as much out of 
place as Spenser would be in the hungry half- 
hour preceding the evening repast ? 


Danlop's definition of fiction as <^ select and 
highly-colored history " contained within itself the 
germs of all the discassions that have arisen on the 
historical novel and the limits of history and fiction. 
While Haet, the first to write a treatise on the novel, 
described it as ^^ a fiction of love adventures, written 
in prose, with artistic method, for the pleasure and 
instruction of the reader," thus ignoring the element 
of realism, a consensus of opinion on the modern 
novel would surely base its structure upon life. 
Fiction includes every narrative prose description 
of human life into which enters consciously the ele- 
ment of the imagination, — narrative, as opposed to 
annalistic or dramatic ; prose, as a quite arbitrary 




but very eonvenient ezeluBion of an exceptional spe- 
cies with which are associated a troublesome kinship 
of varieties. 

• Bat history, too, treats life ; and, in the shape of 
biography, more or less in narrative form. And 
much of what passes for the standard history of the 
world contains a very large element of imagination. 
The once aniversal conception of history as properly 
confined to the rise and fall of governments and 
the deeds of ralers, gare, to be sure, a ground of 
distinction in the nature of the events and char- 
acters treated; the novel introducing personages 
not known to history, and treating war and pol- 
itics only incidentally. But ideas of history have 
changed since Huet's day, and we recognize that 
the records of the common people and their daily 
lives are as important for the guidance of posterity 
as the chronicles of kings. So that any record of 
human life, or of any product or activity of men, 
may fairly be said, in so far as it is true, to be his- 

We cannot escape the entangling alliance by try- 
ing to draw a line between the present and the past. 
We now write contemporary history ; and the novel 
would be classified as historical, no matter how re- 
cently past were its data, if its subject-matter were 
on other grounds recognized as historical. << Wav- 
erley," the type and pioneer of the species, treated 
events only sixty years gone by. Antiquity is not 
a mark of the historical in fiction or elsewhere. 

It may be thought feasible to establish a distinc- 
tion on the basis of the intention of the writer. As 
Mr. Marion Crawford says : " It is doubtful whether 
any genuine historical novel has ever yet been 
written for the sake of the history it contains; 
and a parallel proposition might be set up that no 
genuine history has been written for the sake of 
the romance or imagination it contains. But the 
latter proposition will directly be met with doubt, 
and in the former will be detected the assumed dif- 
ference between the theme of history and that of 
the novel. Possibly a distinction may be made by 
viewing the writer's intent upon the reader ; his aim 
' in the case of the novel being to amuse and enter- 
tain (not excluding a suppressed but controlling 
willingness to elevate), and in the case of the his- 
tory, to impress and instruct, — or, in the language 
of Mr. Crawford, to furnish in the first case << an 
intellectual artistic luxury,'* in the second " an in- 
tellectual lesson." In general, this distinction, 
though elusive and not profound, may prove ser- 

In the line of biography the two branches of lit- 
erature approach most closely, and it is difficult here 
to find any other distinguishing mark for the novel 
than that of the conscious introduction of the imag- 
ination. But as to the proportion of this element, 
I doubt whether anything definite can be said. 
However fantastic and improbable a narrative and 
descriptions may be, the original materials are all 
from life and nature : it is not possible to invent 
eomething out of nothing. On the other hand, the 

amount of fiction may be almost imponderable. 
More than one successful novel has been a faithful 
narrative of real events, with merely the names of 
persons and localities altered enough to escape a 
libel suit. Usually, of course, the author wanders 
over the broad intervening territory, combining 
pieces of real persons into a new individual, re- 
grouping real events, revising the decision of fate, 
substituting what he conceives to be more interest- 
ing motives for actual ones, — most commonly, per- 
haps, imagining what he himself would have felt 
and done, or would have wished to feel and do, under 
circumstances in which he had observed others. But 
ever the tendency has been to restrain the vagaries 
of the imagination, and make the product more true 
to life — more like biography. 

Whence, then, is the disposition to decry the his- 
torical novel? Quite evidently, it seems to me, from 
a false conception of the function, or discourage- 
ment over the possible achievements, of history. It 
is due chiefly to this false conception that we were 
so long in learning that ^* the bygone ages of the 
world were actually filled with living men, not by 
protocob, state papers, and abstractions of men." 
It was discouragement over the possibility of any 
other result that led Groethe to say : " The times of 
the past are a book with seven seals ; and what we 
call the spirit of the times is at bottom the spirit of 
the writers, in which the times are reflected." But 
with the new conception of history which says, << I 
consider nothing human out of my sphere," every 
novel becomes a human document, in a measure 

It is not true that " the historical novel occupies 
a position apart and separate from others." On 
the contrary, it merges by such imperceptible de- 
grees with other fields of the novel that in many 
cases no critical surveyor can stake it off. Some- 
times, as in << A Tale of Two Cities," there are neither 
personages nor events which are to be met in or- 
dinary narrative history ; only the background, the 
atmosphere, the spirit of the time, are historical. 
Again, as in Erckmann-Chatrian's <' Conscript of 
1813 " and <' Waterloo," the events, many of them, 
are of , world-wide importance, while the characters 
are all to fame unknown. More commonly — as in 
"Waverley," Banff's «' Lichtenstein," Freytag's 
" Marcus Konig," « Romola," or " Ben Hur,"— the 
time is partly fixed by events and surroundings, but 
more by some historical personage who towers like 
a mountain in the more or less remote background, 
while the actors who fill the foreground are as in the 
previous case obscure. Yet again, some or all of 
the leading characters, as well as some of the ele- 
ments of ^e plot, may be the property of familiar 
history ; such are ^< Kenilworth," << Hypatia," Ham- 
merling*s ^^Aspasia," Dahn's ^<Ein Kampf um 

It is with historical novels of this last type that 
critics are most apt to lose patience. If the ficti- 
tious events and persons introduced in connection 
with the familiar ones are of any significance we 



[July 1, 

are sare to get an impression of improbability. We 
ask, How does it come that we have never heard of 
these events and persons before? Then the critical 
scent for anachronisms is aroused: we discover 
printed books in the tenth century, and lightning- 
rods in the seventeenth ; we find the furniture of 
classic Greece introduced into Christian Rome, and 
the instruments of Judea jangling in the halls of 
mediaeval Grermany. As Mr. Crawford says : " So 
|soon as a man deals with events that have actually 
I taken place, he is bounded on all sides by a multi- 
( tude of details with which he must be acquainted 
' and from which he cannot escape." Plainly, the 
wisdom to be derived from this is that known per- 
sons and events are to be avoided by the novelist, 
or to be used only as background. But it does not 
at all follow that the historical novel is thereby con- 
demned. What is the harm in laying a story in 
proximity to some place, event, or person, whose 
presence gives a sense of assurance and confidence ? 
The principle is the reverse of that of a cyclorama, 
where a few logs and stones, an overturned cannon, 
and a stuffed and blood-stained uniform in the fore- 
ground, help out the perspective of the painting on 
the wall. Only, here the realistic touches make tol- 
erable some very indifferent fresco-painting ; while 
with the author the historical background enables 
him to concentrate his powers on other points. 

Everyone knows how much more interest a lis- 
tener takes in a story that is laid in a scene famil- 
iar to him. For this reason, professional story- 
tellers whose consciences permit always represent 
the events of their narratives as having happened 
in their presence, or at least as having been told 
them by one of the actual participants. Not wide- 
eyed childhood alone exclaims to Dame Saga : '^ Tu 
Vas vuy grand' mhe ? " 

Finally, an especial challenge to the creative fac- 
ulty comes from the tomb. By as much as it is more 
difficult to bring the dead back to life than to plant 
or beget for the coming race, by so much is the temp- 
tation greater to try to make, even in the imagina- 
tion, '< dead things relive of long ago.*' But the task 
of making men of the past seem real is not by 
any means so difficult as that of making dead men 
live. In this respect the historical novel is subject 
to the same difficulties and limitations as the novel 
in general. 

The truth is that all of the antipodal differences 
of opinion in regard to the field, function, and pos- 
sibility of the historical novel are based upon two 
impressions or prejudices which underlie the critic's 
views of human nature. One of these assumptions 
is that men in all times and all climes are essen- 
tially alike; the other, that each country as well 
as each age produces its distinct variety of man. 
It is this latter assumption which leads Mr. Howells 
to object to characters in an historical novel, be- 
cause ^'the people affect me like persons of our 
generation made up for the parts," and to assign 
die region of historical romance to '* readers and 
writers who cannot bear to be brought face to face 

with human nature." Yet there is no more arguing 
over the matter than over optimism and pessimism. 
These tinctures are the result of a man's food, like 
the proportion of red corpuscles in his blood. A» 
a rule, the cosmopolitan learns that men are about 
alike the world over ; while the provincial on his 
first visit to the metropolis of his own state fancies 
all men he sees to be selfish and cold, and feeU him- 
self an alien among his countrymen. 

If we regard the men of the past as of like parts 
and passions with ourselves, we shall not take of- 
fense if we find in a picture of the past the ^^ univer- 
sal human elements which are found in every time, 
the permanent in the transitory." If it is true, as 
Leslie Stephen declares, that Scott's novels are. 
^^ rapidly converting themselves into mere dihris of 
plaster of Paris," it must be that he put his '^ me- 
disBval upholstery " too much in the foreground and 
drew too little from the human nature that he knew. 

The novel is a kind of history, as the common 
origin of ^< story "and '* history" in itself hints; 
and such dicta as that of Palgrave, that historical 
novels are ^' the most harmful of all semi-poetic hy- 
brids, without profit for the artistic sense and ruin- 
ous to the historic sense," are based on obsolete pre- 
sumptions regarding history or inadequate estimates 
of the importance of the novel. There is no con- 
flict between the two forms of literature. In some 
respects they seek the same ends. If it be under- 
stood that the novel makes no pretension to accu- 
racy of date, document, details of diplomacy or 
events, but confines itself to life in general, to mak- 
ing the past seem real and the men of the past mem- 
bers of our common family, then it will fulfil one 
of the functions of history in which history most 
easily fails, while at the same time insisting upon 
all life, and not simply the life of the present, as its 

field. William Herbert Carruth. 


Mr. Stevenson says that any reading fit to be called 
reading should be an absorbing and voluptuous process; 
and he bemoans the fact that this engrossing interest 
passes away with the youth of the individual. Miss 
Repplier joins the wail, and extends the loss of ardor 
in reading from the individual to the age. She finds 
that even the children now fail to be carried out of 
themselves by romance and fairy tales. This satiety 
she attributes to the flooding of their minds with weak 
and supposedly harmless children's books, and she 
strongly advocates giving them such meat of literature 
as Marjorie Fleming fed upon. 

This change in the power of fiction may be true in 
regard to the people of the cities, whose lives are 
crowded with a variety of interests, and whose desire 
for change and new experience is constantly gratified. 
They live more in realities than in imagination, and 
ideal heroes seldom wield the mighty influence of a 
vital character whom the reader loves or hates. 

The case is far different in the country, however, 
where books are few, time is long, and distracting events 




are rare. When a new book comes to a household the 
highest evidence of noble generosity consists in letting 
others have it first. Among the children, when this un- 
selfish spirit does not exist, the new story will cause un- 
limited dissension. Walter Scott was not the only boy 
whom the dinner-bell could not draw from his unfin- 
ished story. I know a set of volumes of Scott's own, 
calf-bound but tattered through much use, which have 
rendered a number of boys and girls, for the time of 
reading, unconscious of hunger, heat, or cold. Neither 
pangs of conscience for work neglected, nor anticipa- 
tions of coming reproof, could break or even mar the 
charm of the romance. 

It was a country girl who, having exhausted the oil 
in her lamp, and fearing she would be sent to bed if 
she sought another, finished her book by the flickering 
and interrupted light of a box of matches, lit one by 
one. Nor is it only boys and girls of whom this state 
of affairs is true; hard-working, white-haired men and 
women, if they read at all, do it with an intensity of in- 
terest amounting to intemperance. I once heard a prac- 
tical busy mother decline a book offered her by a neigh- 
bor, saying, « No, I must 'nt take it; I am as fond of 
my children as the next one, but novels almost make me 
hate them when they wont give me a chance to read." 

To lend one's books is held to be the most neighborly 
act of kindness, and not to do so an evidence of the 
inost unforgivable meanness. The same books are usu- 
ally read by all the families of the community, and the 
characters and incidents in the story become a general 
conversational fund. They are not valued as a means 
for keeping the social ball rolling, but are of vital in- 
terest in themselves. The men and women of real life 
are measured by the characters in fiction; and, indeed, 
theories of life are lai'gely influenced by the fiction read 
in the neighborhood. 

Two young men in the neighborhood that I have in 
mind were ploughing in adjacent fields, and chanced to 
reach the end of their furrows at the same time, with 
only the fence between them. After the exchange of 
greetings, the hero of the novel last read became the 
subject of remark as naturally as the last man talked 
with would have been to men of the city stopping for 
a chat. Not minutes, but hours, these two young 
ploughmen sat on a rail fence talking over the good and 
the bad, the sad and the humorous elements of the 
book. The characters and episodes existed in their 
imagination with all the reality of actual life. When 
they returned to their work they made up for their 
neglect by trudging many a weary mile after the usual 
hour for stopping came, but they did not consider that 
time lost which was spent in fellowship with their ficti- 
tious friends. 

A writer may be read by city people because it is the 
thing to do, or for critical purposes; but country read- 
ers are his real test of power to move the human heart. 
They have no motive for reading other than interest, 
and no standard of criticism besides individual taste. 
They are generous in their liking, and frank in declar- 
ing a book worthless or vicious, regardless as to whether 
the author's name is well known or not. 

Undoubtedly, the indebtedness of country people to 
fiction for supplying needed variety and excitement to 
minds otherwise satiated with uneventful monotony, is 
very great; but that of the author is fully as great to 
the people who give his creations the most ardent re- 
ception. It is in the country that Dickens calls forth 
the most spontaneous laughter and tears, that Scott 

arouses thrills of enthusiasm for chivalry and adven- 
ture, that George Eliot's most earnest teaching finds its 
deepest influence, that Eapling and Stevenson meet the 
most genuine wonder, and that Howells's portraits of 
human nature are the most absorbing studies. 

Fanny Bates. 


James Dykes Campbell, born November 2, 1838, 
died at Tunbridge Wells on the first of June, 1895. To 
the general reader, his name means little; but to the 
student of English literature he was known as the first 
of authorities on Coleridge, as well as on the whole 
period of which that poet was a chief ornament. His 
** Life of Coleridge " is so much the best biography of 
its subject that all others count for nothing in the com- 
parison. The same high praise must be given to his 
annotated edition of the " Poems." We select a few 
passages from the tributes evoked by his death. Mr. 
Arthur Symons writes : " Few men so widely and so 
profoundly gifted have ever subordinated themselves so 
completely to the most thankless of literary duties, and 
to the helpfulness of a disinterested literary conscience. 
Never professing to be a scholar, he gave his life to the 
drudgery of a minute, and for the most part unrecog- 
nized, literary scholarship. He desired no fame, sought 
for no rewards, allowed himself no privileges but the 
passionate satisfaction of an absolute exactitude. Peo- 
ple who wrote books on any of the subjects in which he 
took especial interest came to him with their proof- 
sheets, and he re-wrote their books for them. No name 
is so frequently referred to with gratitude at the end 
of prefaces, but few are aware how much is meant by 
these acknowledgements of help received. He was 
Quixotic in his disinterestedness; and as truly as it may 
be said that he devoted his life to an ideal of scholar- 
ship, so truly may it be said that he devoted his life to 
an ideal of friendship." 

Canon Ainger has this to say of the « Life ": " It is 
but little to say that it is the best life of Coleridge yet 
written. It is far more than this. It aimed for the 
first time at estimating a character of extraordinary 
complexity, of exceptional strength and exceptional 
weakness, with its high ambitions and its piteous fail- 
ures — a task that might well baffle the prof oundest stu- 
dent of human nature. His treatment of his subject 
formed no doubtful clue to the native goodness of heart 
and generosity of Dykes Campbell. The plea for a 
kindly judgment of the character of Coleridge, as 
summed up in the final words of the biography, is not 
only one of the most eloquent and pathetic pieces of 
criticism given to the world in our generation, but will 
live in the hearts of all who knew the writer as a sure 
index of the gentle and truth-loving nature that has 
been so early removed from among them." 

And Sir Walter Besant makes these observations 
about the quality of his work: " Never was a book writ- 
ten which sifforded the writer greater pleasure. For the 
production of such books we want more such men. 
There is no money to be got from them. Their com- 
mercial value is little indeed compared with the time, 
and the labor, and the cost of producing them. Few 
meo, therefore, can afford to engage upon such books. 
But the reward is great to those who can and will afford 
the unpaid labor." 



[July 1. 

Wbt IS^ Booto« 

a congressmam^s recollections of 

War Times,* 

The close of our Civil War has been fol- 
lowed by a dispensation of political and mili- 
tary reminiscences. These have been abun- 
dantly served up in biographies and autobiog- 
raphies, in magazines and newspapers, and in 
popular lectures. Ex-Congressman Riddle, in 
the preface to his volume of ^^ Recollections of 
War Times," says : " The war — its policies, 
incidents, and men — its struggles, sufferings, 
and losses — its horrors; adventures, and tri- 
umphs — has been written up, dwelt upon, dis- 
cussed, and talked over, in public and private, 
till he is a brave or a reckless man who ven- 
tures now to challenge public attention to any- 
thing further he may have to offer on that 
topic." He thinks, however, that a history of 
the Thirty - seventh and Thirty -|eighth Con- 
gresses and their legislation, especially of the 
Thirty-seventh, is called for ; and says ^^ he has 
long meditated something like a memoir, which 
he finally submits, not without misgiving." 

Mr. Riddle has not overstated the difficul- 
ties of his task, and his complete success in 
performing it would evidently have been a sur- 
prise to himself. As a history, his work lacks 
unity and coherence. It is too scrappy and 
miscellaneous. Of the forty -seven chapters 
into which his three hundred and forty-three 
pages are divided, several might properly have 
been omitted as trivial or unimportant. Others 
deal with matters which scarcely belong to the 
story of the war, — such as the detailed account, 
given in Chapter Fifteen, of two contested elec- 
tion cases, including copious extracts from the 
speeches of members upon legal points of no 
present interest ; and Chapter Twenty-nine, in 
which the subject of ship canals is introduced, 
and a clever speech of Mr. Riddle on the sub- 
ject, which he had leave to print, is g^ven in 

In dealing with military affairs he correctly 
states the strength and disposition of our forces 
at different times during the war, and shows 
himself to have been an interested student of 
army movements. He deals with the financial 
policy of the government more fully, giving 
liberal extracts from the debates in Congress 
on the subject, including a speech of his own, 

* RsGOLLECTioifS OF Wab Timbb. Remuuscences of Men 
and Events in Washington, 1860-1865. By Albeit Gallatin 
Riddle. New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

which does him credit, at a time when so many 
of his Congressional associates were lost in the 
fog. This subject, however, has been far more 
f uUy dealt with in other pnUications, and no 
new views are given. Mr. Riddle quotes from 
the debates in the House in January and Feb- 
ruary, 1862, on the slavery question, and a very 
radical speech of his own is given, on a propo- 
sition offered by Mr. Lovejoy for the prohibi- 
tion of slavery in all places within the juris- 
diction of the national government. A little 
later, the bill for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia gave rise to a more gen- 
eral and thorough discussion of the question 
in both houses, and Mr. Riddle gives oopiona 
extracts from the debates in the Senate and 
his own speech on the question when the bill 
reached the House. But the whole subject has 
received .ach manifold treatment in <^r anti- 
slavery literature since the war that his frag- 
mentary chapters relating to it can scarcely be 
regarded as responsive to any popular demand* 

The real interest of the book will be found 
in its personal reminiscences. It abounds in 
incidents, and these are set forth with anima- 
tion. Mr. Riddle sees vividly, and he knows 
how to depict what he sees. His description 
of Washington before the war is singularly 
graphic, and will be especially entertaining to 
those who are familiar with die beautiful and 
queenly city of to-day. 

" It was then as unattractive, straggling, sodden a 
town, wandering up and down the left hank of the 
yellow Potomac, as the fancy can sketch. Pennsylvania 
avenue, twelve rods wide, stretched drearily over the 
mile between the unfinished Capitol and the unfinished 
Treasury building on Fifteenth street, west, where it 
turned north for a square, and took its melancholy way 
to Georgetown, across the really once very beautiful 
Rock Creek. Illy paved with cobblestones, it was the 
only paved street of the town. The other streets, which 
were long stretches of mud or deserts of dust and sand, 
with here and there clumps of poorly built residences 
with long gaps between them, passing little deserts of 
open lands, where their lines were lost, wandered from 
the highlands north towards the Potomac, and from the 
eastern branch ( Anacosta) to Rock Creek. Not a sewer 
blessed the town, nor off of Pennsylvania avenue was 
there a paved gutter. Each house had an open drain 
from its rear out across the sidewalk. As may be sup- 
posed, the capital of the Republic had more mal-odors 
than the poet Coleridge ascribed to ancient Cologne. 
There vras then the open canal, or branch of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio, from Rock Creek to Anacosta, breed- 
ing malaria, tadpoles, and mosquitoes. The Tiber of 
to-dax, ancient < Goose Creek,' stagnated from the high- 
lands, through the Botanic Gardens, and Slush Run 
overflowed the northwest wastes of the swampy city 

Mr. Riddle gives a vivid account of his ex- 




perienoe at the first battle of Bull Run, whioh 
lie visited with several other civilians, and of 
the panic which took complete possession of 
our troops. In a letter to his wife he gave a 
free off-hand sketch of the affair as it came 
within his personal observation ; and this let- 
ter, falling into the hands of his political ene- 
mies, had the effect of suddenly bringing to an 
end his Congressional career. It was badly 
garbled and misrepresented, and afterwards 
became so complicated with the patronage of 
the district and the malignity of his foes that 
his friends thought his life was in danger. He 
was burned in ^gy, and the popular madness 
became quite irresistible. He quietly accepted 
the inevitable, but kept up his active interest 
in public affairs during the war, while resum- 
ing his professional labors. Referring to his 
retirement, in the thirty-first chapter, Mr. Rid- 
dle gives this estimate of Cong^ssional life : 

** I had at least eseaped the personal injaiy of long 
seiTioe in the Honse. Ko man has ever served through 
three Congresses and returned healthfully to take up 
his old life and pursuits. No matter how innocent and 
regular may be a man's life and habits in Washington, 
his mind does not escape the kind of dissipation that 
in a way unfits it for the ordinary pursuits of life. If 
his career has been passably successful, he has a sorap- 
book filled with newspaper laudations and criticism, 
twenty or forty volumes of the Olobe, innumerable pub- 
lic documents, and a general disgust and unfitness for 
ordinary useful avocation. His profession is gone, his 
wife is dwarfed by years of neglect, his children are 
strangers, and he comes to loathe the "Honorable" 
that men prefix to his name, — the only emolument he 
has acquired save personal and political animosities and 
alienated friends.*' 

This is one side only, and the dark side, of 
the picture. Legislative experience can only 
be had by a continuous service, and the exam- 
ple of such men as John Quincy Adams and 
Joshua R. Oiddings shows that political fame 
and great public usefulness are sometimes its 
ripe fruit. It also sometimes happens that a 
man's professional life is successfully resumed 
after an honorable service in Congress. This 
must depend upon the man himself ; nor is there 
any necessity for neglecting his wife or making 
strangers of his children. If these things hap- 
pen it is not the long service but the moral 
qualities of the official which account for them. 
Mr. Riddle's view is too doleful. Our national 
legislation affords opportunities for great use- 
fulness and honor, and the patriotic ardor of 
our young men should be animated by courage 
and faith rather than chilled by despair. Even 
the interests of home and family are sometimes 
to be subordinated to the paramount claims of 
the State. 

Among the best things in Mr. Riddle's book 

is his picture of McClellan on his first arrival 

in Washington and in the day of his glory. 

<< McClellan's coming to the capital was like the ad- 
vent of a beneficent prince. We awoke one morning to 
find the streets, the city, serenely free of the wander- 
ing gangs of brass and blue. They had all disappeared 
in a night In his presence order and quietude at once 
found themselves everywhere established. As by a 
potent magic, obedience, discipline, neatness, and the 
air military, ruled the camps to which the soldiers were 
confined ; the awkward citizen began to assume the 
bearing of a soldier, preparing to ttiJce his place in the 
finely wrought mechanism of the company, regiment, 
brigade, division, and army corps. Never had we a 
superior organizer, with the skill to turn out the com- 
pleted regiment. Had his enterprise, his dash, his elaiif 
and his tactics in the field, equalled his art as a con- 
structor and artificer of soldiers, his genius would have 
approached some of the renowned conunanders of hia- 
tory. Coming as he did to the President's aid to relieve 
him of the chaos of his capital, no wonder he won his 
heart and confidence. Simple and modest then, he 
adopted no style, no full dress, plumes, and bullion, no 
glittering sti^ and parade — at the first not even a 
shoulder-strap. We saw him on the avenue, a simple 
soldier, without any mark or insignia — alone, hurrying 
on, few knowing his person." 

Mr. Riddle is not less graphic in other per- 
sonal descriptions. In referring to Thaddeus 
Stevens, he says : 

*< Stevens was not an economist, and by temper not a 
leader, but a driver — bitter, quick as electricity, with 
a sarcastic, blasting wit. He most frequently answered 
an honest inquirer for information with a dash of vit- 
riol in the face. Short as he stood, with his large head 
covered with a long-haired wig; broad-shouldered, he 
usually was standing when he discharged his burning, 
gall-tipped shafts, which he jerked out in an unpleasant 
voice, and immediately limped off on his short, club- 
footed leg." 

Mr. Riddle was warmly attached to Lincoln, 
though he sometimes criticised his policy, as did 
a large majority of members of both Houses. 
In speaking of his first inaugural address, he 

" Never was there a more persuasive speaker. His 
quaint logic, and taking, unaccustomed ways, were ab- 
solutely irresistible. His vocabulary was limited; he 
used nuiinly the simple words one learns in childhood, 
which are always the most serviceable, and which ar- 
range themselves easily, delivering their burden of 
thought with certainty and force to the minds to which 
they are addressed. Perhaps there was never a more 
immediately effective address delivered to men than this 
quaint, masterly performance, an impression only deep- 
ened by after-study and reflection. It was in many 
respects the greatest service to his country of any single 
labor of Mr. Lincoln's. As a forensic effort it was as 
effective as that delivered at the Gettysburg — that was 
to be." 

In referring to the question of Reconstruc- 
tion, our author says : 

« So entirely had Mr. Lincoln won the heart and soul 



[July 1, 

of the masses, that the common mind accepted his de- 
cision as right in all cases, heyond criticism or cavO. 
One of the g^vest of all the problems springing from 
secession was the reconstruction of the Republic. Un- 
questionably the President was wrong both as to the 
depository of the power and the best method of recon- 
struction. Yet we hare seen that the people stood as 
one with him, and denounced the before-eyer-trusted 
Wade; Ohio repudiated him, and the brilliant Winter 
Davis had to leave Congress. What would have been 
the result had Lincoln lived ? " 

Mr. Riddle speaks kindly of the old anti- 
slavery leaders, with the single exception of 
Charles Sumner ; and his inexcusable fling at 
him can harm nobody but Mr. Riddle himself. 
He also does injustice to Sumner in according 
to Seward the great honor of averting the peril 
of a war with England in the Trent affair, 
when the fact is that Seward blundered, and 
Sumner came to the rescue by placing the sur- 
render of Mason and Slidell on the only ground 
which could have pacified England. 

Mr. Riddle's admiration for Secretary Stan- 
ton was absolutely unbounded, and perhaps the 
finest thing in the book is his address before 
the Washington Bar, on the 3d of January, 
1870, in commemoration of Stanton's death, 
which is printed in the Appendix. ' The tribute 
is as beautiful as it is just. 

George W. Julian. 

Nbw Pbbsentmbnts of Dbfob.* 

The interest in the personality of the author 
of ^^ Robinson Crusoe " seems to be perennial ; 
and it culminates periodically in a new biogra- 
phy. It is one hundred and sixty-four years 
since Daniel Defoe uttered his last devout Te 
Deum lavdainus and was laid to rest in his 
native parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; and 
since that time some six lives of him have ap- 
peared. The first of his biographers was the 
Scottish antiquary, George Chalmers, whose 
"Life of Defoe" was published in 1786. 
Walter Wilson's '' Life " (1830) was thorough 
and painstaking, and had the distinction of 
being enriched with 2)7*olegomena by Charles 
Lamb. William Chadwick's '• Life " (1859) 
may fairly rank, as a curiosity of literature, 

* The IjIFE OF Daniel Dbfoe. By Thomas Wright. New 
York : Anson D. F. Randolph <ft Go. 


by Georse A. Aitken. In sixteen volames. With Illustra- 
tions by J. B. Teats. London: J. M. Dent A Go. (Mao- 
millan & Go., New York. ) 

History of the Plaque in London. By Daniel Defoe. 
C Ifioleotio English Glassies '' Series). New York : American 
Book Go. 

with Piazzi Smyth's mysticism about the Great 
Pyramid, or Mr. Donnelly's cryptogramic ex- 
posure of the impostor Shakespeare. In 1869, 
the recent discovery of six letters of Defoe in 
the State Paper Office was the occasion of Wil- 
liam Lee's elaborate three-volume work, ^^ The 
Life and Newly Discovered Writings of Daniel 
Defoe." In 1879, Mr. William Minto con- 
tributed to the ^^ English Men of Letters" 
series a compact and well-proportioned memoir 
of Defoe. And now comes Mr. Thomas Wright, 
the principal of the Cowper School at Olney, 
and offers, in the substantial octavo before us, 
a new '^Life of Daniel Defoe." 

The raiaon d* etre of the book may be found, 
first, in the author's belief that ^' with the person- 
ality of no eminent man of letters of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries is the public 
less familiar than with that of Daniel Defoe "; 
second, in his desire ^^ to paint the man Daniel 
Defoe "; third, in his theory that ^^ Robinson 
Crusoe " was in all respects a carefully-worked- 
out allegory of Defoe's own life ; fourth, in his 
wish to bring out the fact that ^^ Defoe was 
above all things — that it was his endeavor to 
be above all things — the man of Grod." To 
establish these theses, and at the same time to 
write an unwarped and straightforward biog- 
raphy of his hero, was certainly a task which 
made complex demands on the controversial 
and narrative powers of the writer. 

We cannot say that Mr. Wright has alto- 
gether happily discharged what has evidently 
been to him a labor of love. The mystery 
which Daniel Defoe liked to throw around his 
private life has baffled the acutest and most 
patient of his biographers ; and will not yield 
to persistence at this late day. The parallel- 
ism between Defoe and Crusoe may be conceded 
to this extent : that Defoe, like his hero, lived 
for many years alone in his island, led ^^ a life 
of wonders, in continual storms, fought with 
the worst kind of savages and man-eaters, by 
unaccountable surprizing incidents ; fed by 
miracles greater than that of ravens ; suffered 
all manner of violences and oppressions, in- 
jurious reproaches, contempt by men, attacks 
of devils, corrections from heaven, aud opposi- 
tions on earth." His long life of more than 
seventy years was passed in a whirl of contro- 
versy, denunciation of abuses, advocacy of re- 
forms far in advance of his generation, social 
and religious advice to parents, children, and 
servants ; and all the time, like a true journal- 
ist, he kept his private life perdii. He had no 
Bos well, nor even a Friday, to share his hopes 




and opinions. From his own family he seems to 
have held himself often aloof: in all his volumi- 
noas writings there is scarce a reference to his 
brothers or his wife. It was not to be expected 
that much new light conld be thrown on such 
a life as this ; and Mr. Wright has hardly ful- 
filled the large promise of his preface. The 
business failures of Defoe, his frequent disap- 
pearances and reappearances, the publicity of 
the pillory, and the seclusion of Newgate, are 
all scrutinized with eager care; but the net 
result is disappointing. 

Mr. Wright's style leaves much to be de- 
sired. In his preface, he airily characterizes 
the works of his predecessors — Chalmers, Wil- 
son, Chadwick, and Lee — as " valuable works, 
all of them, but as dry as the very Sahara.'* 
With a laudable desire to avoid this aridity for 
his book, he has plentifully ornamented his 
pages with strange and uncanny flowers of 
speech, and evinces an almost nervous fear of 
seeming dignified or serious, which is very vex- 
atious to judicious readers. De Quincey loved 
to masquerade in slang, and defaced with it 
his best critical work ; and Mr. Wright should 
have taken warning from so conspicuous an 
example. Much was forgiven to the Opium- 
eater, for various reasons, — a lenity which other 
writers can hardly claim. Nobody but a pro- 
fessed humorist could expect indulgence for 
such colloquialisms as ^^ the inquirer finds him- 
self in clover " (p. 3), " a rare tussle " (p. 12), 
'* would puzzle a Dutchman " (p. 38), ** what 
on earth use " (p. 86), " that in all conscience 
was delicious enough, but now comes the coat- 
ing of almonds " (p. 133), " while they were 
swearing blue murder, he was either as cool as 
a cucumber or as merry as a grig " (p. 226), 
" riled them " (ibid.). It is not thus that per- 
manent literature is made. The types have 
gone wrong on pages 42, 79, 149, 188, 264 ; 
and there are one or two oddities like ^^ vitu- 
perised " (p. 227). The book is handsomely 
printed and fully illustrated. All the famous 
portraits of Defoe are reproduced ; and the im- 
agination is stirred by f ac-simile reprints of the 
frontispiece and title-page of the first editions 
of ** Robinson Crusoe," " Soxana," and " Jack 
Sheppard." There is an appropriate dedica- 
tion to Mr. Aitken, a series of four appendices, 
a complete chronological list of the 264 writ- 
ings of Defoe given by Mr. Lee (with two alter- 
ations), and a good index. On the whole, Mr. 
Wright has given us an entertaining narrative, 
and established one or two new facts ; but his 
book, with its hobbies and its strained air of 

vivacity, will scarcely displace the more digni- 
fied work of Mr. Lee or the memoir by Mr. 
Minto. ' Defoe, to our mind, remains very much 
of a riddle. The estimates of his character 
have ranged aU the way from caUing him an 
arch-liar and the prince of spies and turn-coats, 
to Mr. Wright's " the man of God." We turn 
away perplexed, and can only be sure that in 
him the elements were mixed. Yet, like that 
other noble nature, he was, we believe, ^^ a man 
more sinn'd against than sinning "; and if we 
must formulate a sentence, we will fall back 
on Macaulay's summing-up of the great Tory 
Doctor, who was, like Defoe, buffeted by for- 
tune for many busy, weary years ; and will pro- 
nounce him ^^ both a great And a good man." 
Dr. Johnson probably considered Defoe the 
man a ^^ sad dog of a Whig "; but for the author 
of '^ The Life and Strange Surprizing Adven- 
tures of Robinson Crusoe" he reserved his 
choicest praise, bracketing that classic with 
" The Pilgrim's Progress " and " Don Quixote " 
as the only three books which their readers 
would wish longer. Generations of children 
of all ages have confessed its unique charm, — 
have struggled through the surf with the hero, 
have peered horror-stricken over his shoulders 
at the gleaming eyes in the cave, and have 
shared that thrill which ran up and down his 
spine when ^^ it happened one day, about noon, 
going towards my boat, I was exceedingly sur- 
prized with the print of a man's naked foot on 
the shore, which was very plain to be seen in 
the sand." Mr. George A. Aitken has long 
been known as a close and sympathetic student 
of Defoe ; and his name as the editor of a new 
edition of the ^^ Romances and Narratives " will 
command popular interest in advance. Of the 
sixteen volumes that will comprise the series, 
the first three are given to the Crusoe tales, 
" Adventures," " Farther Adventures," and 
" Serious Reflections." Of these it may be said 
that the " Farther Adventures " and the " Seri- 
ous Reflections" fairly deserve the neglect which 
they share with the later cantos of '^ The Faerie 
Queene." When Crusoe's island was peopled, 
the charm was broken ; and after drawing the 
inevitable long breath, we begin to yawn and 
turn the pages listlessly. We are fascinated by 
the isolation, the make-shifts, the homely de- 
tail, even the iteration and amorphous style of 
the autobiographic hermit; but we are only 
bored when the curtain falls on his loneliness, 
and rises on commonplace dealings with other 
men and women. But Mr. Aitken has, of course, 
felt the necessity of giving his author in com- 



[July 1, 

plete form ; and we must admire the dainty 
setting which he and his publishers have given 
to the classic. The little volumes are exquis- 
itely printed and bound, and chastely, though 
not lavishly, illustrated by Mr. Yeats. The 
frontispiece of the first volume is an etched re- 
production of the ^^ looking-over-shoulder " por- 
trait of Defoe, prefixed to the first edition of 
^' The True-bom Englishman." An attractive 
feature is the printing of Defoe's coat-of-arms, 
with its motto ^^Laudatur et alget^^^ on the sec- 
ond page of the cover, to serve as a book-plate 
for the purchaser. Mr. Aitken contributes an 
admirable general introduction, which in our 
judgment is simply the most satisfactory short 
memoir of Defoe that we have seen : it neither 
shirks, excuses, nor abuses. 

The American Book Company is doing a 
good educational work in its ^^ Eclectic English 
Classics " series ; and in selecting ^^ The His- 
tory of the Plague " to represent Defoe, it has 
made an excellent choice. Of all the prolific 
Daniel's two hundred and fifty-odd works, none 
better exhibits his most striking features of 
style. The minute detail, the irresistible veri- 
similitude, the awful realism, are all there, and 
almost persuade us that he saw all that he de- 
scribes, in spite of our knowledge that he was 
a boy — though a precocious one — of five, when 
the pestilence was raging. The introductory 
sketch is so distinctly unfavorable in its esti- 
mate of Defoe's character and literary merit, 
as to give pupils a very incorrect idea of his 
rank in literature. If he was only the shrewd, 
unscrupulous journalist that this editor makes 
him out, it is difficult to see how a place could 
be found for him in the '^Eclectic English 
Classics." The introduction is well written, 
but seriously prejudices the reception of the 
masterpiece which follows it. 

JosiAH Reniok Sbath, 

Books About Birds.*^ 

The oft-repeated question, What text-book 
shall one get who wishes to know about our 

* Handbook of Birds of Eabtkbk Nobth America. By 
Frank M. Chapman. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

BiBDCSAFT. By Mabel Osgood Wrigrht. New York: Mao- 
millan <& Co. 

The Birds* Calemdab. By H. E. Parkhnrst. New York: 
Charles Soribner's Sons. 

Summer Studies of Birds and Books. By W. Warde 
Fowler, author of '' A Year with the Birds,*' etc. New York : 
Macmillan & Co. 

Pocket Guide to the Common Land Birds of New 
England. By M. A. Willoox. Boston : Lee & Shepard. 

birds ? can at last be answered with entire satis- 
faction. Hitherto, no one work could be named 
which would furnish the inquirer adequate in- 
formation in just the form desired. The ornith- 
ologies extant were too costly and bulky, or too 
limited or local in scope, to suit the popular 
need. Now, in response, it would appear, to 
a general demand, several treatises are simul- 
taneously produced which answer every require- 
ment of the beginner, either one serving as a 
complete and convenient guide to an introduc- 
tory acquaintance with our native birds. At 
their head, the ^^ Handbook of the Birds of 
Eastern North America," by Mr. Frank M. 
Chapman, must be placed without reserve. It 
is a model work of its kind. In size, cost, and 
contents, it gives equal satisfaction. A very 
large amount of matter is packed into the mi- 
nutest compass. Not a word is wasted ; and, 
we might sidd, not a fact is omitted — not an 
essential fact, at least, so carefully selected and 
condensed is the information afforded. The 
work begins with a few preliminary chapters 
in which the student is instructed in the proper 
methods of out-door observation and of collect- 
ing and preserving birds and nests and eggs. 
In the course of these directions much impor- 
tant and fresh knowledge is conveyed concern- 
ing the general habits of birds, their migrations, 
their economic value in relation to agriculture, 
their special nesting time, and their summer 
and winter haunts in varied localities. An 
original system of classification is next pro- 
vided, by which the novice may readily identify 
any bird in the fauna east of the Rocky moun- 
tains. The body of the book is given to brief 
biographies of the birds, including over five 
hundred, arranged in their respective orders 
and families. Here, as elsewhere, there is the 
utmost condensation consistent with clear and 
comprehensive description. Often the resources 
of Mr. Chapman's own richly-stocked note- 
books are drawn upon, and often he takes from 
the stores of other competent observers the ma- 
terial for a vivid and authentic portrait. Noth- 
ing has been neglected in the structure of the 
work,, and one can but applaud the masterly 
manner in which its scheme has been carried 
out. The series of plates and of figures inter- 
spersed through the text are of the highest 
artistic excellence, adding that touch of grace, 
that gleam of intelligence, which good illustra- 
tions always afford. 

Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright merits much 
praise for her generous efforts to excite an in- 
terest in the charming creatures privileged to 




spend their lives just under the skies. A sec- 
ond volume from her hand, under the pretty 
title of '< Birdoraft," foUows quite in the line 
of Mr. Chapman's ^^ Handbook," but with less 
claim in its contents to scientific method and 
fulness of accurate detail. Mrs. Wright writes 
more as an amateur, yet with a winning en- 
* thusiasm and an impressive knowledge resting 
properly upon personal observation. She makes 
the most of a residence in an extensive garden 
which offers enticing haunts for a great variety 
of birds. With these continually under her 
eye, she has special advantages for original 
and gratifying studies. Think of twenty pairs 
of house wrens making their home round about 
one's dwelling in a single season; and four 
pairs of red-«yed vireos with a corresponding 
multitude of delightful songsters to keep them 
company I What a chorus of bird-music must 
roU out from every green nook and canopy ; 
what flashing of bird wings of every tinge of 
color ; and what revelations of delightful bird- 
mysteries must continually appeal to the intel- 
ligent observer I It is well that in such a bird 
paradise a bird-lover has the good fortune to 
abide. In Mrs. Wright's book there is a sim- 
ple key to the birds, based upon their color, 
which wiU afford excellent help to the begin- 
ner in the identification of any male specimen 
in spring plumage. There are also colored 
plates of one hundred and twenty-eight of our 
common species. It is not to be expected that 
these should be perfect in tint, but they give a 
fair idea of the distinctive markings of each 
bird, and serve a better purpose than fig^es 
in pure black and white. The author's attempts 
at rendering the songs of birds in the English 
vernacular is necessarily a failure. The birds 
may speak to us in a language we can perfectly 
understand, but no one of us can act as an in- 
terpreter for another. To each sympathetic ear 
their voices address a distinctive word that 
harmonizes with the mood and temperament. 
It will mean the same to no two persons. To 
reduce any bird-song to human speech is piti- 
lessly to vulgarize it. *' Songs without Words " 
appeal to the imagination, and suggest thoughts 
boundless as infinity. In the brief sketch 
given to each of two hundred separate species, 
Mrs. Wright has often a pleasing anecdote or 
comment to insert, which comes directly from 
her experience, and adds a new and valuable 
item to our accumulations in birdcraf t. 

A welcome accession to the library of the 
ornithologist is the volume entitled *^ The Birds' 
Calendar," by Mr. H. E. Parkhurst. It is a 

detailed account of the author's study of wild 
bird-life during a single year, that of 1893. 
The field chosen for his investigations was lim- 
ited almost exclusively to *' The Ramble" in Cen- 
tral Park, New York, a space covering about 
one-sixteenth of a square mile only, and includ- 
ing, with its bit of water, very little variety in 
the surface of the bush and wooded land. But 
within this restricted area, in the fragments of 
leisure left from more serious occupations, the 
observer was able to catch glimpses, and in some 
cases to make a considerable examination of the 
habits and characteristics, of over ninety differ- 
ent species of birds, in the course of the twelve- 
month. Beginning with January, the sterner 
period of the winter, Mr. Parkhurst made 
frequent visits to the woods and by-paths of 
" The Ramble," searching with keen and cau- 
tious movement for any flitting thing in feathers 
that might come within range of sound or sight. 
It was apparently the pastime of an amateur, 
but pursued in the true naturalist's spirit, with 
diligent and patient exactitude. His aim was 
to collect facts and facts only, as many and se- 
lect as possible, and, noting them down without 
embellishment, to connect and interpret them 
clearly and intelligently. His narrative is ex- 
panded by additional matter gleaned from au- 
thoritative sources, and the result is a really 
fresh and useful contribution to the literature 
of American ornithology. The book will sur- 
prise many a reader by showing how much in- 
terest and animation birds lend to nature in 
even the baldest and dreariest season of the 
year. By its chronological order it performs 
an equal service in helping one to associate 
the various phenomena of bird life, migration, 
song, nesting, molting, and so on, with the un- 
folding panorama of thelbeasons. Though most 
painstaking and careful in his work, Mr. Park- 
hurst has left a few trifling errors for future 
correction. There are three warblers, he will 
find, instead of one, which are to be met with 
during winter in our Northern States. The 
house wren, contrary to his statement on page 
158, is fully entitled to its familiar name, be- 
ing strongly inclined to nest in the vicinity of 
human dwellings ; while the winter wren con- 
fines itself to secluded places. Lastly, it must 
have happened to him, ere this writing^ to hear 
the robin, the wren, the meadow lark, and 
many another ecstatic bird, sing on the ground, 
disproving his too hasty deduction that contact 
with the earth throws a mute spell over these 
delicious musicians. *^ The Birids' Calendar " 
is illustrated with twenty-four full-page photo- 



[July 1, 

graphs of stuffed specimens, which, mounted 
by expert taxidermatists, simulate life as per- 
fectly perhaps as they can be made to do. Yet, 
looking at them, we are forced to quote Mr. 
Parkhurst's own remark, that *^ There is some- 
thing depressing, almost melancholy, in these 
dead and withered specimens, . . . when one 
has seen their living joyous confreres in their 
native haunts." 

It is interesting to note how the fascinations 
of nature will take hold of the strongest and 
most cultivated minds. It is the sensitive and 
enthusiastic temperament, of course, which 
yields most quickly and completely to the 
beauty and wonder pervading our universe ; 
yet few are so stolid as not to confess their pow- 
erful charm when once it has touched the inner 
vision. Such thoughts occur on opening the 
collection of *^ Summer Studies of Birds and 
Books," by Mr. W. Warde Fowler. Here is 
a grave and serious Oxford man frankly rank- 
ing himself among the passionate lovers of 
*' His best of harmless beings, the marvellous 
creatures endowed with flight and song." He 
will make nothing of going to the remotest 
point in Europe to make the acquaintance of 
some rare species, to hear its unaccustomed 
melody or discover the secrets of its domestic 
life ; and nothing will so thrill his soul with 
delight as some new experience that can add 
to his already intimate knowledge of the birds 
of his continent. Genuine interest and affec- 
tion are captivating traits, and make a pleasant 
companion of almost anyone ; and such we 
find Mr. Fowler, especially in his long and sug- 
gestive talk about the songs of birds, — their 
origin, variety, exquisite finish, and mode of 
delivery ; and also in his lecture on the great 
work of Aristotle in the province of natural 
history, and his astonishingly wide and close 
observation of the birds of Greece. Mr. Fow- 
ler's book is composed of lectures and papers 
which have grown out of his open-air studies 
in England, Wales, and Switzerland, and have 
had in many cases previous publication. All 
save one relate to the same subject, and that 
one is a feeling memoir of an old friend, a fa- 
vorite fox-terrier whose noble traits earned the 
lasting regard of his master. 

«* The Pocket Guide to the Common Land 
Birds of New England," by Mr. M. A. Will- 
cox, has decided virtues to commend it. First, 
its portable proportions, exactly fitted to the 
pocket ; next, its agreeable style and simple con- 
struction ; and lastly, its trustworthiness. It 
does not pretend to do more than introduce the 

reader to our common birds, and this it hap- 
pily accomplishes with respect to eighty-seven 
species — no inconsiderable number. After one 
has profited by all the little volume has to give, 
there will be a really large amount of knowl- 
edge acquired, and the best preparation made 
for more advanced treatises. It is an admir- 
able book to put in the hands of the young, 
being quite within their grasp, and replete with 
judicious and attractive information. An in- 
genious Key, founded upon color, as in Mrs. 
Wright's volume, enables the student at the 
outset to name his bird. This is supplemented 
by a series of short and well-written biographies, 
to which are appended, in many cases, refer- 
ences to books and periodicals in which a more 
complete description of the bird may be found. 
During his service as professor of zoology at 
Yassar College, Mr. Willcox has gained a skill 
in teaching which enables him to present his 
subject in an unusually plain, succinct, and yet 
rounded manner. g^j^^ ^^ Hubbard. 

Recbnt Fictiox.* 

We are almost inclined to think that Chicago 
has found what Carlyle woold have called a Voice. 
When Mr. Henry Fuller abandoned the fascinating 
society of the European chevaliers and chatelaines of 
his airy imagination, and turned instead to the bank- 
ing-clerks and *^ lunch-counter " girls, the self-made 
men and " social leaders " of his native city, it was 
a descent, indeed, from the plane of poetry to the 
lower plane of prose. Yet the change of base seems 

* With the Pbocsssiok. A Novel. By Henry B. FaUer. 
New York : Harper A Bros. 

Tbb Stobt of Chbibtinb Roohefort. By Helen Choate 
Prinoe. Boston : Hooirhton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Adventures of Captaiit Horn. By Frank R. 
Stockton. New York : Charles Soribner's Sons. 

Heart of the World. By H. Rider Haggard. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

The Jewel of Yvts Galon. By Owen Rhosoomyl. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

The Master. A Novel. By I. Zangwill. New York : 
Harper A Bros. 

Children of the Soil. By Henryk Sienkiewicz. Trans- 
lated from the Polish by Jeremiah Cordn. Boston : Little, 
Brown, & Co. 

Majesty. A Novel. By Lonis Conpems. Translated 
by A. Teixeira de Mattos and Ernest Dowson. New York : 
D. Appleton A Co. 

The Grandee. A Novel. By Armando Palacio Vald^. 
New York : George Gottsberger Peck. 

Melting Snows. By Prinoe Sohoenaioh-Carolath. Trans- 
lated into English by Margaret Symonds. New York : Dodd, 
Mead, A Co. 

A Madonna of the Alps. Translated from the German 
of B. Schnlze^midt, by Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston : 
Little, Brown, A Co. 

The Wish. A Novel. By Hermann Sudermann. Trans- 
lated by Lily Henkel. New York : D. Appleton A Co. 




to UB to have been a fortanate one, f or, after all, 
Arcopia and La Trinity are regions whereof anyone 
may write more or less intelligently ; whereas Chi- 
cago has been heretofore the most virgin of literary 
soil. Moreover, in taking for his theme the tamult- 
uoos and strident civilization of the great Lake- 
side City, Mr. Fuller has planted himself upon the 
solid ground of re&lity. To every writer of fiction 
there comes the urgent appeal of ^< the here and the 
now " for artistic expression ; and to neglect this 
appeal for sake of the romantic charm attaching to 
the remote must be, for all the vagueness of outline 
and iridescent coloring of " far-off things," rather 
a confession of weakness than a sign of strength. 
Besides, we cannot escape the impression, warranted 
as it seems to be by*" The Cliff Dwellers " and "With 
the Procession," that their author has decided to 
reader pour miettx satUery which is nearly always 
a wise thing to do. That he will " go far " upon 
his new path is not an improbable prediction,, in view 
of the distinct advance indicated by the second novel 
in comparison with the first. " WiUi the Procession '' 
exhibits, with what may fairly be called an extra- 
ordinary talent, the life of the city in which the ac- 
tion is placed — not the external life as the painter 
would view it so much as the inner life, the ambi- 
tions and the ideals, the sympathies and the points 
of view, the crudities and the maladjustments, pro- 
ducing so bizarre an impression upon the objective 
spectator, who perceives dimly that some sort of a 
distinctive civic type is struggling to emerge from 
the chaotic mass, but who cannot for the life of him 
prefigure the type. Mr. Fuller, certainly, has not 
prefigured it, but he has viewed the seething pro- 
cess of development with a degree of insight that 
no other novelist has brought to the task, and felic- 
ities of acute observation confront us from every 
page of the book. There is certainly an over-insist- 
ence upon detail now and then, and it is equally 
certain that there exist other and more agreeable 
sorts of Chicagoans than those here delineated. But 
then, there were other sorts of Londoners than those 
to whom Dickens and even Thackeray introduced 
us, which does not make our gratitude toward those 
novelists any the less. It is only a ludicrous hy- 
persensitiveness that could blame Mr. Fuller for 
having made his own selection of characters. Those 
whom he has chosen to present to us offer enough 
variety to make interesting the story of their rela- 
tions, and every one of them is portrayed with truth- 
fulness and sincerity. The galled jade may wince at 
some of the episodes, but the withers of the thought- 
ful Chicagoan, who knows well enough that his city 
has the defects of its qualities, will remain unwrung. 

" The Story of Christine Rochefort '' is pleasing 
and in good taste, but it may hardly be called strong. 
In characterization it is very unsatisfactory, for 
none of the people who figure in its pages are in 
any real sense alive. It deals with French life in 
the provincial town of Blois ; and labor troubles, as 
they present themselves to the French manufacturer. 

are its chief theme. Mrs. Prince's envisagement 
of the problem of socialism is not open to serious 
criticism, and her standpoint is that of sobriety ; but 
she decidedly oversteps the line between fiction- 
writing and economic discussion when she repro- 
duces almost in full the speeches made at the labor- 
meeting which has so determining an influence upon 
the fortunes of her leading characters. 

The Treasure of the Incas has fired the imag- 
ination of many a romancer before now, and we 
are not surprised to find it once more pressed into 
service. But it is a little astonishing to discover in 
the latest poacher upon the preserves of Mr. Rider 
Haggard and the rest no less incongruous a person 
than Mr. Stockton. In penning " The Adventures of 
Captain Horn " the author has indeed, as the adver- 
tisements say, written in " a new vein." The essen- 
tial whimsicality of his work, whatever his theme, 
certainly gives piquancy to the tale, and goes far 
to justify the use of his extremely threadbare mate- 
riid. The Rackbirds alone are worth reading the 
book for, to say nothing of the estimable Mrs. Cliff 
and her Califomian blankets. The story of the 
finding of the treasure, and of its removal, would 
be more thrilling if we did not feel all the time that 
the narrator is laughing in his sleeve. But the in- 
genuity of invention displayed, and the frequent re- 
currence of the unexpected, keep the reader*s atten- 
tion alert, and carry him safely through a concatena- 
tion of episodes which, if taken too seriously, would 
probably be found merely dull. 

The unregenerate reader of adventure-crammed 
romance, however, does not enjoy the suspicion that 
sport is being made of him, and demands that his 
story-tellers should take their tales as seriously as 
he himself is disposed to take them while under 
their spell. We fancy that such unregenerates will 
prefer the naive imaginings of Mr. Rider Haggard to 
the obviously sophisticated imaginings of Mr. Stock- 
ton. As for the regenerate, we need not consider 
their feelings at all in the matter, for such of their 
spokesmen as Mr. Howells and Mr. Boyesen have 
repeatedly informed us that their contempt and 
their scorn are catholic enough to embrace the whole 
range of imaginative romance, from Mr. Haggard 
to Robert Louis Stevenson. Mr. Haggard's " Heart 
of the World," like Mr. Stockton's tale of adven- 
ture, deals with a hidden treasure — this time the 
treasure of the Montezumas, not of the Incas. 
There is also a mysterious Indian city in the heart 
of Central America, the home of an unknown race, 
and the storehouse of the treasure in question. 
The scenario of the tale is almost identical with 
that of "Montezuma's Daughter," or "The Peo- 
ple of the Mist "; but the author's fertility in the 
invention of new incident saves the book from be- 
ing dismissed as a mere repetition, and gives new 
interest to situations that would seem, from any out- 
line description, unbearably hackneyed. The style, 
of course, is as roughshod as ever, and the arrange- 
ment of material as glaringly theatrical. 



[Joly 1. 

The romancer bent upon buried treasure, to whose 
imagination the hoards of Ineas and Montezumas 
do not appeal, has always the resource of the pirate 
and the Spanish Main. To these themes Mr. Owen 
Rhoscomyl has turned in ^^The Jewel of Ynys 
Gralon," and the only novel feature of his treatment 
is provided by the fact that his pirates are Welsh- 
men, and that the scene of their exploits is a rocky 
island off the coast of Wales. There are in this 
book a great many of what the writer loves to call 
^^ bloody horrors," and the quality of his narrative 
may best be illustrated by a brief extract : 

** Jnst as I was expecting sudden death I heard a roar 
of dry rage, and past me gleamed a weapon all horrible 
with grey brains and crimson with blood that dropped 
from it as it swung. It was the brass butt of the blun- 
derbuss in Will Barry's hand, and, as it fell upon the 
nearest skull, smashed it to pulp." 

This book, for those who like this sort of thing, will 
undoubtedly prove the sort of thing they like. The 
illustrations are, in the present case, exceptionally 
spirited and happy in execution, offering a striking 
contrast to the slovenly and chaotic bits of impres- 
sionism that it would be a misnomer to call the illus- 
trations to Mr. Haggard's Mexican romance. 

Mr. Zangwill's ^' The Master " is an exasperat- 
ing book. More than half of it is padding, dis- 
guised barely if at all ; the remaining fraction em- 
bodies a strong conception of character, and contains 
the stuff whereof good fiction is made. As for the 
superfluous moiety of the work, it is difficult to have 
any patience with it. There is a great deal of ar- 
tistic " shop " of the cheapest sort ; there is even 
more of dilute and sentimental rhetoric. The style 
is nearly always unfinished, and often bad. Yet 
through thk uL> of seMnp^l workmanship we f ol- 
low the clue of the hero's diversified career, and 
share something of the joy with which he conquers, 
Art, to beg^n with, and then, after a fashion, and 
not without a bitter spiritual struggle, Life. Re- 
duced to reasonable dimensions, pruned of its exu- 
berant offshoots, the sharpness of some of its con- 
trasts toned to a closer semblance of reality, and 
worked over with the file from first to last, this 
book might be transformed into a creation worthy 
of the lofty ideal that the writer has evidently set 
himself, but failed to embody in a satisfactory man- 
ner. Natural facility has been Mr. Zangwill*s bane, 
and overmuch journalism has wellnigh wrecked in 
him what might have been an admirable talent for 
description and characterization. 

Several translations of Continental fiction, includ- 
ing works by some of the foremost of living novel- 
ists, are among the publications selected for review 
in the present article. First in importance of these 
books is Mr. Curtin's translation of the latest work 
of Henryk Sienkiewicz, ^' Rodzina Polanieckich. 
This title, which means ** The Polanyetski Family, 
has been set aside for no adequate reason, and for 
it << Children of the Soil" has been substituted. 
Such a title is amply justified, however, by the tenor 



of the narrative, which deals for the most part with 
Poles of intensely national type, and which brings 
into frequent prominence that attachment to the 
country — in the sense, of pays rather than of patrie 
— which is one of the best elements of national 
character, whether in Poland or elsewhere. This 
aspect of the work is well illustrated by the heroine 
when she says : 

** More than once, when I went out to the fields in 
spring, and saw that all things were growing, I felt that 
my heart, too, was growing with them. And now I 
know why that is : In all other relations that a man 
holds there may be deceit, but the land is truth. It is 
impossible to deceive the land; it either gives, or gives 
not, but it does not deceive. Therefore land is loved» 
as truth; and because one loves it, it teaches one to love. 
And the dew falls not only on grain, and on meadows^ 
but on the soul, as it were; and a man becomes better, 
for he has to deal with truth, and he loves, — that is, he 
is nearer God." 

The passage we have quoted is not alone illustra- 
tive of a special aspect of the story, but also of the 
simple and wholesome feeling that pervades it 
throughout. In point of fact, the Polanyetski's and 
their friends are city-dwellers during most of the 
period covered by the narrative, and only at the 
beginning and the end are they brought into inti- 
mate relations with <^ the soil.'* They form a group 
of interesting men and women, differentiated into 
a sufficient variety of types, and delineated in a 
manner that is nothing less than masterly. The 
interest centres about Stanislav PolanyetsU and his 
wife Marynia, whom we come to know and love as 
if we had lived with them for years. It is easy 
enough to love Marynia, who is saintly without be- 
ing insipid, sweet without being tiresome, and whose 
purity of soul by imperceptible degrees raises Stan- 
islav to something like her own leveL The delinea- 
tion of the husband is an even greater triumph ; for 
he is, after all, the homme seniuel moyen whom we 
all know, and it requires something of a struggle 
for the novel-reader, accustomed to heroes of strik* 
ing personality, to admit the right of such a man to 
occupy the most conspicuous place in a g^eat work 
of fiction. In fact, the triumph is not unlike that 
achieved by Freytag in «<SoIl und Haben." In 
the end, Stanislav wins our allegiance completely^ 
and the story of his spiritual development, as the 
translator with justice remarks, << is of interest to 
every person in civilized society." <* Children of the 
Soil" occupies a middle position between the highly 
analytical and introspective << Without Dog^a" and 
the magnificent historical trilogy, with its glowing 
scenes and its tremendous sweep, by which the au- 
thor is best known. It is strictly a modern novel, 
but it offers none of those aberrations of tendency 
to which many modem novelists weakly resort.. 
The strength of the book is in its entire sanity, its 
freedom from exaggeration or sensationalism, and 
its psychological insight. It must be reckoned 
among the finer fictions of our time, and shows its 
author to be almost as great a master in the field 




of the domeetic novel as he had previously been 
shown to be in that of imaginative historical ro- 
mance. Yet we most, in conclusion, express a slight 
preference for the chronicler of the seventeenth- 
century Commonwealth over the novelist of nine- 
teenth-century Warsaw. The << fierce wars and 
faithful loves" of the former represent an even 
higher reach than the delicate delineations and sober 
philosophies of the latter. But, viewed in either 
aspect, the work of Henryk Sienkiewicz has already 
earned for him a place in the foremost rank of liv- 
ing novelists. 

'< Majesty " seems to us the most important book 
that Heer Couperus has yet produced. It is, like 
its predecessors, largely a work of psychological 
analysis, and the chief interest centres about a char- 
acter of distinctly degenerate type. But the out- 
come is not altogether gloomy, and the possibility 
of a regenerative process is dimly hinted at in the 
closing pages. All these things take on a height- 
ened significance from the fact that they concern, 
not an ordinary mortal, but the descendant of a 
great line of princes, himself the ruler of a great 
Empire. The problem seems to be something like 
this : Is the institution of monarchy a hopeless an- 
achronism in the present age of social discontent 
and aspiration, or is it possible that the institution 
may adapt itself to the new environment, and be- 
come once more the pillar of social order? The 
author does not solve this problem, but he at least 
hints that the second of the alternatives may offer 
the solution. The Empire in which the action lies 
has no place on the political map of Europe — it is 
an eclectic or composite sort of Empire, drawn from 
the observation of several States — yet the dominion 
of the Hapeburgs has clearly served more frequently 
than any other for a model, and Austrian conditions 
are more closely than any others reproduced. The 
Shakespearian " Uneasy lies the head that wears a 
crown " might well have been taken as a motto for 
this pathetic study of a soul eager to do what is best 
for his people, yet oppressed almost to the point of 
death by his intolerable sense of the responsibility 
attendant upon his exalted rank. A suggestive com- 
parison might be made between this work and Herr 
Bj5rnson's treatment of a similar theme in his 
drama of "The King." 

Spain and the Netherlands are farther apart in 
the nineteenth century than they were in the six- 
teenth, but the intellectual ferment of our time has 
reached both countries alike, and we can pass from 
a Dutch to a Castilian author without the sense of 
discontinuity that would have been awakened a few 
years ago. "El Maestrante," the new novel of 
Seiior Vald^, is not as modern a story as " La Es- 
puma," but it is painfully modern in its realistic 
method. This story of " The Grandee," as the trans- 
lator calls it, takes us to the provincial city of Oviedo 
(called Lancia in the book), where Seiior Vald^ 
spent his early youth, and the time is that of a gen- 
eration ago. As a document illustrative of bygone 

manners in a Spanish town the work has more value 
than it has considered as constructive art. It bears 
the impress of sincerity, and, in this respect, com- 
mands attentive interest, but its subject-matter of 
intrigue, cruelty, and horse-play is not engaging, 
and some of the scenes are quite beyond the pale 
of the artistically permissible. Mr. Edmund Gosse 
writes an introduction, giving some interesting par- 
ticulars of the author's life and earlier work. But 
even he, as sponsor for the translation, will not an- 
swer the question " Whether these maladies of the 
soul are or are not fit subjects for the art of the 
novelist," but leaves each reader to answer it for 

It is a strangely pathetic story that Miss Sy- 
monds has translated from the Grerman of Prince 
Schoenaich-Carolath. Steeped in sentiment and 
romantic color, it offers a striking enough contrast to 
the dull realism that still confronts us in the pages 
of most current novels, while it serves also to re- 
mind us that the feelings of those about whom the 
novelist writes for our entertainment or instruction 
are no less deserving of delineation than their activ- 
ities or their environment This story of a poor stu- 
dent at a German university, into whose life the 
passion of love comes like the warm sun of spring- 
time, melting the snows of winter and flooding all 
hb soul, is told with grace and eloquence ; its sin- 
cerity is so heartfelt that a certain vagueness of out- 
line and other amateurish characteristics may well 
be forgotten in the beauty of the total impression. 
Yet it seems to us that the tragic conclusion is a 
little forced, certainly not made quite inevitable by 
the temperament and the antecedents of the per- 
sons concerned. So harsh an ending is not quite 
consonant with the tenor of so sweet an idyl, and 
the last pages find us unprepared for their sorrow- 
ful burden. 

The tragic idyl of Italy which Mr. Dole has ad- 
mirably translated from the Grerman of Herr 
Schulze-Smidt takes us to the Lake of Grarda, and 
does all that words can do to picture the scenery of 
that beautiful district. And against this lovely 
back-ground is sketched a story of human passion 
— of sin, suffering, and atonement — which for 
intensity of expression and sympathetic presenta- 
tion of some of the darker moods of the soul could 
not easily be matched. The story is simple enough 
in outline, and for that reason all the more impres- 
sive, since the attention is not often diverted from 
the central situation. The exquisite ending of the 
tale will linger in the memory long after the pages 
of the book are closed. 

" Frau Sorge " is the only one of Herr Suder- 
mann's novels that we recollect to have seen in En- 
glish translation previous to the appearance of " The 
Wish," the work now before us. *• Der Wunsch " is 
one of the tales published in the " Greschwister " col- 
lection about ten years ago. It has the dimensions of 
a novel, although not a lengthy one, and is one of the 
most finished productions of the author's art The 



[July 1, 

story hangs entirely upon a psychological experience 
familiar to almost everyone, hut not taken seriously 
except by a morbidly developed mind here and there. 
There are probably few people who do not, in their 
musings, now and then picture to themselves the 
death of those nearest and dearest to them, and re- 
flect upon the possible consequences of such an oc- 
currence. Nor are there many who, if such a hap- 
pening were to bring in its train some personal grat- 
ification, or the realization of some ambition (such 
as rank, or fortune, or love), do not catch them- 
selves at times abstracting the sad features of the 
death thus imagined, and contemplating it for an 
instant or two in what may be called its pleasant 
aspect. With the healthy mind, of course, this ab- 
straction is only momentary, being promptly in- 
vaded by the flood of sorrowful associations that 
cannot long be kept at bay. Now the mind that 
has developed a morbid ethical consciousness may 
be so distressed at the thought that such an abstrac- 
tion — although natural and even inevitable -;- was 
at all possible as to feel a grievous sense of sin in 
consequence of the experience, although it knows 
perfectly well that the will, which alone determines 
sin in any real sense, could not by any possibility 
become enlisted in behalf of so evil an imagining, 
that such a wish could never become translated into* 
act. It is such a consciousness that Herr Suder- 
mann depicts in the present story — a consciousness 
that can find expiation for its imagined sin only in 
suicide. Our criticism of the story is not that it 
should deal with so essentially morbid a psycholog- 
ical state, but that it should seem to countenance 
the notion that a wish thus formulated — which is 
neither a real wish nor so much as a velleity — is a 
serious ground for self-reproach, to say nothing of 
its being a ground for so heroic a measure as self- 
destruction. The ethical balance is not fairly held 
by the author, and his work suffers in consequence. 
For the rest, we cannot but praise the art with 
which this difficult situation is developed, or the 
fidelity of the descriptive touches that gives such 
marked reality to the life reproduced in these pages. 
Readers of the later dramas of Dr. Ibsen cannot 
fail to notice how typically Ibsenian is the problem 
above outlined, and with which the book is mainly 
concerned. The translation reads well in Miss Lily 
Kenkel's English, and the information about the 
author and his writings, supplied by Miss Elizabeth 
Lee, is both timely and interesting. 

William Morton Payne. 

The thirteenth annual report of the American School 
of Classical Studies at Athens has just been issued by 
the managing committee of the School, and contains 
much interesting reading. We note also, in this con- 
nection, the recent establishment of a similar school at 
Rome, and the fact that it will be presided over during 
its first year by Professor William Gardner Hale, of 
the University of Chicago, who has been granted leave 
of absence for that purpose. 

Bbi£fs ox Nicw Books. 

M.BaurgeVt Whatever may be the errors (and 
imprM»i9n8 of they are relatively few) of M. Paul 
America. Bourget's widely read " Outre Mer " 

(Scribner), they are at least errors of imperfect or 
hurried observation, and not of prejudice. The mir- 
ror that he holds up to us is an unclouded one, wherein 
we may see what manner of men and women we are 
in the eyes of a cultured FrenchmMi who is a stu- 
dent of manners and a master of expression. M. 
Bourget did not come to our shores fettered with a 
ready-made theory of us into which the facts gath- 
ered must be made to fit. Facts first, conclusions 
afterwards, has been his rule. He does not cloy 
us with sugared words, like Sir Edwin Arnold ; or 
^* blow us up," on the Mark Tapley plan ; nor does 
he merely exploit our oddities, like his loquacious 
compatriot << Max O'Rell." If he handles us <^ with- 
out gloves " on the score of our failings, he is equally 
candid when it comes to our merits — of which he 
credits us with a liberal share. He foresees for us 
a tolerably hopeful future, albeit one fraught with 
perils, noted chiefly in unchecked, or unsifted, im- 
migration. Premising that, after the Civil War, 
^<the Atlantic became the great conduit through 
which flowed all the malcontents of old Europe, 
especially of Germany,** he concludes : " The day 
when excessive immigration shall have truly created 
two Americas in America, the conflict between these 
two worlds will be as inevitable as that between 
England and Ireland, and between Germany and 
France. Not against his employer will the Amer- 
ican workman of New York and Philadelphia be 
led to make war ; his employer and he will end by 
acting together against the foreign workman." M. 
Bourget is happier in his treatment of lighter topics. 
The <^ Impressions " of our Society, our Business 
Men, Lower Orders, Education, Pleasures, etc., are 
strictly impressions — rapid, though shrewd, glimpses 
and jottingrg, gathered at random, and put together 
in a rather haphazard though very entertaining way. 

An effectiw Among all the refinements of current 

piece of literary treatment, and all the deli- 

dramoHc wrUing. ^^^^^ ^f current literary emotion, it 

is a great pleasure to come across anything so sim- 
ple and so effective as Dr. Weir Mitchell's " Philip 
Vernon " (The Century Co.). It is called " a tale 
in prose and verse,*' but really it is rather a little 
drama than anything else, coming near indeed in 
its construction and handling to the possibilities of 
stage presentation. So many of the literary dramas 
of our time, though meant for the stage, are found 
to be effective only in book form. This work, though 
apparently written with no idea of representation, 
seems to have dramatic possibilities that would not 
be so very hard to realize. We have perhaps noth- 
ing more than a fifth act ; but at any rate it is a 
strong combination of real emotions wrought up to 
a situation powerfully, if simply, handled. The time 
of the Armada gives a sort of electric atmosphere, 




charged with high feeling and great adventure. The 
local color, the old English inn, the chase, and the 
garden of the great manor, gives a touch of roman- 
tic beauty. The characters, a Roman priest, two 
young English gallants, and a beautiful gentle- 
woman, are brought together in a story which, if 
not extraordinarily novel or especially ingenious, 
has at least the merit of holding one's interest. At 
the beginning, one reads a little suspiciously. <<Why 
should anyone bother to string together a lot of 
rhymes about the time of Queen Elizabeth ? " But 
one reaches the end with an increased respect for 
the author, with the relieved calm that comes after 
emotional tension, and with the feeling that this 
alim little book may really be one of those things so 
hard to detect at first sight, so easy to recognize 
when detected, — a gain to literature. Dr. Mitchell 
does not strive nor cry very much in this work, but 
there is something in it that is better than much that 
may be found in the more hysteric efforts of some 
who are much more conscious of their own import- 

The new life of William Laud, by 
l^lw-Jw Mr. W. H. Button, in the " Leaders 

ArehbUhap Laud. t -o ^• • if • / tt Lx \ 

of Religion series ( Houghton ), 
gives in popular form an account of the real man 
as judicial students of seventeenth-century history 
have agreed in estimating him. Probably no great 
man has suffered more or longer from the assaults 
of religious and political passion than the great arch- 
bishop, — the greatest, our author thinks, who has 
sat in the chair of Augustine since the Reformatio!^. 
We hope that this book will be read by many who 
will never look into the great works of Ranke and 
Gardiner, and will thus be led to see that Laud was 
a high-souled prelate and statesman, though he made 
one of the worst mistakes a statesman can make, 
that of misjudging the temper of the times and the 
forces at work among the people. Though his work 
seemed to go down in an awful crash, yet when the 
Church came back at the Restoration it was on the 
basis of his plans and ideals. The completeness of 
his immediate failure should not blind us to the great- 
ness of his aims. His misfortunes came not from his 
being a Papist at heart, as his Puritan foes charged, 
but from his not being a Puritan. This he could 
not be : he believed in order, reverence, forms ; and 
as head of the Church he endeavored to further 
what he believed would conduce to true worship, 
but he did not do this in the spirit of the bigot or 
the tyrant. 

The plays written by our great poets 
of the present century have, as a rule, 
enriched that department of literature 
known as the '< closet drama." *' The Borderers," 
" Remorse," « The Ayrshire Tragedy," " Manfred," 
*' The Cenci," « Harold," " The Blot on the Scut- 
cheon," <* Chastelard " (to mention no more), have 
been, some not well suited to the stage, some frankly 
intended for the closet. Too often the closet which 
has received them has been by no means the quiet 

A drama far 
the elotei. 

study of the lover of letters, but rather that sort of 
dark up-stairs closet into which one puts such liter- 
ary rubbish as must be kept but cannot be allowed 
to clutter up the library. This literary tendency 
(aided by present predictions of a new dramatic 
period) has now produced a stupendous, if not an 
unnatural, blossom in << Ernest England: A Soul 
Laid Bare," by J. A. Parker. This work is in the 
form of a drama in prose and verse, and its most ob- 
vious characteristic is its length, in which it exceeds 
" Hamlet," the First Part of " Faust," and *' Le Cid," 
all put together ; even approaching the fabled por- 
tents of India and China. Keats, thinking of Leigh 
Hunt's question, Why write a long poem? asked, 
'< Do not the lovers of poetry like to have a little 
region to wander in, where they may pick and choose, 
and in which the images are so numerous that many 
are forgotten and found new on a second reading? " 
Besides being a long poem, '< Ernest England " re- 
sembles *^ Endymion " in being delightful reading 
for the reviewer of the old " Quarterly " type, — and 
for such a reader the prodigy of its length is no 
drawback, since it offers only the richer store of 
ridiculous missiles to hurl at the unfortunate author, 
who has really offered more excuse for such treat- 
ment than a sane man should do. 

Mr. Reuben 6. Thwaites has recently 
OArMieie* qf rendered a new service to students of 

ifaraer trarjare. , _, i«. »i i_ 

pioneer history by his careful work 
in editing the revision of Alexander Withers's 
<< Chronicles of Border Warfare " ( Robert Clarke 
Co.). The book was first published in the thirties, 
when the author, an enthusiastic antiquarian, was 
able to gather original material from some of those 
who participated in the events described. It was 
read in every pioneer home, sometimes literally read 
to pieces, so that copies of it became scarce long 
ago. Its value was at once recognized, and in its 
new form this value has been many times increased 
because of peculiar circumstances. The late Lyman 
C. Draper visited the regions described by Withers, 
very soon after the publication of the latter's book. 
He verified the facts described; he inte^ewed 
many old settlers ; he made copious notes from the 
standpoint of a historian. But he was not so much 
an editor as a collector ; and when his literary labors 
closed, perhaps with the writing of one of the foot- 
notes for this new volume, his literary executor, Mr. 
Thwaites, took up the work, and the revision comes 
to the reader rich with the notes of Withers the 
original author, of Dr. Draper the enthusiastic in- 
vestigator, and of Mr. Thwaites the painstaking 
editor. The old edition of Withers was considered 
final authority ; tlie new one is better, because it has 
the advantage of modern ideas of bookmaking and 
scholarly notions of editing. The warfare of the 
border was savage, and many a scalp was taken, as 
the humble cabin of the pioneer went up in smoke ; 
but scenes like those described were absolutely neces- 
sary to the taming of the wilderness for the steady 
settler of later days. 



[July 1, 

and Courts 
of hove. 

The first volume of the " Social En- 
gland Series " (Macmillan) is writ- 
ten by Mr. I. F. Rowbotham, M.A., 
and devoted to *< The Troubadours and Courts of 
Love/' A theme so romantic raises high expecta- 
tions of interest ; yet there are few literary subjects 
requiring more drudgery and delving on the part 
of an author. Most of the writings of the trouba- 
dours are still in manuscript, and must be studied 
chiefly in the Biblioiheque Nationale at Paris, the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the British Mus- 
eum at London. Moreover, the bulk of them are 
written in a tongue different not only from modern 
English, but different also from the English of 
Chaucer and the other early poets. But the reader's 
expectations in the present work are not disap- 
pointed ; the history runs on, without appearance 
of labor, from the time of the first troubiidours in 
England early in the twelfth century, to their de- 
cline and fall about one hundred and fifty years 
later. The general character of the poetry of the 
troubabours is described, with citations ; their quali- 
fications and characteristics as an aristocratic caste 
are set forth ; and their influences on society, partly 
refining and partly pernicious, is revealed. Wher- 
ever there was chivalry, there were troubadours and 
courts of love. But with the annihQation of the 
bright and glittering society which had been min- 
strelsy's chief inspirer and genial patron, the chief 
stimulus to poetry and song vanished, and the gay 
reign of love and the troubadours was past forever. 
Thirteen pictures copied from old tapestries or 
mural decorations, and several old musical scores, 
furnish quaint illustrations of the text. 

<n Italy. 

Mr. Francis Walker's <* Letters of a 
Baritone" (Scribner) are the record 
of a young man's experiences while 
in Italy for purposes of voice-culture. Writing to his 
sister, he adopts a familiar and discursive style, in 
which personal adventures and practical affairs are 
mingled with discourse on nature, art, criticism, and 
as much information of a technical sort relating to 
his own studies as it is possible to communicate with- 
out illustrations viva voce. The book is not with- 
out interest to the general reader, but its special 
value is for the student of vocal art. Here he will 
learn the reasons why he should go to Italy, rather 
than to any other country, for instruction ; why he 
should not delay too long ; what are the effects of 
bad teaching ; who should and who should not study 
to become professional singers ; and how to achieve 
most comfort with least expense while dwelling 

In " The Great War with Russia " 
^l^^rr^" (Routledge), by Mr. W. H. Russell, 

we have that veteran's story of his 
pioneer work as war-correspondent, and of his per- 
sonal experiences in that long series of blunders and 
horrors, lighted up with some brilliant deeds, which 
we call the Crimean War. The world is no longer 

interested in that war and its controversies as to 
who was most responsible for the misfortunes of the 
British army. The chief interest of the book lies in 
the humble beginnings there shown of the expansion 
of the field of the modem newspaper. Mr. Rus- 
sell was without military protection or standing, and 
only explicit orders from the government enabled 
him to secure bare tolerance. It was with good 
reason that the officers of the old school did all they 
could to drive him from the army, for his plain 
account of what he saw from day to day showed 
such mismanagement and official folly that a great 
cry of wrath went up from all England, and re- 
forms were instituted that put an end forever to the 
whole system. This was an honorable achievement, 
and the story of it is well told. 


The new English translation of Hen* Bjomson's 
** Ame " (Macmillan), while not altogether satisfactoiy, 
appears to be an improvement upon the hitherto exist- 
ing versions. The work was done by Mr. Walter Low, 
who died shortly after its completion, and whose career 
forms the subject of Mr. Gosse's sympathetic prefatory 
pages. <' The Fisher Maiden,'* also translated by Mr. 
Low, will be the next volume to appear in this edition. 

A handsome library edition of Mr. Hardy's ''Far 
from the Madding Crowd " comes to us from Messrs. 
Harper & Brothers. There is an etched frontispiece 
and a sketch-map of ** The Wessex of the Novels." Qf 
much interest is the prefatory note in which Mr. Hardy 
tells how he came to naturalize the term ** Wessex " in 
modem English for purposes of descriptive topography. 
The term, somewhat to the author's surprise, has since 
found general favor, and he now feels impelled to beg 
of his readers that they *< refuse steadfastly to believe 
that there are any inhabitants of a Victorian Wessex 
outside the pages of this and the companion volumes in 
which they were first discovered." 

« The White Tsar and Other Poems " (Tait) is the 
title of a volume by Mr. Hen^y Bedlow. The other 
poems are two in number — "Dies Caniculares,"a series 
of contemplative stanzas, and « Bedaweeyeh," an Ori- 
ental tale. As for the ** White Tsar," he is none other 
than the polar bear. Ordinarily these three sets of verses 
would hardly fill the thinnest of volumes, but by giving 
a full page to each eight-line stanza, by setting opposite 
each a full-page illustration, and by leaving the alter- 
nate pages blank, the work is made to assume imposing 
dimensions. The poetical quality of Mr. Bedlow 's verse 
is not conspicuous, and there are stanzas which it would 
be cruel to quote. The illustrations, which display some 
imaginative power, are the work of Mr. J. Steeple Davis. 

Mr. Miner W. Bruce is the author of a book on 
« Alaska, Its History and Resources, Gold Fields, 
Routes, and Scenery," published at Seattle by the Low- 
man & Hanford Co. Mr. Bruce's treatment of the sub- 
ject is based upon extensive personal acquaintance with 
the country, and is strictly up to date. His journalistic 
training has enabled him to make a readable book, and 
both settlers and tourists will be likely to find it help- 
ful. Many photographs and a map are provided by 
way of illustration. 





Where are the poets of the past 

Whose yoioes rang divinely true ? — 

Whose thoughts munificent and vast 

From Btar» and suns their music drew ? — 
To whom the gods a welcome blew. 

And lamps from far Parnassus shone ? . . . 
None dare the heights to which they flew, 

Since Alfred Tennyson is gone. 

The freshening gale strained spar and mast, 

The billows great and greater grew; 
The vessel forward sped and fast, 

Nor port nor anchorage she knew; 

Naught recked they of the circling view, — 
Their only end was to sweep on. . . . 

Vanished are captain, ship, and crew. 
Since Alfred Tennyson is gone. 

Now lesser men their fortunes cast 

In lesser seas, and zephyrs woo; 
Their lutes are thin, they cannot last, — 

We listen but to say adieu. 

The artificial gems they strew 
Of specious glitter fade anon. . . . 

Is there no granite left to hew. 
Since Alfred Tennyson is gone ? 


Fled are the mighty bards and few; 

The ways of song are barren, wan. . . . 
Fled is the perfect manner, too. 

Since Alfred Tennyson is gone. 


IjIteraby Notes, 

Dr. W. L. Phelps is editing a volume of Chapman 
for the << Mermaid series." 

A civil list pension of £100 a year has been bestowed 
upon the widow of Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 

Mr. Bradlee Whidden, of Boston, issues a priced cat- 
alogue of works upon natural history, so neat and well- 
arranged as to be worth filing for reference. 

The Chautauqua circles are to devote the coming 
year to an « American " course of reading, and special 
text-books on American history and literature are in 
course of preparation. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. announce <<The Modem 
Reader's Bible," a series of books from the Scriptures 
presented in modem literary form. Four books of 
" Wisdom Literature " will be the first issued. 

Dr. Ibsen is to have a monument erected in his honor 
during his lifetime. It is to be by a well-known sculp- 
tor, Herr Stephan Sinding, and will stand in front of 
the Royal Theatre at Christiania. 

Two fellowships, of six hundred dollars each, in the 
American School at Athens, are offered for the year 
1896>^. Professor J. W. White of Harvard wiU fur- 
nish application blanks to those desirous of submitting 
their names. 

The fourth perf ormanoe in Paris of Wagner*s « Tann- 
h&user " was given this year. M. Van Dyck sang the 
title-role, and it is a curious coincidence that he was 
bom on the very day of the third performance, in 1861, 

when the opera was hissed off the Parisian stage, not 
to be produced again until an entire generation should 
have elapsed. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. are preparing a series 
of " English Classics," edited by competent men, and 
having particular reference to the existing entrance re- 
quirements of the colleges. Professor G. R. Carpenter 
is the general editor of the series. 

Mr. Frederick Locker-Lampson, author of ** London 
Lyrics," and one of the most graceful writers of society 
verse, died on the 28th of May, at the age of seventy- 
four. He was perhaps even better known as a collector 
of books, drawings, and autographs than as a poet. 

"Friedrich Eduard Beneke: The Man and His Phil- 
osophy " is the title of a monograph by Dr. Francis 
Burke Brandt, published by Messrs. Macmillan & Co., 
under the auspices of Columbia College, as the fourth 
volume of its series of ** Contributions to Philosophy, 
Psychology, and Education." The main thesis of the 
work is that Beneke, rather than Fichte or Hegel, was 
the true continuator of the Kantian philosophy, and that 
in his work we have "the profoundest metaphysical 
insight of our century." 

Plrovost Charles C. Harrison of the University of 
Pennsylvania has made to that institution a gift of half 
a million dollars, to constitute a Foundation in memory 
of his father, thus following the noteworthy example of 
President Low of Columbia. The following suggestions 
as to the use of the resulting income were made by the 
donor: 1. The establishment of scholarships and fel- 
lowships. 2. An increase of the University Library. 
3. The temporary relief of professors from their reg- 
ular work, permitting them to engage in research. 4. 
The engagement of non-residents to lecture for a term 
at the University. 

Messrs. Funk & Wagnalls announce it as their inten- 
tion to introduce into all of their publications a lengthy 
series of " reform spellings " (such as beutif ul, glimps, 
oger, skul, and yem), ** provided a reasonable number 
of other periodicals, and writers, and business men will 
adopt the same so as to help break the force of the 
criticism that may oppose." It is hardly necessary for 
The Dial to say that it must decline the invitation to 
participate in any such phonetic vandalism, and that it 
will continue, as heretofore, to stand for good spelling 
no less than for good literature, opposing all attempts 
to vulgarize either the one or the other. 

The following verses, by Miss Mathilde Blind, are 
taken from an English paper, and were inspired by 
reading the « Rubaiyat " in a Kentish rose-garden: 

** Beside a Dial in the leafy close, 
Where every bush was burning with the Rose, 
With million roses falling flake by flake 
Upon the lawn in fading summer snows : 

** I read the Persian Poet's rhyme of old, 
Each thought a ruby in a ring of gold — 
Old thonghts so young, that, after all these years, 
They 're writ on every rose-leaf yet unrolled. 

**" Yon may not know the seoret tongue aright 
The Sunbeams on their rosy tablets write ; 
Only a poet may perohanoe translate 
Those ruby-tinted hieroglyphs of light." 

We are glad to note that the poet had a Dial by her 

Sir Walter Besant, in " The Author," thus discourses 
upon his new dignity : " I think that I may very prop- 
erly make this the place for a brief note concerning the 



[July 1. 

distinctioD lately conferred upon me. It is, in fact, a 
national recognition of this Society and of its work in ad- 
vancing the dignity and the independence of literature. 
The Earl of Rosebery in his letter to me expressly 
pointed ont that this distinction was offered in recog- 
nition of services which, he kindly says, have been ren- 
dered by me to the dignity of literature. These hum- 
ble services could only be effective through such an 
organization as our own. It is, therefore, the Society 
itself which has, for the first time, received recogni- 
tion." We shall, however, continue to think that Sir 
Walter's deserts are not wholly conditioned upon his 
management of the Society of Authors. 


As the result of a circular letter which has been dis- 
cussed for several months, representatives of nine col- 
leges in the Mississippi Valley met in Chicago, June 21, 
to organize a conference of the teachers of modem lan- 
guages in the district which the railroads call Central. 
The proposal for such an organization seemed to come 
spontaneously from many sources at once, and as a 
natural result of the comparative isolation to which 
college men of the Middle West have been condemned. 
The conditions are in most respects the same as those 
which led to the recent conference of teachers of clas- 
sical lang^ges in Ann Arbor, to the conference of En- 
glish teachers, and the association of teachers of his- 
tory and sociology, both formed last year. The need 
of personal contact with colleagues has been deeply felt. 
At the same time, the danger of detracting from the 
none too strong forces of the American Philological So- 
ciety and the Modem Language Association of America 
was duly weighed. All of those engaged in the prelim- 
inary steps toward the new society are members of one 
or both of the old bodies, and expect to continue such. 
But it is believed that a society meeting at various 
points in the Middle West can enlist a great number 
of teachers who would not or who could not join the 
societies which meet so seldom within reach, and yet 
work together harmoniously with the older societies. 
In the matter of publication, it is hoped that the new 
society can support the older ones. 

In the course of a full discussion, lasting through 
two sessions, it was agreed to call the new society The 
Central Modem Language Conference; a constitution 
was adopted, subject to revision by the members pres- 
ent at the first regular meeting; the first regular meet- 
ing, with programme, is to be held in Chicago, during 
the Christmas recess, but not in the same week with the 
Modem Language Association; the membership fee was 
fixed at two dollars, and all persons interested in ** the 
scientific study and teaching of English, French, Ger- 
man, or other living European languages " are invited 
to apply for membership through the Secretary. 

Provisional officers were chosen as follows: President, 
Professor W. H. Carruth, University of Kansas; Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, Professor H. Schmidt-Warten- 
berg, University of Chicago; Committee on Prog^mme: 
Professors Earsten, Indiana State University, Edgren, 
University of Nebraska, Cutting, University of Chicago, 
and fiaskervill, Yanderbilt University. 

It is understood that the territory of the new society 
extends from the Alleghanies to the Rockies, and from 
the lakes to the gulf. There is also a general feeling 
that the regular annual meetings should be held in the 
summer, or at least at some other time than the Christ- 
mas holidays. 

Books for Summer Reading. 


[FuUer descriptions qf these books may be found in the adver- 
tising columns ef this number or recent numbers qf The Dial,] 


The Adventures of Captain Horn. By Frank R. Stockton. 

Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
With the Procession. By Henry B. Fuller. Harper & Broe. 

An Errant Wocnng. By BCrs. Burton Harrison. The Cen- 
tury Co. $1.50. 
The Stoi^ of Beade Costrell. By Mrs. Humphry Ward. 

Maomillan A Co. 75 ots. 
In the Fire of the Forge. By Qeorge Ebers. D. Appleton 

4&Co. $1.50. 
Celibates. By George Moore. Macmillan A Co. $1.50. 
Blaster and Man. By Count Leo Tolstoy. D. Appleton A 

Co. 75 ots. 
Hie Impregnable City. By Max Pemberton. Dodd, Mead 

<&Co. $1.25. 
Heart of the World. By H. Rider Haggard. Longmans, 

Ghreen, A Co. $1.25. 
The Story of Christine Rochefort. By Helen Choato Prince. 

Houghton, Mifflin A Co. $1.25. 
Beside the Bonny Brier Bnirii. By Ian Maolaren. Dodd, 

Mead <& Co. $1.25. 
Bfr. Witt's Widow. By Anthony Hope. Lovell, Coryell A 

Co. $1.; paper, 50 ots. 
The Master. Byl. Zaagwill. Harper <& Bios. $1.75. 
Children of the Soil. By HenrykSienkiewicz. Little, Brown, 

A Co, $2. 
The Prinoess Aline. By Riohard Harding DaTis. Harper 

A Bros. $1.25. 
Terminations. By Henry James. Harper A Bros. $1.25. 
Beyond the Dreams of Ararioe. By Walter Besant. Har- 
per A Bros. $1.50. 
When All the Woods Are Green. By S. Weir Mitohell. The 

Century Co. $1.50. 
Keynotes. By George Egerton. Roberts Bros. $1. 
The Head of a Hundred. Edited by Maud W. Goodwin. 

Little, Brown, <& Co. $1.25. 
Hie Judgment Books. By E. F. Benson. Harper A Bros. $1. 
The Plated City. By Bliss Perry. Chas. Soribner*8 Sons. 

The Martyred Fool. By Dayid C. Murray. Harper A Bros. 

Chimmie Fadden Eizplains, Major Max Expounds. By E. W. 

Townsend. Lorell, Coryell A Co. $1. 
The Mastei^Enot and '' Another Story." By Conorer Duff. 

Henry Holt A Co. 75 ote. 
Melting Snows. Translated by Margaret Symonds. Dodd, 

Mead <& Co. $1.15. 
Daughters of the Revolution. By C. C. Co£Bji. Houghton, 

Mi£ain<&Co. $1.50. 
Love and Quiet life. By Walter Raymond. Dodd, Mead 

4&Co. $1.25. 

An Old Man*8 Romanoe. By Christopher Craigie. Copeland 
4&Day. $1.25. 

The Last Sentenoe. By Maxwell Ghray. Lovell, Coryell A 
Co. $1.50. 

Princeton Stories. By Jesse Lynch Williams. Chas. Scrib- 

ner's Sons. $1. 
The Curse of Intellect. Roberto Bros. $1. 
Doctor Gray's Quest. By F. H. Underwood. Lee A Shep- 

ard. $1.75. 

The Cuckoo in the Nest. By Mrs. Oliphant. Lorell, Coryell 
. A Co. $1 ; paper, 50 cte. 

The O'Connors of BaUinahinoh. By *' The Duchess." Lot- 
ell, Coryell A Co. $1.; paper, 50 ots. 

The Countess Bettina. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.; paper, 

Fremont Junior and Risler Senior. By A. Daudet. J. B. 

Lippincott Co. $2. 

The Three Graces. By *'The Duchess." J. B. Lippinoott 
Co. $1.25. 

Yale Yams. By John Seymour Wood. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1. 

Kitty Alone. By S. Baring-Gould. Dodd, Mead <& Co. $1.25. 




A Trace, and Other Stories. By Mary T. Wright. Chaa. 

Seribner's Sons. $1. 
A Madonna of the Alps. From the German, by N. H. Dole. 

little. Brown, A Co. $1.25. 
The Prinoe of Balkiatan. By Allen Upward. J. B. lippin- 

eott Co. $1.; paper, 50 eta. 
The Wish. By Hermann Sndermann. D. Appleton A Co. 

$1.; paper, 50 ota. 
Far from the Madding Crowd. By Thomas Hardy. New 

edition. Harper A Bros. $1.50. 

Under the Man-Fig. By M. £. M. Davis. Honghton, Bfiiflin 
<&Co. $1.25. 

A Sonlless Singer. By Mary C. Lee. Honghton, Mifflin & 

Co. $1.25. 
Tenement Tales of New York. By J. W. Snlliran. Heniy 

Holt A Co. 75 cts. 
Neiriibor Jackwood. By J. T. Trowbridge. New edition. 

Lee A Shepcod. $1.50. 
A Lost Endearor. By Gny Boothby. Maomillan A Co. 

Cluldren of the Ghetto. By I. Zangwill. New edition. Mao- 
millan A Co. $1.50. 
Forward Honse. By WilHam Scoyille Case. Chaa. Soribner's 

Sons. $1. 
Almayer's Folly. By Joseph Conrad. Maomillan ^ Co. $1.25. 
A Street in Suborbia. By Edwin Pngh. D. Appleton A Co. 

$1.; paper, 50 ots. 
Oriole's Daughter. By Jesse FothergilL Lorell, Coryell A 

Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 
Doreen. By Edna Lyall. Longmans, Green, A Co. $1.50. 
Tlie Jewel of Tnys Galon. By Owen Rhosoomyl. Long^ 

mans. Green, A Co. $1.25. 

An Eraeriment in Altmism. By Elizabeth Hastings. Mae- 

millan A Co. 75 cts. 
Colonel Norton. By Florence Montgomery. Longmans, 

Green, A Co. $1.50. 
Into the Highways and Hedges. By F. F. Montrter. D. 

Appleton A Co. $1.; paper, 50 ots. 

'Lisbeth Wilson. By Eliza Nelson Blair. Lee A Shepard. 

The Matchmaker. By Birs. L. B. Walford. Longmans, 
Green, A Co. $1.50. 

At the First Comer. By H. B. Marriott Watson. Roberts 
Bros. $1. 

The New Rector. By Stanley J. Weyman. Lovell, Coryell 

A Co. $1.; paper, 50 ots. 
Foam of the Sea. By Gertmde Hall. Roberto Bros. $1. 
Tryphena in Love. By Walter Raymond. Macmillan A Co. 


The Vengeance of James Vansittart. By Mrs. J. H. Needell. 

D. Appleton A Co. $1.; T>aper, 50 cto. 
Dearest. By Mrs. Forrester. Lorell, Coryell A Co. $1.; 

paper, 50 cto. 
Quiet Stories from an Old Woman's Garden. By Allison 

M'Lean. F. Wame db Co. $1.25. 
MyLadyRotha. By Stanley J. Weyman. Longmans, Ghreen, 

&Co. $1.25. 
Under the Red Robe. By Stanley J. Weyman. Longmans, 

Green, A Co. $1.25. 
A Deal with the Devil. By Eden Phillpotto. F. Wame A 

Co. $1. 

Women's Tragedies. By H. D. Lowry. Roberto Bros. $1. 
Dr. Izard. By Anna Katharine Gheen. G. P. Patnam's 

Sons. $1.; paper, 50 cento. 
A Study in Prejndices. By George Paston. D. Appleton A 

Co. $1.; paper, 50 cto. 
Monoohromee. By EUa D'Aroy. Roberto Bros. $1. 
Ghray Roses. By Henry Harland. Roberto Bros. $1. 
The Zeit-Geist. By L. Dongall. D. Appleton A Co. 75 cto. 
Maureen's Fairing. By Jane Barlow. Macmillan A Co. 75 cto. 
Hie Shadow of a Crime. By Hall Caine. New edition. Joo- 

eph Knight Co. $1.50. 
Hie Commodore's Daughter. By Jonas Lie. Lorell, Coryell 

A Co. $1.; paper, 50 cto. 
The Naulahka. By Rudyaid Kipling and Woloott Balestier. 

Bibcmillan A Oa, 50 cto. 
Sport Royal. By Anthony Hope. Henry Holt A Co. 75 cto. 
A Change of Air. By Anthony Hope. Henry Holt A Co. 

75 cto. 
Winterborough. By Eliza Ome White. Honghton, Biifflin 
<feCo. 50 cto. 

The Time Machine. By H. G. Wells. Henry Holt A Co. 

75 cto. 
A Bumo^Fonee Head. By Clara S. Rollins. Lorell, Coryell 

A Co. $1.; paper, 50 cto. 
A Man of Mark. By Anthony Hope. Henry Holt A Co. 75 cto. 
A Gender in Satin. By'* Rita." G. P. Putnam's Sons. 60 cto. 
John Ford and His Helpmate. By Frank Barrett. Lorell, 

Coryell A Co. $1.; paper, 50 cto. 


Peoples and Politics of the Far East. By Henry Norman. 

Chas. Soribner's Sons. $4. 
Hie Real Chinaman. By Chester Holcombe. Dodd, Mead 

A Co. $2. 
My Early Trarels and Adrentures. By Henry M. Stanley. 

Chas. Soribner's Sons. $3. 
With the Zhob Field Forae. By Capt. Crawford McFall. 

Maomillan & Co. $4.50. 
Handbook of English Cathedrals. By Mrs. Van Rensselaer. 

The Century Co. $2.50. 

Our Western Archipelago. By Henry M. Field. Chas. Sorib- 
ner's Sons. $2. 

OfftheBiill. By G. F. Browne. Maomillan <& Co. $2. 

Outre-Mer: Impressions of America. By Paul Bourget. 
Chas. Soribner's Sons. $1.75. 

Tenting on the Plains. By Elizabeth B. Custer. New edi- 
tion. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 

Churches and Castles of Medinral France. By Walter C. 
Lamed. Chas. Soribner's Sons. $1.50. 

The Mountains of California. By John Muir. The Century 
Co. $1.50. 

In the Land of Loma Doone. By William H. Rideing. T. 
Y. Crowell ^k Co. $1. 

Water Tramps; or. The Cruise of the Sea Bird. By George 
H. Bartlett. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 

Shakespeare's England. By William Winter. Macmillan A 
Co. 25 cto. 

American Guide Books to New England, the White Moun- 
tains, and the Maritine Prorinces. Houghton, Mifflin A 
Co. Each, $1.50. 

Appletons' General Guide to the United Stetes. D. Appleton 
^kCo. $2.50. 

Appletons' Handbook of American Summer Reeorto. D. 
Appleton A Co. 50 cto. 


Wild Flowers of the North-Eastem Stotes. By Ellen Miller 
and Margaret C. Whiting. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $4.60. 

Birdcraft. By Mabel Osgood Wright. MaomiUan dk Co. $3. 

Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America. By Frank 
M. Chapman. D. Appleton «& Co. $3. 

Sport; or. Fishing and Shooting. By A. C. Gould. Bradlee 
Whidden. $30. 

The Natural History of Planto. By A. K. ron Marilaun. 

Vol. I. Henry Holt <ft Co. $7.50. 
Wild Flowers of America. By Prof. George L. Goodale. 

Bradlee Whidden. $7.50. 

Wayside and Woodland Blossoms. By Edward Stop. F. 
Wame A Co. $2.50. 

Days of My Life on Wators F^resh and Salt. By John Bick- 
erdyke. Longmans, Green, A Co. $1.75. 

Guide Books in Natural History. By Edward Knobel. Com- 
prising : Trees and Shrubs ; Ferns and Erergreens ; Day 
Buttorflies and Duskflyers ; Beetles. Bradlee Whidden. 
Each, 50 cto. 

Familiar Flowers of Field and Garden. By F. Schuyler 
Mathews. D. Appleton A Co. $1.75. 

Bird Notes. By Jane M. Hayward. Longmans, Green, A 
Co. $1.75. 

life on the Seashore. By J. H. Emerton. Bradlee Whidden. 

Ten New England Blossoms and Hieir Insect VisitorB. By 

Clarence M. Weed. Houghton, Mifflin A Co. $1.25. 
Cycling for Health and Pleasure. By Luther H. Portor. 

Dodd, Mead <& Co. $1. 
Golf in America. By James P. Lee. Dodd, Mead A Co. $1. 
The Royal Natural History. Edited by Prof . Lydekker. F. 

Wame A Co. 50 cto. per part. 

Pocket Guide to the Common Land Birds of New England. 
By M. A. \^niloox. Lee A Shepard. 60 ots. 

The Friendship of Nature. By Mabel Osgood Wright. Mao- 
millan <& Co. 25 ots. 



[July 1. 

Topics in IjEAoing Pebiodicals. 

July, 1895 {First List), 

Alexander, Fnneesoa. M. H. Spielmaan. Magazine qf Art, 
American Art, Imaginative Types in. R. CortiaBoz. Harper, 
Americans in Paris. Richard Harding Davis. Harper, 
Aria, Railroads in. Charles Morris. Lippincott. 
Athletic Clnhs, Life at the. Duncan Edwards. Scribner, 
Bear-chasing in the Rockies. Frederic Remington. Harper. 
Birds, Some Books on. Sara A. Huhbard. DitU, 
Books in Paper CoTers. Brander Matthews. Century, 
Biyantand the Berkshire Hills. Arthur Lawrence. Century, 
California's Spanish American Families. Overland. 
Charity at Home. Owen Wister. Harper, 
China, The Garden of. Julian Ralph. Harper, 
Coeur d'Al^ne Bfining Riots of 1894, The. Overland, 
Congressman, Recollections of a. Qeorge W. Julian. Died, 
Defoe, New Presentments of. J. R. Smith. Dial, 
Extravagance, Our National. Frances C. Baylor. Lippincott. 
Fiction, Fact in. Frederic M. Bird. Lippincott. 
Fiction, Recent. William Morton Payne. Died, 
Fre»-Will and Responsibility. D. G. Ritchie. Jour, qf Ethics. 
Eemys, Edward. Hamlin Garland. McClure. 
Labor Troubles. J. H. Hyslop. Journal qf Ethics. 
Mars, The Canals of. Peroival Lowell. Adantic. 
Morality, Automatism in. J. G. EBbben. Jour, qf Ethics. 
Novel, The Historical. W. H. Carruth. Dial. 
Paris, The Great Market of. A. F. Sanborn. Lippincott, 
Pennsylvania, University of. F. N. Thorpe. Harper, 
Planets, Picturing the. James E. Eeeler. Century, 
Poster-Designing in England. M. H. Spielmann. Scribner. 
Religion, Evolution of. Bernard Bosanquet. Jour, qf Ethics, 
Reynolds, A Rival of. Austin Dobson. Magazine of Art. 
Rural Festivals, American. Mrs. Burton Harrison. Century, 
Santa Barbara Flower Festival. R. Wildman. Overland. 
Sea Kings, The Elizabethan. John fiske. Atlantic. 
St. Fin Barre, The Cathedral of. Magazine qf Art, 
Summer Reading. Dial, 

Telegraph and Cable Systems of the World. McClure, 
Transportation Departoient, A National. Atlantic. 
Tweed " Ring," Story of the. McClure. 
War, The Future of. Fitzhugfa Lee. Century. 
Womanhood, Hie New. H. H. Boyesen. Lippincott, 

liisT OF New Books. 

[T%e following list, containing 79 tides, includes books re- 
ceived by Thb Dial since its last issue.] 


A History of Biifirllsh Poetry. By W. J. CourthopB^ M.A. 
Vol. I. Hie Bliddle Ages ; 8vo, uncut, pp. 474. Maomil- 
lan & Co. $2.00. 

Studies of Men. By Qeorge W. Smalley, author of ** Lon- 
don Letters, and Some Others.'' 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 994. Harper A Bros. $2.50. 

My Literary PaseionB. By W. D. Howells. author of " The 
Coast of Bohemia." 12mo, pp. 261. Harper & Bros. 

Myths of Northern Lands Narrated with Special Refei^ 
ence to Literature and Art. By H. A. Gnerber, author 
of '* Myths of Greece and Rome." Dins., 12mo, pp. 319. 
American Book Co. $1.50. 

One Thousand and One Anecdotes. Arranged and ed- 
ited by Alfred H. Miles, author of "The I^ew Stand- 
ard Elocutionist." 12mo, pp. 388. Thomas Whittaker. 

Duoloffues and Scenes fttsm Jane Austen's Novels. 
Arranged and adapted for drawi^room performance by 
Rosina Bllippi. Illus., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 139. 
Maomillan ft Co. $1. 

Four Years of Novel Readlngr : An Account of an Experi- 
ment in Popularizing the Study of Fiction. Edited br 
Richard O. Moulton, M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 100. D. C. 
Heath & Co. 50 ets. 


86nya Koval^vsky: Her Recollections of ChUdhood. 
Trans, by Isabel F. Hapgood ; with a biography by Anna 
Carlotta Leffler, Duchess of Cajanello. With portrait, 
Syo, pp. 318. The Century Co. $1.75. 

Abraham Unooln: Tributes and Reminiscences from His 
Associates. With Litroduetion by the Rev. William 
Hayes Ward, D.D. With portrait, 12mo, gUt top, pp. 
295. T. Y. Crowell <ft Co. $1.25. 

OUver CromwelL By Qeoige H. Clark, D.D.; with Intro- 
duction by Charles Dudley Warner. Illus., 12mo, pp. 263. 
Harper A Bros. $1.25. 

lite of Her Msdeety, Queen Victoria. By Millioent Gar- 
rett Fawcett. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 266. Roberts 
Bros. $1.25. 

The Rise of WeUinffton. By General Lord Roberts, V.G. 
nius., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 198. Roberts Bros. $1.25. 

Friedrich Edward Beneke, The Bfan and His Philosophy. 
By Francis Burke Brandt, Ph.D. 8to, uncut, pp. 167. 
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, 35 

THE OPIUM DREAMER (Poem). Clifford Lanier . 37 

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(Poem). Martha Foote Craw 53 





Professor Huxley died on the twenty-ninth 
of June, not without warning, and having to 
his account the exact scriptural tale of a man's 
years. A worker and a %hter all his life, the 
pen was in his hand when overtaken by the ill- 
ness that was to prove fatal in the end, and he 
was replying, with unabated vigor of ezpras. 
sion and force of logic, to the latest attack made 
by mysticism upon that stronghold of reasoned 
and ordered knowledge which we call science, 
and of which he had for nearly half a century 
been one of the doughtiest of defenders. 

In the popular consciousness, indeed, Hux- 
ley ranked among the leading representatives 
of English science, probably as the foremost 
among them after the death of his old-time col- 
league, John TyndaU. It may be worth while 
to consider for a moment what this estimate 
means. There is practically no such thing, in 
the present age of the world, as the represent- 
ation of science by any one man. Aristotle 
was perhaps the only man for whom, in any age, 
that distinction may be claimed. Nowadays, 
a man can represent science only by represent- 
ing biology, or physics, or geology, or something 
even narrower than these. Huxley represented 
English science in the sense that he gave a 
large part of his life to the subject of compar- 
ative anatomy, and made some fairly important 
contributions to our knowledge of that subject. 
But his work was not comparable to that, in 
their respective subjects, of such men as Far- 
aday, or Lyell, or Maxwell, to say noihing of 
Darwin. It was good work, without doubt, 
but it was equalled by a score of Englishmen 
of his own generation, and surpassed by a re- 
spectable number. 

But the average person, when he thinks of 
Huxley as a scientific leader, recks little of his 
comparative anatomy, and has probably never 
heard of the great work on '* Oceanic Hydro- 
zoa," the manuals of vertebrate and inverte- 
brate anatomy, or even the monograph on 
''The Cray-Fish." It is a very different sort 
of work that has given Huxley his immense 
reputation, the work which, for the most part, 
may be found in the nine volumes of his ** Col- 
lected Essays," and which is, of its kind, almost 
unparallelled in our literatnre. These vohimes, 



[July 16, 

it is true, have a great deal to ^ay about soienoe 
— ^biological science in particular-r-but they an* 
nounce no original investigations worth speak- 
ing of, and they are not contributions to scien- 
tific knowledge in any strict sense. Some will 
dismiss them with a sneer, as mere populariza- 
tions, as a sort of juggling with other men's 
ideas. This contemptuous procedure, it need 
hardly be said, gets no sympathy from us, and 
is as distinctly wrongheaded as the attempt, 
already discussed, to classify such books as 
'( Man's Place in Nature " and '' The Physical 
Basis of Life" among important scientific 

Wherein, then, lies the value of these nine 
volumes of essays, if it is inadequate to consider 
them as mere popularizations, however skilful, 
and quite wrong to call them contributions to 
science ? We should say that the first and most 
important claim to be made for them is that 
they reveal a strong philosophical thinker ; that 
beneath their graceful rhetoric and acute dia- 
lectic there is a Method of fundamental import- 
ance, clearly conceived, and rigorously applied 
to the special subject, whatever it may be, un- 
der consideration. What that method is may 
be seen plainly enough in any one among half 
a dozen of the more formal discussions ; most 
plainly, perhaps, in the noble essay, dated 1870, 
upon the *^ Disoours de la M^thode " of Des- 
cartes. Indeed, the author recognized the prin- 
ciple above stated as constituting the unifying 
element in his seemingly so diversified work 
when he gave to the initial volume of the re- 
vised edition of the ^' Essays " the significant 
title '' Method and Results." And this title 
might have been made to cover the whole collec- 
tion, for we find, whether the subject of an essay 
be ^^ Man's Place in Nature " or ^^ Evolution 
and Ethics," the story of the Gadarene swine 
or the organization of the State, that the dis- 
cussion always proceeds upon well-defined lines, 
and with close reference to a controlling or- 
ganon. It was no vagary, as some of his read- 
ers thought, when he turned from his anatom- 
ical studies to write for the ^' English Men of 
Letters " a philosophical analysis of the work 
of Hume ; it was rather an indication of the 
real bent of his mind, which always looked be- 
yond the half-unified knowledge of science to 
the fully-unified knowledge that we call phil- 

The healthy English mind is not distin- 
guished by an aptitude for metaphysics, and 
Huxley's mind was distinctly of the healthy 
English type. He was content with a method. 

when a Frenchman or a German would have 
been satisfied with nothing short of a system. 
Hence, he was willing to leave many of the 
questions of philosophy unanswered, content to 
carry his method as far as it would go, and to 
admit ignorance of the regions beyond. He 
even coined a word with which to name this 
philosophical attitude, and the immediate adop- 
tion and currency of that word showed that it 
met a long-felt want. Since it came into our 
oirooktion, agnostioUm, like many other words, 
has been used as a counter by wise men and as 
a full-weight coin by fools, but it has justified 
itself, on the whole, as a useful addition to our 
philosophical terminology. 

The lectures and writings of our arch-agnostic 
have, during the past forty years, aroused a 
good many religious antagonisms ; some of these 
have become allayed by time, and some are still 
active. It took a bold Englishman in the six- 
ties to champion the Darwinian doctrine of de- 
scent and to combat the grotesque Miltonic 
theory of creation ; but Huxley was never lack- 
ing in courage, and he bore without fiinching 
the brunt of theological attack and vilification. 
The world — that is, all the world worth con- 
sidering — came round to his side sooner than 
could have been anticipated by a student of 
the history of new and fruitful ideas — of their 
long hard struggle with ignorance, and blind- 
ness, and all the banded legions of the old or- 
der of thought — and the last score of years 
left to the stout-hearted philosopher were serene 
with the satisfaction of complete achievement 
in at least one important field of his endeavor. 
But the theory of creation was not the only 
stronghold occupied by the popular theology of 
his fellow-countrymen, and, when that was bat- 
tered down, there were others to be attacked. 
All these assaults were not, of course, directed 
against religion at all, any more than were the 
Yoltairean assaults of a century previous, and 
the iiifame that Huxley sought to crush in the 
world of thought was as little deserving of con- 
sideration as was the engine of political and so- 
cial despotism which Voltaire's memorable and 
magnificent crusade did so much to demolish. 
We should say that Huxley, far from being an 
enemy of religion, was one of the best friends 
it has ever found, and we have no doubt that, 
from the more enlightened twentieth-century 
religious point of view, he will be remembered 
as such. 

For our part, the aspect of Huxley's life and 
work that compels the deepest gratitude is the 
absolute honesty by which that life and that 




work were characterized throaghout. One doee 
not need to accept all of his conclusions to ad- 
mire the intellectual process by which they 
were reached. His logic may now and then 
have been at fault, but it scorned every species 
of sophistical subterfuge. To get at tike truth, 
not merely to make a better-sounding argument 
than his opponent, was always his aim. He 
hated shams as Carlyle hated them, but, instead 
of inveighing at them with stormy prophecy 
Cl am not equal to the prophetical busi- 
ness "), he employed the better weapon of com- 
pactly-wrought argumentation. Very recently, 
taking a retrospective view of his life, he made 
this statement of what had been its aims and 
its guiding principles : 

''Men are aaid to be partial judges of themselves. 
Young men may be, I doubt if old men are. Life seems 
terribly foreshortened as they look back, and the moun- 
tain they set themselves to dimb in youth turns out to 
be a mere spur of immeasurably higher ranges when, 
with failing breath, they reach the top. But If I may 
speak of the objects I have had more or less definitely 
in view since I began the ascent of my hillock, they are 
briefly these : To promote the increase of natural knowl- 
edge, and to forward the application of scientific meth- 
ods of investigation to all the problems of life, to the 
best of my ability, in the conviction, which has grown 
with my growth and strengthened with my strength, 
that there is no alleviation for the sufferings of man- 
kind except veracity of thought and action, and the 
resolute facing of the world as it is, when the garment 
of make-believe by which pious hands have hidden its 
uglier features is stripped off. It is with this intent 
that I have subordinated any reasonable, or unreason- 
able, ambition for scientific fame which I may have 
permitted myself to entertain, to other ends; to the 
popularization of science ; to the development and organ- 
ization of scientific education; to the endless series of 
battles and skirmishes over evolution; and to untiring 
opposition to that ecclesiastical spirit, that clericalism, 
which in England, as everywhere else, and to whatever 
denomination it may belong, is the deadly enemy of 


It is a noble apologia pro vita st^a, and the 
world will not readUy forget what it owes to 
this man's single-hearted devotion to truth. 
His tombstone should bear the inscription, Ver- 
itatem dileoci^ that Kenan asked to be cut upon 
his own, and the measure of his delight in the 
truth should be the measure of posterity's de- 
light in cherishing his memory. 


The drowsy poppy from Earth's sleep hath caught 
Vagaries that wiUi Heavenly visions teem: 
De Quincey! thou distillest from all thought 
The TBij Juice of thought — coherent dreamt 

CuiTORD Lahikr. 

S&e IStHa lSooit8« 

Ebwabd a. Fbeem an.* 

In bringing out ^* The Life and Letters of 
Edward A. Freeman," Dean Stephens has con- 
ferred a lasting obligation upon the student of 
history. It is not only of prime value to be 
able to see the great historian in his workshop 
and to breath the atmosphere of enthusiasm 
that always pervaded that sacred place, but, 
more and most, to come into close contact with 
a spirit singularly pure and noble, whose love 
of truth and violent hatred of sham breathes 
in every written line, — this is high privilege 

The author has had the good sense to re-| 
main silent himself for the most part, and lea 
Mr. Freeman talk through his correspondence, 
— a conversation all the more charming because 
he speaks altogether unconscious of tibe larger 
audience. The author is content, therefore, to 
play the part of gentleman usher, by whose 
kind offices the reader is introduced into that 
charmed circle which the years drew about this 
patriarch of the historical clan. Here Freeman 
held converse with Finlay and Stubbs, Bryce, 
Cox, Dawkins, and Goldwin Smith, Hodgkin, 
Eate Norgate, and the gifted granddaughter of 
Thomas Amold,f whose departure into story- 
writing was always a grave disappointment to 
Freeman. This is the acme of good biography- 
making. . 

Strange to say, however. Green, the John of \ 
this apostolic group, has been omitted. The \ 
Preface prepares us somewhat for this disap- 
pointment ; but the proposal to reserve the cor- 
respondence of Green for a third volume is not 
reassuring. It is because this part of Mr. 
Freeman's correspondence is so important, that 
Mr. Stephens says he has not presented it here. 
It is because it is so important that the reader 
has a right to expect it here. There are many 
minor letters to unimportant persons which 
contain only echoes of things elsewhere said. 
These could have been omitted. The whole 
discussion with Anthony TroUope on fox-hunt- 
ing, and all that is really important in the cor- 
respondence elicited, might have been given in 
a tithe of the space. Thus there is really no 
satisfactory reason why the correspondence with 
Green, — tiie thing which the student of history 

*Ths Lm AHD LxTTKBs ov Edwabd a. FawnfAK, 
D.C.L., LL.D. By W. R. W. Stephens, B.D., Dean of Wtn- 
ohmter. In two ▼olonmi. New York: ICaomillan A Co. 

t Mri. Humphry Ward. 



[July 16, 

would prize most, tbe thing which he has a 
right to expect when he pays his seven dollars 
for these two volnmes, — should be omitted. 

Externally, the Life of Freeman offers little 
for the biographer. A life could hardly be 
more devoid of dramatic interest. Bom in 
1823, at eighteen months left an orphan, 
brought up in a most exemplary way by an im- 
perious old grandmother, given the best educa- 
tion that England could offer, from childhood 
extremely sensitive to the religious and moral 
atmosphere that surrounded him, he passed 
safely over the period when most young men 
are supposed to be sowing wild oats, and ar- 
rived at manhood, a severe moralist, a devout 
religionist, and withal, possessed of a disposition 
unusually pure, strong, and wholesome. At 
this time the leaning of Mr. Freeman was 
strongly toward the Church. And yet his sym- 
pathies were with the devotional and ascetic 
side of the ministerial office, rather than its in- 
tellectual, or practical side. His plain and sim- 
ple mind found little satisfaction in the vague 
speculations of systematic theology ; while upon 
the humbler duties of the parish priest, he was 
too much of an aristocrat by nature ever to 
look with much satisfaction. Strange to say, 
however, the final decision against ordination 
turned upon his conviction that celibacy was 
the proper state for the clergy. Writing, Jan- 
\iary 25, 1846, he says : 

" I haye almost entirely given up the idea of ordina- 
tion, as I am getting every day more fully convinced 
of die necessity for the clergy to observe celibacy for 
every reason, both as in itself the holier estate, and 
therefore espeeially ineumbent upon them, and also for 
the avoidance of secularity and sacrilege." (YoL I., 
p. 62.) 

Freeman had already for some time back 
been engaged to a most estimable young lady, 
a Miss Eleanor Ghitch. The question of ordi- 
nation was to be settled for him, and for her 
too. No mawkish sentimentalism clouded his 
purpose for the moment. The idea of sepanu 
tion seems not for a moment to have been 
thought of. If he could not cons«entiously 
take with him into the clerical profession the 
wife-toxbe, he would himself keep out of orders. 
Moreover, at this time other ambitions were 
already stirring in his mind. On March 22, 
writing from Oxford, after stating that his con- 
victions on the question of dericiJ celibacy are 
now so strong that he has finally determined 
to remain a layman, he continues : 

M If I take up any profetssion, it would be architec- 
ture; but I would much rather, if I find myself raffi* 
ciently well off, have none. I have begun a course of 

reading which, if I carry it on, would go a good way 
through a tolerably long life. Besides philosophy, 1 
work chiefly at history, of which I should much like to 
be master. My great amhUion would he to get one of the 
Hittory Profenorehipe here.*' (I., p. 63.) 

The competence to which Mr. Freeman here 
refers was an income of £600, which fell to 
him from his father's estate ; and this was after^ 
ward increased by what he inherited from his 
grandmother, who died in 1848. He was thus 
from the first placed beyond the need of follow- 
ing any profession at all ; and soon after his mar- 
riage with Miss Gtttch, in 1847, he settled in 
a delightful little country-house in the valley of 
the Cam, and not far from the small town of 
Dursley. Here at Oaklands he began, for the 
man with literary tastes, an ideal life, ^' the most 
favorable of all conditions for steady literary 
work and study." In seven years he, or rather 
his library and his family, had outgrown Oak- 
lands. After some searching he found a home 
in southern England, near Cardiff, that suited 
him. Thither he moved in 1855. Of his new 
home, Lanrumney Hall, he thus wrote, in Sep- 
tember, to his old friend the Reverend Henry 
Thompson : 

** This is certainly a jolly place. From our church* 
yard and other elevated points we see all Zummerzet 
coast; and it is said that from some of the mountains 
more inland one can see right across to the English 
Channel. . . . Without deserting my hooks, I have 
turned farmer, and own 

2 Horses 1 Coon 

1 Pony 1 Dog 

4 Pigs 2 Goato 

29 Sheep 4 Cows 

1 Calf Rabbits 
Ducks Cocks and hens. 

2 Cats 

Of these, two pigs and all the sheep and kine and ducks 
have been bought since I came here. We slay and eat 
patriarchally of our own, yet we do not eat so soon after 
death as Abraham did." (I., p. 177.) 

After five years he had again outgrown his 
quarters, and for a third and last time he 
moved, — this time to Somerleaze, a comfortable 
and oommodious house about two miles from 
Wells. Here he was still immured in the quiet 
isolation of English country life, keeping as 
far away from London, which he always abom- 
inated, as it was possible and still remain in 
England. And here he began the real work 
of his life. At Oaklands and at Lanrumney 
he had been by no means idle, but he had been 
as yet content to gather and lay the founda- 
tions for the greater work to come. He had 
produced madi, but mostly in the way of re- 
view and criticism of the work of others. At 
Lanrumney he had devoted himself to the study 




of Greek and Roman history. The series of 
reviews put forth at this time ^^ exhibits a knowl- 
edge of Greek and Roman history marTellous 
in its extent, clearness and firmness of grasp, 
ranging as it does from the earliest ages down 
to his own day." Yet fame had come to him 
slowly. He was one of those luckless bodies 
whose fortune it was always to be just beaten 
by some more fortunate competitor. At the 
university he had tried for prizes and fellow* 
ahips, and had generally succeeded in securing 
an honorable mention. He had tried twice or 
thrice for Parliament ; but he was too honest 
for the politicians, and too impatient in the 
pres^ice of mediocrity or stupidity, ever to se^ 
cure the favor of the common people. 

His ambition some day to return to his be- 
loved Oxford as a professor of history had 
never forsaken him, but neither had his ill-luck. 
In 1861 he had failed to secure the Camden 
Professorship of Ancient History, and in 1862 
he had likewise failed to secure the Chichele 
Professorship of Modem History. In the lat- 
ter case, thirty-five testimonials in his favor had 
been forwarded to the electors. Amongst them 
was one from Thirlwall, the learned Bishop 
of St. David's, who said : 

" I have maoh pleasure in stating that I not only con- 
sider him eminently fitted for the offiee, hat that I 
fihoold not be ahle to name any living scholar who ap- 
pears to me more highly qualified for it." (I., p. 308.) 

These various rebuffs to his ambition were, 
however, not without their beneficial results. 
Freeman had made a reputation as a reviewer. 
He had published a volume on Church Archi- 
tecture, and had also put out Volume I. of his 
*^ Federal Government*'; but his name was not 
as yet, in the public mind, attached to any 
great work on modem history. It was time 
that he concentrated his splendid powers upon 
some one definite period of world history that 
should henceforth be recognized as peculiarly 
his own field. In 1865 he wrote to Dean Hook : 

<< Goldwin Smith will most likely give up his profes- 
sorship next year, and I want to succeed him. It seems 
to be tiiought good that I should put out something more 
directly bearing on what they call Modem History than 
Federal Government, Vol. I. So, as Federal Govern- 
ment, Vol. II., could not be done in time, and as no 
bookseller (at least neither Longmans nor Maomillan) 
J would take a volume of collected essays at his own risk, 
I have actually sat down to make a distinct Hiitory of 
the Norman Conquest, which I can do easier than any- 
body else, as I have worked so much at the subject for 
twenty years past, that is, a great part of the story; 
there will be little more to do than to write down what 
is already in my head." (I., 335.) 

The Norman Conquest was thus by no means 

a new subject. He had long been delving and 
gathering. In 1892 he said of a former un* 
successful effort to win a prize upon this sub- 

** The Norman Conquest was a subject that I had 
been thinking about ever since I could think at all. I 
wrote for the Prize; I had the good luck not to get it. 
Had I got it I might have been tempted to think that 
I knew all about the matter. As it was, I went on and 
learned something about it.** (P. 75.) 

This was, in 1846, one of the several unsuc- 
cessful attempts of Mr. Freeman to secure 
honors during his university career. But dis- 
appointment only stimulated him to deeper and 
more diligent study. Thus in a double sense, 
we are indebted to the disappointments of Mr. 
Freeman for his greatest work, ^^ The Norman 
Conquest." Nor was he destined to succeed 
any better in 1866. When Groldwin Smith 
resigned, the coveted prize again eluded the 
ambitious recluse of Somerleaze and was given 
to his friend William Stubbs. The appoint- 
ment of Stubbs did much to rob Freeman's 
third disappointment of its edge. It was an 
honor to be beaten by such a competitor. In 
the mean time Freeman remained at Som- 
erleaze, quietly working away at the *^ Con- 
quest " and making himself generally useful, 
like the typical country gentleman that he was. 
^ Gaols, lunatics, and meetings about cattle 
plague " claimed a due share of his time. The 
work on the *^ Conquest " also greatly broadened 
his scholarship by bringing him more into 
sympathy with German writers, and greatly 
strengthened that new taste for travel and locid 
research which became so marked in his later 
years. In a letter written from Oaklands, in 
1854, he frankly confesses that he is not a 
German scholar, and in citing a list of author- 
ities upon mediaeval constitutional history he 
has apparently exhausted himself with ** Hal- 
lam, Guizot, Palgrave, Kemble, and the like '' 
(Ibid., p. ITl). In 18TT he could address the 
Ureeks at Corfu in their native tongue; he 
could write and talk Latin like a medisBval 
chorister ; French also was as familiar to him 
as his native English ; but as late as 18T1 he 
complains from Strasburg : 

** The folk at this inn be so Dhtoh that it was only 
with great pains that I eould find out the time of the 
trains for Paris. * You 're in Germany now ' says the 
waiter, in English." (11., p. 20.) 

In December, 1872, we find him patiently 
laboring through Waitz, whom he treats with 
great respect. Possibly this interest in Waiti 
had some connection with a visit to central 
Germany in the preceding summer when he 



[July 16, 

was the honored gueet of Ihne at Heidelberg 
and of Pauli at Grottingen. 

Freeman's method of work at this time was 
first to gather and read all that he could find 
upon the topic in hand, and then to visit the 
region in question and study it on the spot. 
It was at such times that he laid his friends 
under tribute. Green, whose powers of observa- 
tion were far keener than Freeman's, was his 
frequent companion, especially in Normandy. 
A jolly pair they must have been, too, as they 
'*' footed it " about among the Norman hills, — 
«« stalking castles," making the best of the in- 
conveniences of such travel, finding no end of 
amusement and entertainment in the people, 
but always deprecating the ^^ Gal- Welsh jabber 
that must come out of such fine Dutch car- 
cases." What would one not give to have their 
eyes and see what they saw and as they saw ! 
Switzerland, Freeman had already visited. 
Italy and Greece received his attention later. 
His ^^ History of Sicily " led him to study its 
local topography as earnestly and faithfully as 
he had once studied Normandy. 

In 1881 a long-talked-of trip to America was 
undertaken. His ostensible object was to re- 
spond to the joint invitation of the Lowell Insti- 
tute of Boston and the Peabody Institute of 
Baltimore. But Freeman's historical studies 
had long since interested him in the Americans 
as the people who had most realized the prin- 
ciples of Federal Government. He came, there- 
fore, with eyes opened with kindly interest for 
the people and their institutions. He saw in 
them his kindred, and he loved and respected 
them as he did all that was English. His 
habit of eoB.taotly studying and ^comparing 
the history of England with the history of 
old Greece made it easy for him to grasp the 
idea of a people politically and geographically 
divided, but still remaining in the higher sense 
one people. It was in his large thought that 
the Englishmen of Britain, of America, of 
Africa, of Australia, should be each to his dis- 
tant brother as were the Greek of Kyrene and 
the Greek of Cherson. He regretted that there 
was no common name to embrace them all, such 
as the Greeks had in their term Hellene. The 
British Empire meant nothing to him com- 
pared with tiiat truer and larger unity of the 
scattered English folk, the great family of the 
Angle-Kyn, who, in spite of geographical dis- 
tance, political separation, cruel warfare, and 
even more cruel commercial rivalry, were still 
one people — in history, in language, in the 
possession of common political traditions, in 

religion, and in the consciousness of common 
destiny. Said he : 

<« TbiB great land is esBentially an English land; it ia 
no small witness to the toughness of fibre in the En- 
glish folk whereTer it settles that it is so; a land mast 
be reckoned as English where the English kernel is so 
strong as to draw to itself every foreign element, where 
the foreign settler is adopted into the English home of 
an English people, where he or his children exchange 
the speech of their elder dwellings for the English 
speech of the land. Men of various nationalities are 
on American gronnd easily changed into good Ameri- 
cans, and the good American must be, in every sense 
that is not strictly geographical, a good Englishman. . . . 
Truly we may rejoice that with so much to draw them 
in other ways, this great people still remains in all essen- 
tial points an English people, more English very often 
than they themselves know, more English it may be 
sometimes than the kinsfolk whom they left behind io 
their older home.'' (II., p. 180. Quoted from « Im- 
pressions of United States," p. 137.) 

At last, in the year 1884, the honor for which 
Mr. Freeman had so long hoped in vain sought 
him. On the resignation of Mr. Stubbs to be- 
come bishop of Chester, Freeman was chosen 
to fill his place. One of the great objects of 
his ambition, in which he had been so often 
disappointed, was now at last within his grasp. 
But die prize had now lost its charm. He felt 
that the appointment was his due, and that he 
ought to accept it, but he shrank from the 
chimge in all his habits of life which must fol- 
low. There is a real pathos in the reply which 
he at the time makes to the congratulations of 
Mr. Groldwin Smith : 

** It b something to snoceed Arnold, yon, and Stnbba 
— but I gnash my teeth that I have not had you and 
Stubbs to my eolleagues and not to predeoessors. Years 
ago to fill one of the historical chairs at Oxford was my 
altematiye ambition with a seat in Parliament. It seemed 
for years as if neither would ever oome to me; and now 
at least one has oome when I am rather too old for the 
change. Leaving one's home for half the year to be in 
the midst of the whirl of Oxford, as Oxford is now, is 
a frightful prospect, besides the bondage of new and 
absurd rules which Arnold never was under, nor yon 
either. . . . Still, I should have been disappointed if I 
had not had the offer of the post, as I certainly thouAt 
it was my due; and I thought it right to take it.'' (II.» 

No one more than he knew his limitations. 
His health was failing rapidly. It was too late 
for the old dog to take kindly to new tricks. 
He clung fondly, pathetically, to the old hab- 
itat. He continues to Goldwin Smith : 

** I don't mean to leave Somerleaze; at least I shaU 
try the experiment of keeping two houses, though I fancy 
it will be both grievous and costly; but I have got so 
fond of my own place that it would be a frightful 
wrench to leave it altogether." 

The results proved that Freeman had not 
misjudged himself, or his condition. He be- 




longed to the generation past. He had little 
sympathy with the innovations that had dese- 
orated the Oxford that he had known and loved 
forty years before. He was out of place and 
he knew it and felt it. He who oould have 
been so much to the university, saw himself 
now deserted for younger men. He lectured 
to empty benches, — neither his style nor his 
methods were adapted to the ideals of the time. 
His studies in the mean time were not for 
one moment forsaken ; the first and second vol- 
umes of his ^^History of Sicily" were published 
in 1891, and by the end of the year nearly the 
whole of the diird volume was ready for the 
press. In this great work, destined to be left 
unfinished, he found relief and consolation in 
the midst of the discouragement and humilia- 
tion that clouded his professorial career. <' I 
am a-weary," he writes in February, ^' of all 
this professing, and I shall be glad to give it 
up at the first moment I can." In March again 
he writes : 

*< I am thoroaghly tbed of this plsee and OTerythiiig 
in it. It is all 8o disappointing and diaheartening. I 
have tried eyery kind of leetnie I can think of, and 
put my best strength into all, bnt nobody oomes, and all 
the petty things that torn up are just enough to dis- 
turb one's own steady work without awakening any in- 

Freeman's failing health undoubtedly had 
much to do with the despondence that pervades 
all his letters of this period. Occasionally 
he writes in a tone of sadness and vexation 
of spirit, never manifested before in any for- 
mer period of his life. From Somerleaze he 
complains that few of his friends wrote to 
him, and that no one came to visit him ; and 
declares that if his friends did not go to see 
him, he certainly would not go to that hateful 
London, in whicli so many of them had buried 
themselves — *^that horrid wilderness of houses," 
more dreary to him than any other place in the 
world. At this time, also, be seems to be spe- 
cially annoyed by the critics. He complains 
that for some reason, which he cannot under- 
stand, he seems to be more jeered and sneered 
at than any other writer, by those who set them- 
selves up to be critics. ^' They are always at- 
tacking me about peculiar spelling of names, 
as if I had any spelling of my own different 
from Lappenberg and Kemble before me, and 
Johnny * after me." The critics also were ever 
grumbling at his ^^ horrible repetition"; and 
he asks, ^* Why should one not say the same 
thing twenty times if people forget it twenty 

* J. R. Green, whom he always refers to in his letters Mther 
as *' Johnny " or *' Johmikin.'* 

times ? " To Bryce, in March, 1884, he says, 
referring to the critics : ^* These things would 
annoy me less if I saw more of other men and 
could talk and laugh them off, but I can't 
change my way of life now." (II., p. 278.) 
Freeman had in fact for years been carrying 
on a losing fight with his grim foe. His mind, 
however, remained clear and powerful. His 
memory had lost the tenacious grasp of youth, 
but his hunger for work was as eager as ever. 
He went on planning and breaking new ground, 
as if he really expected to live as long as Greg- 
ory IX., the man who began his lifework at 
seventy and completed it at ninety. But not 
so with Freeman. His career ended suddenly 
at Alicante in Spain, where he sank peacefully 
to rest, March 16, 1892, — his eagerness for 
work unabated and his ambition still nnsat- 

^^- • Benjamin S. Tebby. 

Nbw England's Fast Days.* 

The painful preparers and purveyors of per- 
ennial papers, to be printed throughout the 
press of this great United States, upon Thanks- 
giving Days, with historical reference to the 
day and to Fast Days, will hail with deep grat- 
itude the intelligent, comprehensive, esdiaust* 
ive, and interesting book entitled ** The Fast 
and Thanksgiving Days of New England." In 
it is fresh and varied material sufficient to fur- 
nish suggestions for scores of such papers, an 
excellent calendar of Fast and Thanksgiving 
Days, from the year 1620 to 1816, and a Bib- 
liography of Thanksgiving and Fast Sermons. 

In the book are set forth in a series of in- 
teresting and well laid out chapters, the condi- 
tions leading to the adoption in New England 
of the Fast Day and Thanksgiving Day system 
(if it may be so termed) in place of the holy 
days of tiie Church of England. The devel- 
opment of this system, and the reasim of its 
decline, are also fully given. In various pe- 
riods, tihe system is shown in operation, in a 
series of pictures all in proper historical setting. 

As it would be impossible, within any rear 
sonable space, to give any adequate review of 
the thirty long chapters that oonstitate this 
book, I will chiefly dwell on the chapter en- 
titled ** The Conquest of Canada," since the 
subject chances to be of special prominence and 
interest to-day in the pleasant recognition and 
commemoration of this conquest tibrongh the 

* Ths Fast ahd THAinuoivnro Days of Nsw Evolasb. 
By W. DeLott Lore, Jr. Bostoii : HonglitiMi, MifliB A Co. 



[July 16, 

ereotioa and dedication, by the Sooiety of Col- 
onial Wan, of a monument in memory of the 
Battle of Lonisburg. 

In the middle of the eighteenth oentury the 
oondosion was forced on New Englanders, 
through the Indian wars, that the conquest of 
Canada was essential to the continued peace of 
New England. It took two wars to obtain this 
conquest, «« Grovemor Shirley's War," 1T44 to 
1749, and the ''French and Indian War," 
1755 to 1760. An attack was made on the 
English post of Canso in May, 1744, and when 
the news reached Boston, preparations were at 
once made both for fighting and praying. A 
Fast was held in Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire four days before the troops sailed 
for Annapolis Boyal. Additional cause for 
hamiliation was foond in the warning Toioe of 
an earthquake, by which Boston was shaken 
the day after war was declared. The summer 
months were spent in endeavoring to secure 
the neutrality of the Indians, and the autumn 
Thanksgiving was given for the exceptionally 
bountiful harvest, upon which the ministers 
dQatcd as God's provision for war. The win- 
ter witnessed preparations for the expedition, 
and on the last dAy of February another Fast 
was held, and Samuel Checkley preached a ser- 
mon on '' Prayer a Duty when Grod's People 
Gt> Forth to War." Bostonians had never 
neglected that duty ; they had prayed often and 
with ^* extraordinary fervency, faith, and wrest- 
lings," both in private and ** solemn days of 
publiek prayer." Praying-meetings were held 
even of women, a thing which had not been 
tolerated in Boston since the dangerous and 
*^ bussie-headed " meetings of Anne Hutchinson 
and her gossips a century previous. All this 
later agitation was in Whitefield's time, when 
prayer and pndse filled every hour of the day. 
A fast was kept on May 2, after Sir William 
Pepperell and the ^* forces thro Favour of Di- 
vine IVovidence Were Embarked and De- 
parted." And it was learned afterward that 
while these good pious Bostonians were thus 
solemnly fasting and earnestly praying at home, 
that very hour tiie grand Battery of Cape Bre- 
ton was delivered up. On July 8 the good 
news of the fall of Lonisburg arrived, and was 
greeted with fireworks and Uianksgiving. 

The ministers and prayers had a large share 
in tiiis Lonisburg expedition. Rev. Samuel 
Moody, who accompanied the troops, cut down 
with his own hands the papal images in the 
Louisborg churches, and preached a Puritan 
sermon in the Komish church ; and it should 

be noted that prayer came nigh also to wreck- 
ing the expedition, for it was desired to be kept 
secret as long as possible, but a loud-voiced 
and fervent petition for guidance from God in 
the matter made the whole thing public. 

The following summer of 1746 was passed 
in alternate hopes and fears. A Frendi fleet 
was said to be hovering off the coast near Bos- 
ton. The town was in consternation, a fast was 
set, and possibly in answer a tempest wrecked 
the French ships. In alternate fasting and 
thanksgiving passed the six years of the treaty 
of peace ; and then the second war arose, the 
war of Braddock's campaign. Well should 
New England now fast and pray; burdened 
with debt, shocked by another earthquake, dis- 
couraged by Braddock's defeat, fasts followed 
rapidly and prayers filled the land. They were 
finally answered by the victory of Wolfe on the 
Heights of Abraham (a fireside tale in New 
England), and an English chaplain preached 
a Protestant sermon in the Ursuline convent 
in Quebec on the 27th of September. 

How England and New England rejoiced ! 
The autumn was a round of thanksgiving, of 
war-sermons, which now constitute an import- 
ant contribution to the history of the war. 
Some deemed the Conquest of Canada the final 
overthrow of Babylon. They cared little for 
Canadian territory, but were eager for the ban- 
ishment of the Roman Catholic religion from 
the continent. To me, these wars are deeply 
significant, for a reason which at that day would 
have seemed basely traitorous to the loyal hearts 
of both soldiers and ministers ; the struggle 
taught the sturdy Americans modes of war- 
fare, of fortifications, of endurance, and it pre- 
pared them for the struggle for Independence. 
But it was a bitter experience ; the hopeless 
campaigns in the fierce Canadian winters ; the 
sacrifices of wealth, of human life ; the hor- 
rors of Indian atrocities; the tedious uncer- 
tainty of the issue. Well might they pray at 
the end and sing their *^ New Thanksgiving 
Song," printed in 1759. 

"With feastiiiff and ThAnkagiTiiv 
Oar gntef al hearts are fed, 
Whioh gimtifieethe Uving 
And oaa 't offend the Dead." 

The story of all this has been well told by 
Mr. Love, and is of deep interest. Of scarcely 
less interest is the fantastic chapter on ^^ Pests, 
Plagues, and Prodigies"; the one on ^^The 
Witch Craft Fasts "; and the amusing one on 
^^ Spells of Weather." For this book has much 
that is amusing in its pages. It shows many 




aspects of the subject that are decidedly hu- 
morous, though always full of affectionate re- 
spect; for the modes of thought which may 
appear whimsical to-day, two centuries ago were 
passionately religious and deeply significant. 
Mr. Layard tells us that when in pursuit of 
some antiquarian researches in the Orient, he 
asked a certain Eastern Cadi for assistance and 
information. He received this answer : ^^ The 
things you search and ask, O most Illustrious 
Stranger and Joy of my Liver, are both im- 
possible and useless to accomplish." It would 
appear that it must be impossible to make a 
list of all the various fast and thanksgiving 
days observed in all the New England towns 
since colonial days, to recount their exact dates, 
their commemorative sermons ; yet I think it 
has not proved so. At any rate, the author 
gives in this book a table of about two thou- 
sand of these days, and I cannot believe there 
were many more. I personally know of some 
very out-of-the-way — if I may so term them, 
— some very recondite Fast Days, some appar- 
ently hidden and secreted instances. I have 
conferred with Mr. Love's list. They all are 
there, in proper place, properly dated, properly 
labelled. Whether this work is useless or not, 
is another matter. It would seem to be a mat- 
ter of individual decision. Certainly from the 
point of view of an antiquary or oniomaniac it 
would not appear that it was Love's Labor Lost. 

Alice Morse Eable. 


The student of American history will find 
much of interest and value in a handsome vol- 
ume recently issued under the title of ^' Selec- 
tions from the Correspondence of Thomas Bar- 
clay." Thomas Barclay came of old colonial 
stock. His great-grandfather, John, was sur- 
veyor-general of East Jersey, and agent of his 
brother Bobert, the non-resident governor; 
Thomas, the son of John, was Church of En- 
gland missionary at the then (1707-22) out- 
post of Albany ; his son Henry was long rec- 
tor of Trinity Church, in New York, and to 
him, in 1758, was bom the hero of the present 
book. The original Barclays were upper-class 
Scotchmen ; but the American branch, in its 


Babozat, fonneriy BriliBh Conral-Qenenl at New York. 
Edited by Geoige Lookhart Riyee. New York : Harper A 

four generations, married into Dutch families 
of the patroon order. Thus Thomas Barclay 
was a thorough -going Knickerbocker of the 
olden type, reared in an unyielding Church of 
England atmosphere, intensely loyal to his 
king, and of coarse an uncompromising Tory 
when the Bevolution broke out. In 1775 he 
married, and opened a law ofBlce in New York, 
but soon fled to rural Ulster ; but here he found 
life intolerable, amid suspicious neighbors to 
whom a loyalist was akin to a mad dog, and in 
1776 he joined the British army, fighting gal- 
lantly until the close of the war, from which 
he emerged as a major, on half -pay. The prop- 
erty of the Barclays, like that of hundreds of 
other loyalist estates, was sequestered to the 
Commonwealth of New York, and, exiled, the 
young lawyer-soldier went forth to drag out a 
few barren years in Nova Scotia, upon the 
shores of the Bay of Fundy. 

In 1796, it became essential to establish 
which of two streams emptying into the Bay 
was the true Biver St. Croix mentioned in Jay's 
boundary treaty of 1794. Barclay's local 
knowledge, added to the credit he had estab- 
lished at court, caused him to be selected as 
the king's commissioner, and his views appear 
to have prevailed in the council. In 1799 he 
returned to New York as British consul-gen- 
eral, a position he held until the outbreak of 
war in 1812 necessitated his retirement to 
England. He was soon back again, however, 
as agent for the relief and exchange of British 
prisoners in America, and in this often dis- 
agreeable position served nntil peace was de- 
clared, when he once more retired to London, 
only to be again despatched to New York as 
one of the British commissioners to settle the 
vexed question of the Northeast Boundary 
(1816-22). . 

Barclay's position was now a peculiarly del- 
icate one. His editor well says : ^' He was a 
native of New York, he had married his wife 
in New York ; his family had their home there, 
his sons were New York merchants, his daugh- 
ters had married Livingstons and Stuyvesants, 
and he was a cousin of half the people in the 
place. Nova Scotia and Canada were sensitive 
on the subject, and if Lord Ashburton was 
attacked and discredited becanse he had mar- 
ried an American wife, we may guess what sort 
of a storm would have been raised if Barclay 
had yielded to American demands. Far more 
stubbornly, probably, than any native English- 
man, Barclay stood firm for the extremest Brit- 
ish claims." As a matter of fact, these pro- 



[July 16, 

traeted negotiations availed nothing; it was 
not until the Webster- Ashburton treaty in 1842 
that the matter was finally settled, by the es- 
tablishment of the present boundary. As for 
Barclay, he retired in 1822, after nearly fifty 
years of important public serrice for Great 
Britain, and spent his last years quietly and 
prosperously, in the care of a country place on 
Manhattan Island, where he passed away in 

Barclay appears to have preserved but a rela- 
tively small portion of his correspondence, which 
must have been voluminous ; such papers as are 
here given us, however, are sufficient to throw 
many a strong ray of light upon the troublous 
affairs of the Bepublic in its years of childhood. 
Their author probably never quite forgave his 
fellow-countrymen for breaking with the mother 
country, and was to the last faithful, perhaps 
over-zealous, in his service for the King. But 
he thoroughly knew America and Americans, 
and his letters reveal none of those singular 
misconceptions of our national characteristics 
which were wont in his day to abound in the 
memoirs of English travellers and diplomats 
whose paths led hither. He drove hard bargains 
for his sovereign ; nevertheless he had a whole- 
some respect for the land of his birth, its peo- 
ple, and most of its institutions. 

The editor of the present volume, Mr. George 
Lockhart Hives, is not only a descendant of 
Thomas Barclay, but was formerly assistant sec- 
retary of state of the United States, and betrays 
an intimate knowledge of early American diplo- 
macy. His introductions to the several chap- 
ters into which he has arranged the papers are 
in their way models of judicious and concise 
statement; his own account of the northeast 
boundary question, reinforced by two original 
maps, is in itself a valuable contribution to the 
literature of the subject. The publishers have 
cooperated with the editor in the production of 
a highly creditable piece of book-making. The 
excellent index deserves special commendation 
from historical students. 

Reuben Gtold Thwaites. 

A Schopenhauer monument was unveiled at Frank- 
furt on the sixth of June. Dr. Gwinndr was the orator 
of the oeeasion. It will be remembered that the last 
thirty years of the philosopher's life were spent in the 
city on the Main, and that his tomb is in the Frankfurt 
Friedhof, We note also that a Scheffel monument is 
to be unveiled on the twenty-first of the present month 
at Murzzuschlag, where the poet once sojourned for a 
time. A Scheffel FesUehrift is also promised for this 

The I4IFS OF A Philanthropic 

Viewed from the standing-point of thrilling 
adventure or varied experiences, the Life of 
Miss Frances Power Cobbe would seem unevent- 
ful enough ; but as a record of the evolution of 
a strong personality, and of changes in English 
life and society during the past seven decades 
— all of which she saw, and part of which she 
was, — it holds the reader's attention from the 
first page to the last of its two large volumes. 

It is impossible to conceive a more dispaa- 
sionate or franker narrative ; and this is per- 
haps the greatest charm of the book. Nothing 
either good or bad in the way of self-revelation 
appears to have been shirked ; and many of 
those things which most persons, especially 
most women, prefer to keep to themselves are 
stated here in a matter-of-course fashion that 
is a sure warrant of that perfect candor in self- 
judgment which is usually so difficult of attain- 
ment. For example, speaking gratefully of her 
own vigorous physique. Miss Cobbe admits its 
defects, ^^even to the verge of grotesqueness 
from the esthetic point of view "; in describ- 
ing a childish temptation whereby she ate, one 
by one, certain sweetcakes placed in her care 
for a boy cousin, she adds : *^ Greediness, alas I 
has been a besetting sin of mine all my life." 
But the most astonishing bit of confidential 
disclosure to the reader is where she speaks of 
having gone through life without any experi- 
ence of what has been styled '' woman's whole 
existence," confessing that no man has ever 
desired to share her life, nor has she seen the 
man she would have wished to ask her to do 
so. This revelation makes it seem all the more 
astonishing that she could have entered into 
the understanding of the sentiments of love 
and maternity as she has done in ^' The Duties 
of Women." It denotes an intuitive imagina- 
tion of a high order to supply the sympathy 
that is commonly derived only by actual experi- 
ence in one's own fibres. 

By any of the recognized laws of heredity. 
Miss Cobbe is puzzled to account for herself. 
Not one of her ancestors or relatives, so far as 
she can learn, ever dabbled in printer's ink ; 
and so little sympathy had she at home that 
she was obliged to write and publish secretly, 
in order to spare her father the mortifying con- 
sciousness of having a scribbling daughter. 

* Thb Lm or Fbavcobs Powxb Gobbx. Written by H«i^ 
•elf. In two ToliimeB, with Portrait. Boston : Hen^tQik, 
Mifflin ab Co. 




His own abilitieB, though not small, were exclu- 
sively of an administrative order. The mother 
was a gracious and beautiful woman, notable 
chiefly as a charming hostess and cultivated 
member of society. With a great admiration 
for both parents, and a passionate love for the 
mother, Frances Power Cobbe recognizes that 
her own faculties, her own lifework, are of a 
kind that would have been regarded as un- 
seemly by all her ancestry, and unbecoming as 
a daughter of their house, especially as she 
lacked the inheritance of all their peculiar gifts 
and graces. Of her four brothers, all her 
elders, none showed any marked fondness for 
literary pursuits. 

Destiny conferred upon Miss Cobbe a for- 
tunate environment. Being gpranted the proph- 
et's prayer of " neither poverty nor riches,'* she 
was freed from all the money cares that beset 
the pathway of most persons. Neither of those 
difficult problems, the making of both ends 
meet or the just and conscientious expenditure 
of a large income, were pressed upon her for 
solution. Thus in early womanhood and mid- 
dle life she enjoyed a degree of real lemire of 
mind possessed by few. This gift of the gods 
to the literary worker is so priceless that it is 
a pleasure to find Miss Cobbe recognizing its 
f uU value, even to the extent of somewhat de- 
preciating her real gifts and creative energy. 
She says : 

'< I had goody sound working brains to start with, and 
much fewer hindranees than the majority of women in 
improving and employing them. VoUa UnUJ* 

A woman thus fortunately bom and fortu- 
nately placed would naturally receive the best 
education offered by her time, and accordingly, 
at the age of fourteen Miss Cobbe left the care 
of governesses for a private ** Ladies' School " 
in Brighton. The description of her life there 
during the next two years is one of the most 
entertaining portions of the book, as showing 
the characteristics of the typical higher educa- 
tion of women at that period. It is Miss 
Cobbe's deliberate conviction that, for attain- 
ing the minimum of solid results with the max- 
imum of cost and labor, a better system could 
scarcely have been devised. These were some 
of its features : 

** Not that which was good in itself or useful to the 
community, or even that which was delightful to our- 
selyes, but that which would make us admired in so- 
ciety, was the raison eTetre of each requirement. Every- 
thing was taught us in the iuTerse ratio of its true 
importance. At the bottom of the scale were Morals 
and Religion, and at the top were Music and Dancing; 
miserably poor music too, of the Italian school then in 

vogue, and generally performed in a showy and taste- 
less manner on harp or piano. I can recall an amusing 
instance in which the order of precedence above de- 
scribed was naively betrayed by one of our schoolmis- 
tresses when she was admonishing one of the girls who 
had been detected in a lie. * Don't you know, you 
naughty girl,' said Miss B. impressively, before the 
whole school, 'don't you know we had almost rather 
find you have a P — [the mark of Pretty Well] in your 
music, than tell such falsehoods ? ' . . . They marched 
us to church every Sunday when it did not rain, and 
they made us on Sunday mornings repeat the Collect 
and Catechism; but beyond these exercises of body and 
mind it was hard for them to see what to do for our 
spiritual welfare. One Ash Wednesday, I remember, 
they provided us with a dish of salt fish, and when this 
was removed to make room for the roast mutton, they 
addressed us in a short discourse, setting forth the 
merits of fasting, and ending by the remark that they 
left us free to taJce meat or not as we pleased, but that 
they hoped we should fast; *it would be good for our 

souls AND OUR flOURXS I ' " 

By far the most vital and momentous of 
Miss Cobbe's experiences were those in con- 
nection with religious thought and feeling. Nat- 
urally a very devout child, when she was about 
eighteen she found herself, in complete mental 
solitude and in great ignorance, facing all the 
dread problems of human existence. Her father 
was a typical Churchman as Churchmen were 
in the first half of the century. All her rela- 
tives, far and near, were the same. In those 
days no such thing was heard of as ^^ Broad " 
interpretations of Scripture doctrines. It was 
sixty years before ^^ Lux Mundi," and thirty 
before even *^ Essays and Reviews." Evan- 
gelical Christianity in 1840 presented itself as 
a thing to be taken whole, or rejected wholly. 
The story of the alterations that for years went 
on in the poor young heart and brain, one week 
or month of rational and moral disbelief, and 
the next of vehement and remorseful return to 
the faith which she supposed could alone give 
her the joy of religion, is too pathetic and in- 
timate for condensation ; and the result of her 
final acceptance of the doctrines of Theism, 
with its family estrangement, is really tragic, 
but must not be dwelt upon here. 

In the year 1857, by the death of her father, 
Miss Cobbe was released from her pleasant du- 
ties as mistress of the family estate at New- 
bridge, and found herself free to enter upon an 
independent career of her own choosing. She 
was then thirty-five years old, had written one 
book, the ^* Essay on the Theory of Intuitive 
Morals," but had seen little of any life beyond 
that of her own immediate neighborhood. After 
the English fashion, the interests of the eldest 
brother and his charge of keeping up the house 
and estate were considered as paramount, and 



[July 16, 

she was left with but a small patrimony. But 
accepting her comparative poverty with cheer- 
fulness, and interpolating a year's pilgrimage 
abroad as a sort of conclusion to her self -edu- 
cation, the time seemed now ripe for realizing 
a long-cherished hope of leading an independ- 
ent life in some field of usefulness to her fel- 
low-creatures. ^^ Slumming," before either the 
word or the thing had become fashionable, was 
the first thing that presented itself, and the 
next four years were spent assisting Miss Car- 
penter in her Beformatory and Ragged School 
work. Lameness, in consequence of a sprained 
ankle, terminated these labors; and Miss 
Cobbe's work henceforth, though not less phil- 
anthropic, was performed chi^y through the 
medium of the pen. Two classes of the op- 
pressed — women and brutes — appealed espe- 
cially to her justice-loving nature, and inspired 
her to vigorous efforts in their behalf. Wo- 
man Suffrage, the Married Woman's Property 
Act, the granting of university degrees to wo- 
men, the protection of assaulted wives from 
brutal husbands, are all causes which have owed 
much to the voice and pen of Miss Cobbe. But 
it is in behalf of dumb animals, and as leader of 
the Anti-Vivisection movement, that her chief 
energies have been engaged during the last 
thirty years. Her article on ^^ The Bights of 
Man and the Claims of Brutes," published in 
^^ Eraser's Magazine " of November, 1868, was 
probably the first effort ever made to deal with 
the moral question involved in the torture of 
animals, either for the sake of scientific or ther- 
apeutic research, or for the acquirement of man- 
ipulative skill. Now there are no less than 
fifty-seven Anti-Vivisection Societies in Europe 
and America, and the cause is recruiting new 
friends every day. Miss Cobbe gives it as her 
^^ supreme hope " that *^ when, wiUi God's help, 
our Anti-Vivisection controversy ends in years 
to come, long after I have passed away, man- 
kind will have attained through Uy a recogni- 
tion of our duties towards the lower animals, 
far in advance of that which we now commonly 

Those who know Miss Cobbe as the author 
of books so eloquent and ringing as ^^ The Du- 
ties of Women," so logical and scholarly as 
the *^ Essay on Intuitive Morals," so devout and 
helpful as ^^ Religious Duty," so incisive and 
sprightly as «« Re-Echoes," will not delay long 
in seeking the acquaintance of an autobiogra- 
phy marked by all of these qualities. 

Anna B. McMahan. 

Mayan Hibboglyphics.* 

Of the native peoples of North America, the 
Mayas had certainly made the greatest ad- 
vancement in culture and have left the most 
enduring and interesting monuments. At the 
time of the Spanish Conquest, the Mayas oc- 
cupied the whole of Yucatan and parts or all 
of the present states and countries of Chiapas, 
Tabasco, Guatemala, and Honduras. Mayas 
pure in blood and speaking their old language 
still form the main population of much of that 
area. The Maya language possesses remark- 
able vitality, and has not only not given way 
before the Spanish, but has forced itself upon 
the half-breed and foreign population of Yu- 

The Mayas are ^^ short, strong, dark, and 
brachycephalic." Not quite satisfied with na- 
ture's gifts, they formerly shaped their heads 
into curious forms and perforated or filed their 
teeth. Agriculturists, they raised crops of 
maize, beims, and peppers for food ; they cul- 
tivated cotton for clothing ; they raised bees 
for tiieir wax and honey. Fond of bright col- 
ors in dress, they made much use of gay feath- 
ers, and dyed dieir cotton cloths brilliantly. 
They lived in permanent towns, wherein some 
of the buildings were built of stone and elab- 
orately carved. Their religious ideas were nota- 
bly developed and deeply influenced the daily 

Students have given much attention to the 
interesting architecture and the written system 
of the Mayas. Stephens and Catherwood half 
a century ago made known to the American 
reader the ruined cities in the forests of Chi- 
apas, Honduras, and Yucatan. They caused a 
veritable sensation. Yet for a long time, and 
until quite recently, American students made 
no further important explorations. Then the 
Peabody Museum at Cambridge began its work 
in Honduras; later the management of the 
World's Columbian Exposition arranged for 
the photographing and reproduction of some 
of the more important monuments and ruins. 
At the Exposition not only all of this material, 
but also the important reproductions by Char- 
nay — that enthusiastic French explorer — were 
shown. Parts of finely carved facades, the 
Yncatanese Arch, mural decorations and in- 
scriptions, altars, great monolithic figures, tab- 

* A Pbdoeb of Matak HnBBOQLTPHiOB. By D. G. Brin- 
ton. Pnblioatioiis of the UniTeiwty of PennsylTaiiia, Series 
in Philology, Literature, and Arohieology, Vol. HI., No. 2. 
Boston : Ginn & Co. 




lets bearing hieroglyphs, were among the spec- 
imens; most of these are now in the Field 
Columbian Museum and supply an important 
material for study. In these carvings the in- 
scriptions are in characters which have been 
called ^^calculiform" or pebble-shaped. Though 
much conventionalized in some cases, they are 
plainly pictorial in origin. The inscriptions 
on walls and monoliths are not the only speci- 
mens of Mayan writing. There are some brief 
inscriptions on small objects, on stone, and on 
vases of earthenware. There are also a few 

The books of the Mayas were long strips of 
paper made of maguey fibre, which were folded 
like a screen. Upon the pages thus formed 
were painted in black and various colors strange 
pictures and characters of the same sort as 
those engraved on the monuments. Most of 
the Maya books were early destroyed by the 
Spaniaids, but a few still exist in libraries and 
museums. Of those known, four have been 
accurately reproduced for the use of students. 

In his ** Primer of Mayan Hierogljrphios," 
Dr. Brinton aims to summarize present knowl- 
edge of this curious system of writing. The 
work of German, French, English, and Ameri- 
can authors is collected, examined, and weighed. 
The number of American workers in the field of 
translating the Mayan hieroglyphs is not great. 
Cyrus Thomas, Philip Valentine, Aug. Le 
Plongeon, and Dr. Brinton are the ones whose 
writings are best known. Authors are not 
agreed upon very many important points. Thus 
the question whether the characters are pho- 
netic is still discussed. Some, by means of 
Landa's " alphabet " and other "keys " translate 
everything. Others go so far as to say that 
everything is pictographic and that phonetic 
characters are wanting. Dr. Brinton occupies 
a moderate position between these extremes. 
Considering the system as a whole, in its ori- 
gin, pictographic, he finds many of the char- 
acters to be of the nature of rebuses. At first 
pictures representing real objects, they have 
come to represent sounds derived from or sug- 
gested by the name of the original object. 

In the material studied there are three groups 
of elements recognized — mathematical, pic- 
torial, graphic. The first group, the charac- 
ters connected with number, is important. In 
their peculiar way the Mayas were great mathe- 
maticians. With a vigesimal system of count- 
ing, they had distinct names for the various 
orders of numerals up to the sixth power of 
twenty. Forstemann, who in this matter is fol- 

lowed by Brinton, claims that this mathemati- 
cal knowledge was chiefly of service in religio- 
'dstronomical computations. The pictorial ele- 
ments are mainly representations of gods or of 
sacred objects. In identifying them, Schellhas 
has been a chief worker. Brinton summarizes 
his work, adding pertinent suggestions. The 
mathematical and pictorial elements, now fairly 
worked out, form a considerable part of the 
Mayan inscriptions and texts. The remainder 
— the real graphic elements — presents great 
difficulty. The signs of days, months, and car- 
dinal points are known; the names of some 
gods have probably been made out. Most of 
the rest remain unconquered. In studying 
them, the characters, most of which are com- 
posite, must be analyzed into their component 
parts ; the original picture meaning of these 
must be determined ; lastly their rebus value, 
or sound, must be discovered. The work will 
be arduous, but it will probably be done. Dr. 
Brinton 's " Primer " will help on the work. It 
supplies the beginner with just what he needs, 
information as to what and how much others 
have really gained. Frederick Starr. 

Through Asia at My Study Table.* 

The great central plateau of the Asiatic continent 
offers to the explorer irresistible attractions. An 
area nearly as large as all Europe is lifted higher 
than any other continental mass of the earth ; so 
that it has been called <^ the roof of the world." 
The rim of this plateau is fortified by ranges of 
lofty mountains upon three of its four sides ; the 
summits of those upon the south reaching an elevation 
but little short of six miles, while their practicable 
passes carry the daring traveller some thousands of 
feet higher than the dome of Mont Blanc. To the 
extreme vicissitudes of climate which such geograph- 
ical conditions necessarily impose, are added the 
suspicious and unfriendly disposition of inhabitants 

•Chikkss Gkhtbal Asia: A Bide to littU Tibet. Bf 
Henry T<MW<te11, D.D. In two Tolumes. New York : Im- 
ported by Charles Soribner*8 Sons. 

Traks-Gaspia, the Sesled ProTinoes of the Czar. By W. 
M. Shoemaker. Cinoinaad : The Bobert Clarke Co. 

Qk bmiA'8 Fbomtikb ; or, Nepal, the Gnrkha's Mysterions 
Land. By Henry BaUantine, M.A., late Amerioan Consol at 
Bombay. New York : J. Sclwin Taat & Sons. 


in 1891 and 1892. By WiUiam Woodvine Rookhill. Wash- 
ington : The Smithsonian lastitation. 

Thb Bkaii Chotamak. By Qiester Holeombe, late Inter- 
preter, Seoretacy of Legation, and Acting Minister of the 
United States at Peking. New York : Dodd, Mead A Co. 

CoREA ; or, Chosen, the Land of the Morning Calm. By 
A. Henry SaTage-Landor. New York : BiacmiUan & Co. 

LoTUS-Tocx IK Japait. By Henry T. Finck. New York : 
Charles Soribner*s Sons. 



[July 16, 

nnaccnstomed to the incursions of visitors, and a 
general unwillingness of the governments to admit 
foreigners, amounting in some instances to absolute 

The condition of isolation which the oriental nar 
tions have so long maintained, and which some of 
them yet strenuously insist upon, may be figured, 
not inaptly, by the physical situation just described. 
Elevated, in their own opinion, far above all other 
races or peoples, they have entrenched themselves 
within walls of opinion or of prejudice as massive 
as their mountains, and moving as slowly as their 
glaciers. Having outlived many more active and 
progressive nations, it may not be surprising that 
they should imagine stability of government to be 
synonymous with perpetuity of custom ; and that 
they should think it therefore necessary to resist 
all innovations of persons or of ideas. For genera- 
tions, progress knocked at the gates of isolation, 
but gained no admission. By a display of courteous 
power, Japan, already ripe for change, was induced 
to open her doors ; in response to the imperious de- 
mands of war, China has reluctantly done the same ; 
Korea and Siam and Burmah conform in a more 
kindly fashion. But Great Tibet sits within her 
circumvallation of mountains and deserts, beyond 
the range of gunboats or gatlings, and refuses ad- 
mission to a single f eringhee scout, either traveller 
or missionary. Her contention is tiiat every visitor 
wiU be followed by a score ; and that the gates once 
opened, the isolation so carefully preserved for cen- 
turies will be irrevocably destroyed. No occidental 
may visit Lassa, or even enter 'nbet ; the native who 
aids such a visitor, or who even brings a request for 
admission, no matter in what respectful terms it may 
be couched, parts company with his head. 

Of the books of travel upon our list, four describe 
assaults upon the great central plateau and its some- 
what isolated people ; the other three present views 
within lands which have lately given admission to 
the stranger. Dr. Lansdell, who gives to the ac- 
count of a long and most successful journey, full of 
interest and adventure, the modest title of '< A Bide 
to Little Tibet,*' unites in himself the characteris- 
tics of a traveller, a naturalist, and a pioneer of 
Christian missions. As the result of preceding jour- 
neys, he has described the northern or Siberian 
Asia, and that part of Central Asia which is gov- 
erned by Russia. In this journey it was his pur- 
pose to visit that part of Central Asia which is in- 
cluded in the Chinese Empire, although without the 
great wall. He so arranged his route as to enter 
this region, as he himself says, by the ''back way" 
— that is, from the west, crossing the Russian fron- 
tier, rather than by making the journey from the 
Chinese seaboard. As his friends deemed this pro- 
cedure extra-hazardous, they endeavored to dissuade 
him from it ; but by skilful approaches to the gov- 
ernments of China and of Russia, supported by his 
reputation already establbhed with each, and aided 
by the kind offices of the British diplomatic and 

consular service, he was enabled so to conduct his 
travel as to relieve it of every inconvenience not im- 
posed by natural causes. Under instruetiona which 
everywhere preceded him, officers were on the alert 
to anticipate his wants. His goods passed frontiers 
not simply free of duty but free of inspection ; quar^ 
ters, servants, and transportation were freely pro- 
vided, and even the postal service followed him to 
the heart of Asia. What with stalking deer and 
shooting wild asses, and gathering butterflies to make 
an entomologist green with envy, his collections in 
natural history seem to have been limited only by 
his means of transportation. With all this, it should 
be noted that other interests were constantly sah- 
ordinated to the great errand on which he had come, 
which was to make reconnaissances for suitable points 
for missionary stations, and to distribute translations 
of the Scriptures in lands where they were before 
unknown. These he found everywhere gladly re- 
ceived, the people offering large prices for books, 
when the supplies allotted for free distribution in 
specified localities were exhausted. 

Moving rapidly, as modem conveyances permit, 
from London by way of St Petersburg and the 
Black and Caspian seas, his first objective point 
was Kuldja, southeast of Lake Balkash, and north 
of the Thian Shans. Thence sealing its northern 
boundary by the Musart Pass, at an altitude of 
12,000 feet, he entered the high basin of Chinese 
Turkestan, where he established himself at Kashgar, 
a point nearly north from Bombay. Here, thirty 
years ago, the Mohammedan chieftain, Yakub Eham, 
made against the Chinese Empire a revolt, briefly 
successful but after a time suppressed, which had 
its use in admitting a ray of modem daylight into 
a secluded region. Having completed his inspection, 
and visited Yarkand and Khotan, cities yet but little 
known, Dr. LansdeU continued his journey south- 
ward, crossing in succession the lofty ranges of the 
Kuen-lun, the Karakorum, and the Himalayahs, by 
passes each of which had an altitude of more than 
17,000 feet The beast of burden available at these 
great elevations, where horses and men suffer from 
Uie rarefaction of the air, is the yak, described as 
'^ a grunting ox with a horse's tail." It proved to 
be sure-footed and easily ridden along precipitous 
paths of alpine abraptness, encroached upon by 
glaciers of more than Arctic grandeur. The route 
fijially emerged into Kashmir, in that part called 
Little Tibet, which gave the title to Dr. Lansdell's 
book. Great Tibet he could not enter. No diplomacy 
from England or from China availed anything. An 
autograph letter addressed to the Grand Lama by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom Dr. Lansdell 
described as die Chief English Lama, failed for 
want of delivery. From Bhotan, from Leh, from 
Darjeeling, he could only look over into the forbid* 
den land, which he could not enter. 

The route which Mr. Shoemaker proposed to fol- 
low in the country somewhat indefinitely named by 
him Trans-Caspia, was a little less circuitous than 




that taken by Dr. Lanadell, though directed to 
nearly the same objective points. So far as Tash- 
kend, they were the same ; thence he went toward 
Kashgar by the passes of the Alai moantains, rather 
than by the long detoar by the Issik-Kul lake, and 
the town Knldja. From Kashgar he proposed to 
enter Kashmir by Leh and the passes of the Karar 
korum. Mr. Shoemaker had nearly reached Kash- 
gar when his farther progress was arrested by fever 
so serious as to require him to retrace his steps and 
regain the railway at Samarkand. The narrative, 
scarcely more than the introductory chapter of what 
was designed, is pleasantly written, but subjectively 
rather than objectively. 

The scene of Mr. Ballantine's excursion is upon 
the southern slope of the Himalayas. Along this 
portion of the impregnable defense of Great Tibet 
lies a fringe of mountainous country, a strip of ter- 
ritory five hundred miles long by one hundred and 
fifty wide, yet unsubdued by the East Indian gov- 
ernment, and named Nepal, from the ascetic Hin- 
doo saint, Ne. The frontier of Nepal is reached 
at a point near Segowli, distant by rail from Cal- 
cutta four hundred miles, and from Khatmandu, 
the capital, about one hundred miles. The road is 
merely a track through the jungle, not passable by 
vehicles, patrolled by dangerous wild beasts; the 
traveller must provide his own equipment for camp- 
ing at night. The city occupies a picturesque sit- 
uation between the spurs of the mountains. No 
one could expect other than medieval types ; great 
wealth existing in temples and shrines, little for the 
daily life of the people. Edifices for religious pur- 
poses exhibit an impressive architecture of Indian 
style, profusely enriched, especially with quaintly 
artistic carvings. The most startling event at the 
time of our traveller's visit was a change in the gov- 
ernment, accomplished in the oriental fashion by 
the assassination of the prime minister and his gen- 
eral-in-chief of the army. 

The next anabasis is one undertaken from the 
East, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, by William Woodville Rockhill, previously 
of the American Embassy at Peking. The objective 
point was the exploration of part of the great Asian 
plateau, Great Tibet, and a visit to LaMa — or, as 
he spells it, Lh'asa — the capital city of the grand 
lama. The route chosen was westward from Pe- 
king, to the vicinity of the lake, Kokonor ; thenoe 
over the high lands inhabited by the Mongols of the 
Kokonor, to the Tengrinor, where he would be 
within a few days' march from Lassa. The journey 
was conducted as a scientific excursion, rather than 
as a summer excursion, and the narrative is given 
in the same spirit. The route is laid down with 
instrumental precision ; altitudes, temperatures, the 
weather, are carefully noted ; observations are re- 
corded whenever they have any bearing upon zoolog- 
ical, ethnological, or aUied natural science. The 
record forms a valuable contribution to the geog- 
raphy of that part of Asia which was traversed. 

The reader will sympathize with the regret of the 
traveller when he found that the decuion of the 
grand lama was consistent with previous refusals, 
and that he would be compelled to turn again east- 
ward and conclude his journey at Shanghai. Some 
time may yet elapse before any correspondent will 
date his letters at Lassa. 

Since the publication of the voluminous work of 
Dr. Williams, we have seen no presentation of China 
and its people more admirable than that of Mr. 
Chester Holcombe. One hardly needs to say that 
the Real Chinaman will not be discerned by the 
most astute tourist whose daily observations fall 
within daily changing horizons. For such a writer^ 
the mental vision, like the physical, sees simply what 
is before it, is limited by its own aperture, and 
usually discovers only what it is looking for. His 
narrative describes himself as affected by novel 
conditions. It shows what the reader, if a person 
similarly constituted, would be likely to find on a 
similar journey. The vision may be truthfully pre- 
sented, but it is partial, superficial, and misleading 
in every important generalization. Especially in 
oriental lands, where all the elements of life, char- 
acter, education, art, are so strangely different from 
those which have developed the occidental mind, is 
it necessary that the observer should have the op- 
portunity given only by extended residence and inti- 
mate acquaintance, before his senses and his thoughts 
shall have adjusted themselves to the strange atmos- 
phere, and he be enabled to discover the real meaning 
of even everyday occurrences. Considering the wide 
gulf between oriental and occidental ideas, and the 
usually limited means for proper study, it is doubt- 
less true that << the rule in Western Umds is to mis^ 
understand everything Chinese." Mr. Holcombe 
has made skilful use of the singular advantages of 
his position as interpreter to the American legation 
at Peking, and afterward as secretary and acting 
minister. His work is concise, luminous, and of 
rare interest. China is a complete, coherent, and 
comprehensive organism. It is an Endogens. Its 
ideal assumes that every possible condition, social, 
religious, and political, has been recognized, ana- 
lyz^ and regulated, both as to substance and eti- 
quette. Revision is needless, alteration impossible. 
Education means the absorption by the memory of 
the entire regulative code, as it was long since form- 
ulated and expounded. The matter to be learned 
u, like the language, so wide in its scope and so 
infinitely multifarious in detail that a long life is 
too brief for its perfect mastery. Its political sys- 
tem is the reductio ad dbgurdam of what in the 
western world is the apotheosis of civil service. 
The unit is the family, in which the father is an 
autocrat; the son is a vassal ; the daughter is niL 
The son never becomes '* of age "; during his father's 
life he may not plant a separate family tree. The 
state is the larger family of which the emperor is 
the paternal head. As he is the supreme father, the 
fibres of his absolute control permeate the mass of 



[July 16, 

hundreds of millions of people, and onite him per- 
sonally with the homblest subject, who may not even 
exchange his winter garments for his sommer garb 
without permission from the vicegerent of heaven. 
Towards the highest power, next to that of the em- 
peror, any boy in the empire may aspire ; the route 
lies through a limitless jungle of education, and is 
marked by endless fences of examination. Like its 
most famous pagoda, the Chinese system is sym- 
metrical, consistent, finished, and lifeless. There 
is no place for foreign men or alien thought. There 
may be no migration, either inwards or outwards. 
The Chinese educated gentleman is like one of his 
choicest porcelain vases : elegant in form, polished 
in surface, artistic in its own way, unchangeable, 
and hollow. The china bowl floating beside the 
iron pot upon the swollen tide cried '' Keep away, 
for I am precious "; and she might have added — 
fragile. Considered as to its own premises, the at- 
titude which China has assumed toward the rest of 
the world is logically correct. The premises are 
deficient, for they ignore the indispensible element 
of vitality. The irresistible logic of events is driv- 
ing her on. Whether collision come against the 
elegant bronze of Japan, or the rougher iron of 
Russia or of England, the porcelain vase of China 
is in imminent danger. 

From China to Korea — Cho-«en, the Land of 
the Morning Calm — the transition is natural. Upon 
Korean soil came the first collision between isolar 
tion, as championed by China, and the youthful 
virility of progress, as illustrated by rejuvenated 
Japan. So much, at least, has been gained by the 
struggle, whose outcome as yet does not clearly ap- 
pear, that this land has been opened to the inspec- 
tion of the world ; and of this opportunity Mr. Sav- 
age-Landor has taken early advantage. In his brief 
visit he has seen much, which he has described in- 

Whoever may have glanced at the volumes under 
consideration will have traversed in imagination the 
wide continent of Asia. With Shoemaker he has 
stifled in the hot sands of the Black desert; with 
Lansdell has chased butterflies in the glades beneath 
the Thian Shan, and struggled on yak-back over the 
glaciers of the Saser Pass ; with Ballantine has gazed 
at the gorgeous shrines near Khatmandn ; with Rock- 
hiU has turned sadly away from inhospitable Tibet; 
with Holcombe has enjoyed a clear glimpse of Chi- 
nese political and social economy ; and with Savage- 
Landor has scampered through Korea. He would 
not willingly emerge from the glamour and the mys- 
tery of Asiatic communion, without a look at that 
farthest and fairest land where the East clasping 
hands with the West, joins the completed circuit of 
the world. With Mr. Finck this will be a rapid but 
pleasant journey. We shall see the lovely land in 
its loveliest garb of Lotus-time. The places will be 
familiar; for have we not, by proxy, visited all be- 
fore ? — the foreign drink-bars of Yokohama, and the 
bright streets of Tokyo ; ancient Nikko, with its tor- 

rents and temples, its gay bridges and its sombre ave- 
nues of cryptomerias ; modem Sapporo, where a col- 
lege of agriculture, founded by Americans and taught 
by Americans, rejoices in Jersey oows and the United 
States dialect; Hakodate, Kyoto, and imperial Fuji- 
san, — are any of these new to us ? But the fresh 
visit with so versatile a companion will be not lees 
delightful than were its predecessors. And if we, 
like him, have come with a purpose to see what we 
were looking for, we shall agree that in many respects 
Japan can show to us bustling Americans rare and 
worthy lessons in civilization of the highest type; 
such as kindly love for little children and reverent 
care of parents ; real politeness, the cherished vin- 
tage of a thousand years; a language without pro- 
fanity ; genuine altruism, and the purest and most 
unselfish patriotism. Even Shinto virtues are not 
to be despised ; they are, cleanliness, courage, cour- 
tesy, personal honor, patriotism : against such there 

" ^^ ^»^- SeLIM H. PBA.BODY. 

Briefs on Kew Books. 

Some b0auii/ki ^"- William Starr Dana's " How 
new books about to Know the Wild Flowers ** (Scrib- 
Amorieanjiowert. jj^^j seems to have proved a distinct 

success, the title-page of the revised and enlarged 
edition now published announcing the twenty-sev- 
enth thousand of the work. In this edition there 
are fifty-two new plates, making the whole number 
of flowers pictured one hundred and sixty -four. 
Some sixty new descriptions have also been added, 
and many of the old ones amplified. The drawings 
are, with two or three exceptions, made directly from 
nature by Miss Marion Satterlee. — A work of similar 
character and larger scope is the '' Wild Flowers 
of the North-Eastem States" (Putnam), which has 
been prepared (both text and drawings) by Miss 
Ellen MiUer and Miss Margaret Christine Whiting. 
This work, we understand, was undertaken some 
time before the appearance of Mrs. Dana's book, 
and its preparation has been a labor of years. Three 
hundred and eight species are included, each having 
a page of descriptive text and a full-page plate in 
illustration thereof. The most distinctive feature 
of the work is found in the fact that each drawing 
(with two or three exceptions) gives us the exact 
dimensions of the specimen from which it was taken. 
If the plant is large, like Acorua Calamus^ we have 
only the section that the page will admit ; if it is 
small, like Viola sagittata, we have an equally 
small drawing set in the midst of a great blank 
space. The carrying out of this idea made a larg^ 
page necessary, and hence the volume is a bulky 
one. Anyone familiar with our wild fiowers does 
not need to be told that the drawings for the pres- 
ent work have been made with g^eat and loving 
care, but the following note from the introduction 
is of interest : '* Days have been pleasantly spent in 
searching for a specimen which would show most 




typically the particular trick of growth, the charac* 
teristic gesture which individaalized it from all 
other plants ; often a flower has been drawn and 
described as it grew, surprised in its familiar haunt." 
An AristBma draeorUium^ slightly conventionalized, 
makes a beautiful and striking cover-decoration for 
this handsome volume. — Mr. F. Schuyler Mathews, 
in his '' Familiar Flowers of Field and Garden " 
(Appleton), has prepared a book to be read rather 
than referred to, and a charming book it is. The 
drawings are shaded instead of being the mere out- 
line sketches of the two books just described, and 
the artist has been extremely successful in getting 
the characteristic pose of his specimens. The de- 
scriptive text is accurate in fact and engaging in 
style. A peculiar point of excellence is found in 
the author's color-vocabulary, which shows how the 
eye of the painter may be enlisted, and to good pur- 
pose, in the service of science. Mr. Mathews is not 
the only student of botany who has been compelled 
to admit that Gray's descriptions are often inaccu- 
rate as far as color is concerned. The grouping of 
species in this book is by months, and an extensive 
tabular index (with floral calendar) is appended. — 
The last book in our list is by Mr. Clarence Moores 
Weed, and is called '^ Ten New England Blossoms 
and Their Insect Visitors " (Houghton). As the 
title indicates, the main interest of the book centres 
in fertilization, and the author has brought numer- 
ous curious observations of his own to the store ac- 
cumulated by his predecessors. The subject is 
always fascinating, and Mr. Weed brings it easily 
within the comprehension of the general reader. 
His illustrations, at least the larger ones, are repro- 
ductions of photog^phs. 

jfr. DuMa's " ^® ^^ ^^ Newspaper Making " 

euay* en " Netoi- (Appleton) is a Small volume into 
paper Makbig.'' which have been gathered three lec- 
tures by the veteran Mr. Charles A. Dana. The 
lectures are entitled *^ The Modem American News- 
paper," *< The Profession of Journalism," and ^ The 
Making of a Newspaper Man." That they are both 
readable and instructive goes without saying. Mr. 
Dana knows his subject and knows how to write 
entertainingly about it. He comes out strong upon 
the ethics of journalism, and even goes so far as 
to formulate a code for Uie profession. The jour- 
nalistic principles thus enunciated are for the most 
part praiseworthy indeed, but those who have stud- 
ied the way in which the '* Sun " practises these 
principles may possibly be led to think of the <* no- 
ble sentiments " of Joseph Surface. As was to be 
expected, Mr. Dana, with the usual phrases about 
^< getting all the news," and '< feeling the popular 
pulse," defends the modem practice of pandering to 
the instincts of the vulgar, and of printing accounts 
of all sorts of oeenrrences over which it were best 
to draw the veil of reticence. ^ I have always f eh," 
he says, '< that whatever the Divine Providence per- 
mitted to oceur I was not too proud to report" 
Of course the real motive of such a policy is to '^ sell 

papers," as, for the rest, Mr. Dana frankly enough 
admits. '* If any one newspaper regularly omitted 
to give an account of interesting swindles, or for- 
geries, or murders, the people would stop reading 
that paper and go off and get one where they could 
find all the news." This is the old plea of *^ I am 
no worse than the other fellows," and it is as vicious 
in journaiiBm as it is anywhere else. But few 
among journalists, we fancy, would have the sub- 
lime effrontery of Mr. Dana in introducing the Di- 
vine Ptovidence as a witness for the defence. We 
do not care to criticize these lectures in detail. Mr. 
Dana could not be expected to write any kind of a 
book without introducing a slur upon President 
Cleveland ; in the present instance Uie slur is both 
uncalled for and in the worst of taste. The arrange- 
ment of the newspaper hierarchy which places '^e 
editor at the head of things, calling him '^ the final 
authority in everything," ignores the publisher, who 
is too often the real head of a newspaper, working 
the strings of the puppet-editor from Uie counting- 
room. Mr. Dana's examples of newspaper poetry 
are not likely to become classics, and are perhaps 
best described in the phrase which calls them ** as 
good an article in that line as ever has been pro- 
duced in the past." 


One of the discoveries of the most 
^^^iamieL ™odoni Shakespearian criticism is to 

the effect that certain of the perplex- 
ing scenes in Hamlet had their origin in the desire 
for an effect not so much tragic as comic. This idea 
seems very modern indeed ; it gives the medisBval 
mind a dazed sort of feeling, mingled with its nat- 
ural contempt for newfangled notions. ''What, what, 
what!" says Grandpa; ''do you mean to say that 
Shakespeare meant to make us laugh in that won- 
derful scene between Hamlet and Ophelia? Did he 
think we should find something Fallstaffian in Uie 
awful utterances of the Ghost .'^ Is Hamlet's mad- 
ness only a bit for the low comedian ? That may be 
well enough for the higher criticism, but as far as 
I can see, it 's no more than tiie most arrant non- 
sense." It is not long ago that Mr. Wendell informed 
the world of Shakespearian scholars that Mr. John 
Corbin (now "of Harvard and Oxford") was pre- 
pared to maintain some such thesis as that indicated 
above, and not long afterward appeared Mr. Cor- 
bin's book itself— "The Elizabethan Hamlet" (im- 
ported by Scribners). It is a very interesting litde 
book. For some time it has been an idea of the stu- 
dents of " quellengeschichten " that a good deal could 
be found out concerning the lost play of Hamlet, 
which, as we know from various bits of evidence, 
was in extstenoe some ten years or more before the 
Shakespearian Hamlet was written. The story it was 
written from is known ; two plays are also known 
for which it presumably furnished the original — 
Shakespeare's Hamlet and a German play. One 
would say that we should be able to get something 
of a notion of the play itself. This is the basis of 
Mr. Corbin's study, which is weU carried out, but his 



[July 16, 

idea 18 not merelj a bit of reconBtraction ; his chief 
intention is to bring forth aomediing that will make 
a little lees remarkable some of the difficulties and 
inconsistencies which have arisen in the stody of 
Hamlet and which indeed seem to belong to the plaj 
itself. The book makes it pretty dear that in the 
old plaj there was a comic strain which, according 
to the fanmor of the time, included much that to us 
would not be comic at all, that there is a good deal 
of the old tragedy left in the Hamlet we are famil- 
iar with, and finally that some rather perplexing 
things in the modem Hamlet may be traced to this 
source. These are interesting points, and Mr. Cor- 
bin sustains them sufficiently by the yarions means 
at the disposition of the student of the Elizabethan 
drama. The book is a good example of a study in 
literary sources that is of really practical use in mak- 
ing some masterpiece more comprehensible. 

Thrmftguret That part of the public who beUere 
MiiiMHean that America, if she has not yet 

literaim^ reached her intellectual golden age, 

has at any rate evolved a written product which 
should excite the interest of all her loyal sons, will 
welcome a new book by Professor Moses Coit Tyler, 
called << Three Men of Letters" (Putnam), and 
issued between two important epochs in his monu- 
mental history of our literature. George Berkeley, 
hitherto greeted mainly as the author of '< West- 
ward the course of empire takes its way," here ap- 
pears as the philanthropic idealist who would have 
dedicated this nation in its early day to learning 
and religion, by means of the mammoth university 
which Walpole's politic but broken promise failed 
to support with financial aid. President Dwight of 
Tale is depicted as the ascetic student seeking men- 
tal liberation through starvation of body, and as the 
author of the imitative pastoral poem, *^ Greenfield 
Hill." << The Columbiad," one of our early would-be 
epics, far greater in conception than in execution, 
is described in connection with the ambition, the 
self-complacency, and the miscellaneous avocations 
of its author, Mr. Joel Barlow. It is profitable to 
see these figures against the background of contem- 
porary Europe, — to know that Swift's '^ Vanessa " 
left Dean Berkeley a oozy legacy, that the amiable 
Cowper criticised Dwight's inevitable epic and 
praised one of his sermons, that Barlow, in the 
troublous time of the Reign of Terror, was made a 
French citizen by the National Convention. Such 
unexpected historical encounters, together with the 
author's pure style, his lurking humor, his occasional 
tone of mild satire not preventing f oU and cordial 
appreciation, make the little book delightful to read 
and a charming earnest of greater things to come. 

The study of crime and the criminal 
fJlaS'jaULt i« i«Mt now popular. Within . few 

years a whole literature m Gnmm- 
ology or Criminal Anthropology (the latter an un- 
fortunate term) has grown up. In the book before 
us, <<The Female Offender," by C»sar Lombroso 

and William Ferreri, we have the first volume in a 
*^ Criminology Series" (Appleton). There may be 
question as to the wisdom of greatly ** populariz- 
ing " the subject. Everyone would promj^y ad- 
mit that judges, lawyers, teachers, leaders of all 
kinds, ought to know the recent studies upon crim- 
inals, and to fully realize that ^^ bom criminals " 
exist, that degeneration in physical structure and 
mental endowment often accompany and evidence 
moral imbecility, and that many a criminal is only 
an unfortunate and irresponsible being. But it is 
certain that too much multiplication and populariz- 
ation of these ideas will remove the feeling of re- 
sponsibility from weak but normal or from slightly 
abnormal natures and lead to much unnecessary 
crime. Whether a ** criminology series " wodk good 
or harm depends much upon its editor. The 
Messrs. Appletons have been fortunate in their choice 
of Mr. W. Douglass Morrison for so delicate a task. 
His introductory chapter to this volume is one of 
the clearest and simplest presentations of the claims 
of criminology in any lang^uage. As for the book 
itself, it considers woman as Lombroso's Uomo De- 
linquente (Criminal Man) considered man. The 
woman criminal is studied physically and mentally. 
The work has most of the strong and weak points 
of its predecessor, but, on the whole, is more cau- 
tious and conservative. After analysis of the crim- 
inal woman, a synthesis of elements is made and 
several types are studied — the bom criminal, the 
occasional criminal, the criminal of passion, and 
hysterical and epileptic criminals. The publishers 
have done their part well, but we must regret the 
wretched system of numbering and referencing the 
rather poor plates which illustrate the work. The 
editor might properly have improved here upon the 
customary slipshod methods of the famous author. 

A /(ueimaiing ae- ^^ Other phase of nineteenth-century 
oomutifthB^^Ub- history offers so tempting a theme 
eroMofi qf liaip.*^ ^^^ historical treatment as the Italian 
Biaorgimento. The right man for the task has not 
yet appeared, and perhaps the time is not quite ripe 
for his appearance, but when he comes he wiU find 
ready to his hand a story no less interesting than 
that of the French Revolution, the English Com- 
monwealth, or the repulse of the Persian by the 
Greek. Meanwhile, the story has been outlined by 
a number of writers, although sudi treatment as it 
has yet received, even at the hands of Beuchlin, is 
obviously provisional. In English, three attempts 
to tell the story have been made : that of Mr. John 
Webb Probyn, clean-cut and matter-of-fact ; that of 
Mr. William Roscoe Thayer, sympathetic but ver- 
bose ; and that of the Countess Martineng^o-Cesar- 
esco, called «'The Liberation of Italy, 1815--1870," 
and just now published in the << Events of Our Own 
Time " series (Scribner) . The author has had pecu- 
liar advantages in the preparation of tiiis work. She 
has known many of the Italian leaders, has had ac- 
cess to a great number of unpublished documents, 
and has visited the scenes of most of the events 




^rOimt Soot,'' 

chionicled. On tbis latter point, she writes: '<I 
am familiar with almost all the places where they 
ooeonredy from the heights of Calatafimi to the on- 
happy rock of Lissa.*' This has given her the 
advantage that Cartios had in writing the history 
of Greece, and Colonel T. A. Dodge in describing 
the battles of his <' Great Commanders." Inspired 
throughout by intense sjrmpathy for the Italian 
cause, and written from abundant knowledge in an 
attractive style, this book may be read as one reads 
a novel, and with interest equally unabated. 

<< The Yellow Book " has been made 
the victim of a good deal of abuse 
on account of its decadent tendencies 
in both literature and art, the abuse, although ex- 
travagant, not being entirely unwarranted. But the 
publication seems to survive in spite of attack, and 
now comes up smiling with its fifth quarterly issue, 
dated April, 1895, and supplied in this country by 
Messrs. Copeland & Day. Among the contents of 
thb volume we note an amusing story by Mr. H. D. 
Tnull ; a forced and turgid ode by Mr. William 
Watson ; <' The Phantasies of Philarete," a story by 
Mr. James Ashcrof t Noble ; one of Dr. Gamett's 
finely-chiseUed sonnets; a charming sketch (in 
French) by M. Anatole France, and an appreciative 
study of Uiat writer by the Hon. Maurice Baring. 
A periodical that can boast of such collaboration as 
this, and of contributions by Messrs. Grosse, Ken- 
neth Grahame, Henry Harland, and John Davidson 
besides — all within the compass of a single, issue — 
need not fear to lift its head boldly in the most crit- 
ical of literary circles. For the art of the present 
volume, there is not much to be said. It is some- 
times interesting, but that is aU. 


**A Reader's Guide to Contemporary Literature" 
(Putnam) is a << First Supplement " to Mr. William Swan 
Sonnenschein's «The Best Books,'* published in 1891. 
It is practioally a classified list of aU the books of any 
importance pnblbhed during the past five years in the 
principal languages of Europe. In many oases, brief 
eharaeterixations of the books are given. Enormous 
labor mnst have gone to the preparation of this vol- 
ume, which oontains nearly eight hundred quarto pages, 
and which is simply indispensable to the librarian as 
well as to collectors or students in special fields. 

The exquisite Dent series of volumes devoted to ** The 
Lyric Poets " (Maomillan) now includes a selection of 
** Lyrical Poetry from the Bible,** edited by Mr. Ernest 
Rhys. The selections are mostly from the Pbalms and 
the Book of Job. There is an introdnctory essay which 
says fitly the things that should be said in such a place, 
and an appended ** historical synopsb ** of the selections 
printed. A seoond volume, to contain passages from 
the Prophets and the Song of Songs, is promised. For 
frontispiece, Blake's *<When the morning stats sang 
together ** is reproduced. 

For the << English Readings'* series of text-books 
(Holt), B£r. Clinton Scollard has prepared a carefully- 

aanoUted edition of Ford's « The Broken Heart." We 
are glad to see that noble tragedy thus brought into the 
classroom. B£r. Hammond Lament, in the same series, 
collects into a small volume a dozen of what he calls 
" Specimens of Exposition," for the purpose of training 
the student in preparing analyses of extended discus- 
sions. The selections range from Mommsen to a New 
York newspaper, and, in subject, from the steam-engine 
to Wordsworth. Another help for the instructor in 
English is Professor Cornelius B. Bradley's volume of 
"Orations and Arguments by English and American 
Statesmen" (Allyn). There are nine examples: two 
from Burke, one each from Chatham, Erskine, Webster, 
Macanlay, Calhoun, Seward, and Lincoln. The notes 
are ample and judicious. 


No Courts of Love, you say, no Courts of Love 
Did ever meet ? Pedant, go to ( What trance 
Hss touched you now ? By all the gods above, 
Leave us this sweet romance. 

You 11 next abolish all the knights a-tilt 
Beneath the light of golden ladies' eyes, 
And all the rainbow circle poets built 
That sat to judge the prize. 

No gallant knight e'er pricked along the plain 
Keen the fire-breathing dragon to oppose. 
Or in his woodland drwun was ever fain 
To pluck the Rose. 

You 11 take the very rose itself away. 
With all the long-drawn sweet of its romaunt; 
My iridescent dragon, too, yon 11 say 
Those woods did never haunt. 

No Courts of Love ! What pall is this comes down 
On all the widespread stillness of the place ? 
No Courts of Love, no queen, no rose, no crown I 
Sad grows the human face. 

It must not, shall not be. Though fall to dust 
The reverend ark itself and its white dove, 
Dear Science, spite of all your proofs, we must 
Still keep the Courts of Love I 

Martha Foote Crow. 


Mr. Edward Arnold, the London publisher, has just 
established an American branch of his business, at 70 
Fifth avenue. New York. 

We learn with regret that Mr. Walter H. Page has 
resigned the editorship of <<The Forum," which has 
been, under his management, our most dignified and 
authoritative monthly review. 

Mr. W. J. Courthope is a candidate for the chair of 
poetry at Oxford, shcurtiy to be vacated by Professor 
Palgrave, and his candidacy is so strongly supported 
that election seems a foregone conclusion. 

Messrs. P. Blakiston, Son ft Go. announce that their 
medical publications will hereafter be sold at absolutely 
net prices throughout the United States, and have, to 
this effect, made a general reduction from the prices 
hitherto published. 



[July 16, 

A committee of French scholars, aided by a subven- 
tion from the State, has for some time been engaged in 
preparing a new and complete edition of the writings 
of Descartes. The work will probably be completed by 
the close of this century. 

The New York Shakespeare Society will this sum- 
mer begin to print, in " Bankside " style, a five-text 
** Hamlet.^ Copies may be subscribed for only by mem- 
bers of the Society, or by others through members, prior 
to the printing of the first sheet. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. will publish « The Ameri- 
can Historical Review," and the first quarterly issue is 
promised for October. The board of editors consists 
of six well-known professors, from as many universities, 
while Professor J. F. Jameson, of Providence, R. I., 
will act as managing editor. 

A large number of representative English scholars 
and authors have signed a congratulatory address to be 
presented to Mr. George Haven Putnam, in recognition 
of the efforts made by him and his father, the late 6. 
P. Putnam, to obtain from the United States Govern- 
ment a law for the protection of the literary property 
of foreigners. 

Dr. Suphan, the learned Director of the Goethe- und 
Schiller- Archiv at Weimar, communicated at the last 
general meeting of the Goethe-Gesellschaf t an interest- 
ing find, consisting of the poet's effusions during his 
student days at Leipzig. It is entitled ** Annette," in 
honor of Anna Katharina Schdnkopf, and bears the date 
of "Leipzig, 1767." 

Mr. F^derick Locker -Lampson, says "The Book 
Buyer," completed a volume of literary reminiscences 
just before his death, which will soon appear, edited by 
Mr. Augustine Birrell. It is said to have been finally 
decided that the magnificent library of the dead poet, 
" the Rowfant books," will not come under the hammer, 
but remain intact in the possession of his family. 

Topics in Ii£Ai>iN6 Periodicals. 

Jidy, 1896 (Second List). 

Aimadillo, The. Charles H. Coe. Popular Science, 
Art-Teaohioff to the Masses. Forum. 
Asiatic Travel, Books on. S. H. Peabody. Dial (July 16) . 
BaIfoar*8 Dialectics. Herbert Spenoer. Popular Science, 
Child Life and the Kindergarten. F. B. Vrooman. Arena, 
Climate and Health. Charles F. Taylor. Pop. Science, 
Cobbe, Frances Power. Anna B. MoMahan. Dial (July 16). 
" Coin's Financial School.** W. H. Harvey. No. American, 
*^ Coin's Financial School.'* J. Lanrenoe Lang^hlin. Forum, 
Cooper's Literary Offences. Mark Twain. No. American, 
Cnnency, Sonnd. William Salomon. Forum, 
Degeneration : A Reply. Max Nordau. North American. 
Degenerates, Protection Against. Max Nordau. Forum. 
Bgypt, Contemporary. Frederic C. Penfiekl. No, American, 
Fast Di^s, New England's. Alioe M. Earle. Dta/ ( July 16). 
Freeman, Edwaid A. Benjamin S. Teny. Dial (July 16). 
Heredity, Morbid. M. Ch. VM. Popular Science, 
Huxley, Thomas Henry. Dto/ (July 16). 
Income-Tax Decision. G^rge F. Edmunds. Forum. 
Jury System, A Medical Study of the. Popular Science. 
Kidd's '' Sodal £volutioB." Theo. Roosevelt. No, American. 
Literary Taste, Decay of. Edmund Gosse. No, American, 
Mayan Hieroglyphios. Frederick Starr. Dial (July 16). 
Money, A New Philosophy of. A. J. Webb. Arena, 
Phillips, Wendell. Richud J. Hinton. Arena, 
l^ver, Tne, Effects of. E. O. Leech. North American. 
Single Tax, Hie. Sarah M.Qay and Frances RuHell. Arena, 
Sooth, Indnstrial Future of the. F. G. MalJier. No, American, 

liisT OF Xew Books. 

[J%e following Ztst, eofifatntfiijF 66 titUt, indudea booke 
oeived by Thb Dial since ite kut issue,'] 


Legenda of Florence. Collected from the Pecmle and Re- 
told by Charles Godfrey Leland (Hans Breitmaan). 

"Fvnt series. 12nio, gilt top, unont, pp. 271. Macmillan 

<feCo. $1.75. 
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« > 

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[Aug. 1, 1896, 

■« 1 



By Grant Allsn. A new volume in the Library of Useful 
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•. This timely book is a hel]^f ol and instrnotiye addition to this 
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I < 


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''The snbtlei^, imaf^native quality, and power of peyoholo^ 
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No. tl9. AUGUST 1, 1896. Vol. XIX. 




W.Julian 68 

MODERN ART CRITICISM. John C. Van Dyke . . 70 

SOME NEW BOTANIES. John M. Coulter .... 74 
Wumiog's A Handbook off Syttematio Boteay. — 
Vmai'8 A Sindents* Texi-Book of Botany. — Von 
l's The Natnzal Hiatory of Planta. 


Napoleon's fall and the rise of WeUington. — life and 
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ezeontion of Mary, Queen of Soots.— Fifth Tolume of 
the " Writinga of Jefferson." — Some literary autobi- 
ography from Bfr. Howells. — A helpful book for 






In pursuanoe of a long-established custom, 
** The AthensBum " for July 6 publishes a se- 
ries of articles upon the literary output of the 
past year in the chief countries of Continental 
Europe. These articles are fourteen in num- 
ber, and include every country of any literary 
importance, ¥nth the single exception of Port- 

ugal. We propose, as in past years, to sum- 
marize the more important information pre- 
sented by these articles, in our present issue 
taking up France and Belgium together with 
the countries of Teutonic speech, and reserving 
for a subsequent review the remaining articles, 
chiefly devoted to the countries of Southern 
and Eastern Europe. 

^'Literary activity in France,'* writes M. 
Joseph Reinach, '^ continues to be extremely 
prolific ; indeed, the output becomes greater in 
quantity year by year, but it would scarcely be 
true to say that during the last twelve months 
its quality has been either exceptionally bril- 
liant or of particularly solid merit." It is still 
the fashion in France to publish memoirs, and 
^^ everybody's sons and grandsons are busy ran- 
sacking the family desks and drawers in the 
search for letters and other ^ remains ' of their 
forbears." The most important works of this 
class have been the memoirs of the Chancelier 
Pasquier, of Oeneral Thi^baud, and of Barras. 
Barras has been something of a disappointment. 
^* His scandalous chatter offers no serious rev- 
elations ; the man, save for his performances 
on the 9th of Thermidor, was one of the most 
vulgar figures in the history of the Revolution, 
and his untrustworthiness as a historian is only 
equalled by his duplicity as a statesman." In 
contemporary history the following publications 
have been noticeable : Two volumes of a ^^ His- 
toire G^n^rale du Second Empire," by M. de 
la Gorce; a continuation of M. Alfred Du- 
quet's ^' Histoire Militaire du Siege de Paris 
par les Prussiens," ^' the most important work 
dealing with the war of 1870 which has yet 
been published in France "; the first volume of 
M. Emile Ollivier's '« L'Empire Liberal "; and 
General Lebrun's posthumous book on his se- 
cret embassy to Vienna. Among political 
works are mentioned M. J. J. Weiss's post- 
humous ^^ Combats Constitutionuels," M. Ren^ 
Millet's ^^ L'Expansion de France," and M. 
Eugene Eichthal's '^ Souverainet^ du Peuple et 
Gouvemement." M. Brunetiere's article on 
the ^^ bankruptcy of science " and M. Berthol- 
ot's reply thereto have both been published in 
permanent form. In literary history and crit- 
icism, mention is made of M. Gaston Paris, 



[Aug. 1, 

with his lectures on the poetiy of the Middle 
Ages ; M. Monod, with his studies of Taine, 
Renan, and Michelet ; the ^^ Livre du Centen- 
aire de I'Ecole Normale "; and half a dozen 
volumes in the series of ^^ Grands Ecrivains 
Fran^ais." Important works of art include the 
sixth volume of '^ L'Histoire de T Art dans 1' An- 
tiquity," by MM. Perrot et Chipiez ; " L'His- 
toire Ancienne des Peuples de I'Orient Clas- 
sique," by M. Maspero ; the completion of M. 
Miintz's ^* Histoire de T Art pendant la Ren- 
aissance Italienne "; the beginning of M. Col- 
lignon's " Histoire de la Sculpture Grecque," 
and M. Gaston Boissier's essays on ^* L' Af rique 
Bomaine." It is interesting to learn that M. 
Perrot ^^ is a stylist as well as a savant^^^ and 
that *^ his prose is always limpid and elegant." 
Readers of the astonishingly bad English trans- 
lation of his work would hardly suspect him of 
such qualities. In travel and description, M. 
Bourget's " Outre-Mer," and " Pierre Loti's" 
two books on '* Jerusalem " and ^' Le Desert," 
are singled out for a few words of praise. The 
only thing really new and noteworthy in poetry 
seems to have been the *' Pleureuses " of M. 
Henri Barbusse, ^* less a series of pieces than 
one long poem purely subjective in tone, and 
coached in the form of a reverie, telling of the 
charm of mourning and shadows, of solitude 
and sorrow." The most brilliant work of fic- 
tion produced by the year is *^ Le Lys Rouge " of 
M. Anatole France. *^ It is true that we are 
getting rather tired of aristocratic liaisons^ and 
some passages in this book are outrageously 
licentious. But it is a flawlessly beautiful piece 
of prose, and the descriptions of Florence are 
a series of exquisite pictures. No one has ever 
succeeded in conveying the peculiar charm of 
that delightful city more completely than M. 
France." The same author has published ^^ Le 
Jardin d'Epicure," a volume of philosophical 
chats, and ^* Le Puits de Samte-Claire," a col- 
lection of tales. The most noteworthy of other 
novels are " Les Demi-Vierges " of M. Pro- 
vost, " L' Armature " of M. Hervieu, the 
♦* Myrrha " of M. Lemaitre, the " Fors I'Hon- 
neur " of M. Margueritte, and *^ Le Silence " 
and ^' Les Roches Blanches " of M. Edouard 

Professor Paul Fredericq is the Belgian con- 
tributor to this series, and lays particular stress 
upon the department of social science, instanc- 
ing the ^^ Essais et Etudes " of Emile de Lavel- 
eye, the ^^ Depression Economique et Sociale " 
of M. Hector Denis, and the ^^ Organisation de 
la Libert^ et le Devoir Social " of M. A. Prins, 

among other works upon social problems. 
^^ Les Mysteres de Mithra," by Professor Cu- 
mont, and an ^^ Etude Historique sur les Cor- 
poration Professionnelles chez les Remains," 
by Professor J. P. Waltzing, are named as the 
most important publications in ancient history. 
Passing by the books of travel and of Belgian 
history enumerated, we come to literature 
proper. M. Maeterlinck, it seems, while being 
himself translated into Polish and other lan- 
guages, has been translating Emerson and No- 
valis into French. In literary history, there 
is Professor Thomas's ** Histoire de la Littera- 
ture Latine jusqu'aux Antonins," and M. Paul 
Hamelius's ^^ Histoire Politique et Litt^raire 
du Mouvement Flamand." Flemish literature 
also flourishes, counting among its products the 
^' Letterkundige Studien " of M. Rooses, ^^ De 
^sthetieck van het Lyrisch Drama " of M. A. 
Comette, and volumes of poems by Mile. Hilda 
Ram, M. Emmanuel Hiel, and M. Pol de 
Mont. Fiction is represented chiefly by the 
'^ Boerenkrijg " of M. van den Bergh, a story 
of the insurrection of the peasants of Flanders 
against the conscription of the first French 
Republic ; " Sursum Corda," by M. Cyriel 
Buysse, a novel descriptive of the aristocratic 
classes, with their narrowness, their prejudice, 
and their complete subjection to clerical dicta- 
tion ; and two novels — *^ Eene Idylle " and ^'De 
Bruid des Heeren " — by Mile. Virginie Love- 
ling, ^^the chief of modem Flemish prose 

It is an easy transition from Belgium to Hol- 
land, and we turn to M. Taoo de Beer's report 
from the latter country. ^^ The younger gen- 
eration have most of them abandoned poetry 
altogether," he says ; the reader who widies to 
know what they have done is referred to Heer 
van Hall's *^ Dichters van Onzen Ti jd," an ex- 
cellent anthology. Dr. Jan ten Brink of Ley- 
den has begun die publication of an illustrated 
history of literature in the Netherlands. Un- 
interrupted activity is shown in historical writ- 
ing. In fiction, the tale of country life and 
the novel of the Dutch colonies are mentioned 
as two species that seem to be dying out. A 
few novels are singled out for extended men- 
tion, but none of them described with much 
enthusiasm. Among these are the ^* Geheiligd " 
of Miss Marie Gyzen, the ^* Zonder lUusie " 
of Mrs. Therese Hoven, and the ^* Sascha " of 
a new author who calls himself ^* Prosper van 
Haamstede " for purposes of the pen. 

The article on Grermany, by Hofrath Zim- 
mermann, is much the longest of the series. 




To begin with, he tells of yolumes of poetry 
without end, describing at considerable length 
the ^* Bobespierre " epic of Frl. delle Grazie 
and the didactic poem ^^Fanst und Prome- 
theus " of Herr Hango. In the former, ^' the 
author developes her conception of the French 
Bevolution in a series of varied, efiFective pic- 
tures, sometimes, however, degenerating into 
coarseness." Of the latter we read : ^* His 
Faust is not Gretohen's Faust, but his ^ grand- 
son '; it is not love-making, but investigation 
of the universe, that engages him ; Prometheus, 
the thief of fire, kindles the torch for him, too, 
which illumines the darkness of the eternal 
riddle of nature and humanity. Dealing with 
the science of to-day, whose teachings he ren- 
ders in luminous parables and melodious verses, 
the i)oet, with commendable outspokenness, 
declares himself against the lawlessness that 
follows in its train as well as the gloomy pes- 
simism which is built up upon it." Herr Nor- 
dau has published a play, ^' Die Kugel," which 
has not proved successful. Herr Sudermann's 
comedy, ^' Die Schmetterlingsschlacht," was a 
failure in Berlin and a success in Vienna. It 
**' is more suggestive of a contest between loath- 
some, poisonous spiders than one between light 
but lovely buttei4ies." The same writer has 
scored the greatest success of the year in fic- 
tion with his novel "Es War." "A deep 
moral tone breathes through the whole; the 
descriptions of the country and the people that 
appear in it have a NorUi German, or, to be 
more accurate. East Prussian character ; the 
local coloring of the language, the mode of 
thought, the conduct of life, are singularly 
succ^ful." Herr Spielhagen's latest novel, 
** Stumme des Himmels," is described as lack- 
ing in lifelike character. It ^^ possesses neither 
a i)olitical nor a social purpose ; it only deals 
with a question of society, and a tolerably well- 
worn one, being an onslaught on aristocratic 
prejudices." The ^' professorial " novel seems 
to be played out, neither the ^' Cleopatra " of 
Herr Ebers nor the ^^ Julian der Abtninnige " 
of Herr Dahn having succeeded in effacing the 
memory of their predecessors. Other fiction 
of note includes ^^ Wider den Kurfursten," by 
Herr Hans Hoffmann, a tale of the siege of 
Stettin in 1678 ; ''Die Martinsklause," by Herr 
Ludwig Granghofer; and shorter stories by 
Herr Heyse and Fran von Ebner-Esohenbaoh. 
Bismarck literature naturally cuts a large fig- 
ure in the work of the year, and includes a five- 
volume biography by Herr Hans Blum, a col- 
lection of Fiirst Bismarck's speeches, a new 

volume of '* Tischgesprache " (including some 
interesting conversations with Motley), and 
even the first issue of a Bismarck '' Jalurbuch." 
Professor von Sybel's ''Geschichte der Be- 
griindung des Deutschen Beichs durch Wil- 
helm I.," of which the sixth and seventh vol- 
umes have appeared during the year, is vir- 
tually a biography of the Iron Chancellor. 
Goetiie literature is represented by Herr Bich- 
ard Meyr's essays, and Shakespeare literature 
by Herr E. Bormann's '' Shakespeare-Geheim- 
niss," which latter, '' in its curious handling of 
the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy, surpasses 
all its American and European predecessors in 
grotesque invention. According to this author. 
Bacon's Instapratio Magna consists of two 
parts, the one scientific and written in prose 
under his own name, the other symbolic, in 
dramatic form, under the pseudonym Shake- 
speare. Herr Bormann finds hints of the solu- 
tion of this riddle, in particular in the names 
of the characters ; thus in ' Hamlet ' the soldier 
Francisco is no other than Francis Bacon, while 
Horatio, who to Bernardo's question, 'What, is 
Horatio here ? ' replies, ' A piece of him,' de- 
sired thereby to designate the wisdom (Ho- 
ratio) of Bacon, which was embodied in him I " 
Germany has lost two great men during the 
year, Freytag and Carriere* Of the latter, 
described as "the most eloquent and purest 
representative " of idealism, there have been 
published three books : '' Christus," '' Das 
Wachsthum der Energie," and " Fichte's Geis- 
tesentwickelung." They "breathe the same 
enthusiastic inspiration, and reveal the same 
passion for beauty " as the older works by which 
Carriere is so widely known. 

Dr. Alfred Ipsen, writing of Danish litera- 
ture, tells us that Denmark exhibits some symp- 
toms of a renascence of poetry, and, in fiction, 
"a tendency toward symbolism and sundry 
vague forms of mysticism." Herr Draohmann 
has, in " Volund Smed," given political hand- 
ling to a familiar Eddaic myth, the work being 
characterized by an "exuberant and some- 
what sentimentid sensnoaaness." HerrJ.Jor- 
gensen's " Bekendelse " is a beautiful collec- 
tion of poems. " A characteristic of this au- 
thor, as of others of the younger generation, is 
a certain monotony and a total absence of ideas ; 
everything is emotional with them, and there 
is a tone of archaism in their imagery." The 
most important novel of the year is " Hjarl," 
by Herr Einar Christiansen. " The book is by 
no means sensational, but recounts plainly and 
quietly the story of a young man from his boy- 



[Aug. 1, 

hood in a rich, aristocratic, bat somewhat mo- 
notonous home, his hopes and strivings and his 
disappointments and shortcomings, tdling it in 
an earnest tone, which moves the reader with- 
out being in the least sentimental." Another 
noteworthy novel is by Herr Schandorph, called 
" The College Years of Vilhehn Vang," which 
pictures 'Hhe hidden opposition between in- 
herited culture and the modem plutocracy." 
^* As for books on literature, the year has fur- 
nished a crop uncommonly rich in quality. 
There are at least two voluminous studies of 
more than usual ability : a monograph on Swed- 
ish Bomanticism (the literature of the first 
half of the present century), a beautiful book 
written in a somewhat rough style, by Herr Y. 
Yedel ; and a large monograph on Poul Mol- 
ler, a Danish poet of the same period, by Herr 
Yilhelm Andersen, a young and promising stu- 
dent of our literature." 

Norway was not represented in the ^^ Athen- 
aeum " summary of a year ago, and perhaps it 
is for this reason that the Norwegian corre- 
spondent, Dr. C. Brinchmann, does not confine 
himself to the happenings of a single year, but 
roves somewhat indefinitely over the whole field 
of recent literature. He purposely says little 
of the two men who chiefiy represent Norwe- 
gian literature, because their recent works are 
already familiar enough to English readers. 
The man who stands next to them in import- 
ance is Herr Lie, whose latest work, ^^ Lystige 
Koner," is not a novel, but a play. It is said 
to have made *' rather a weak impression." 
Herr Garborg has just published a tale in verse, 
^* Haugtussa," in which ^^he relates the sad 
love story of a young peasant girl who grows 
up amongst the cattle and the ling -covered 
hills. The girl is a visionary who holds con- 
verse with fairies and other supernatural be- 
ings, and some parts of the book contain so 
much naively gentle poetry that one is amazed 
how Garborg's morbidly refieotive mind could 
have produced it." '^ Det Store Lod," the lat- 
est piece of Herr Gnnnar Heiberg, the dram- 
atist, '^ describes the influence of money on an 
enthusiastic idealist." Herr Knut Hamsun, 
one of the newer men, is made the subject of 
a paragraph, which concludes with mention of 
^* Pan," characterized as ^^ a wonderful book, 
notable for deep and genuinely poetic descrip- 
tions of nature and daring love scenes," and 
the drama, " Yed Bigets Port," a ^* weak and 
rather ordinary production." The best known 
of women writers, Camilla CoUett, died a few 
months ago, and we are told of the rest that, 

with the exception of Fru Amalie Skram, they 
*^ scarcely need to be mentioned from the point 
of view of art." Other items of interest are 
the continuation of Herr Jaeger's history of 
Norwegian literature, and Herr Collin's ^^Kunst 
og Moral," which ** gallantly takes the field 
against the immoralities of naturalism, and 
warmly insists that the laws of morality should 
be respected even in art." 

Swedish literature, with which we close this 
section of our summary, is discussed by Herr 
Hugo Tigerschiold. '*The Swedish poetical 
temperament, strongly influenced by its natural 
environment of vast and sombre forests, widely 
extending lakes, and foss-broken streams, is 
fundamentally lyrical. The simple, melan- 
choly tone of a folk-song runs through all true 
Swedish poetry." A number of lyrists have 
published during the past year, representing 
both the older and the newer schools. Beal- 
ism, it seems, is losing its hold in Sweden, and 
'* a strong bent towards romanticism and sym- 
bolism is observable in every direction." This 
dictum is illustrated by mention of several 
works of fiction, the most noticeable being Fm 
Mailing's ^^ En Boman om FiSrste Konsuln." 
This book is described as '^containing un- 
usually elefi:ant and intimate sketches of the 
most ^marbTble personages who lived daring 
the earlier stage of Napoleon's career. With 
the exception of Napoleon himself, who is too 
romantically drawn, and the heroine (the youth- 
ful Edm^e), a prettily poetic creature, the 
other numerous personages in the romance are 
excellent portraits. This romance, which tes- 
tifies to careful study, especially of the memoir 
writers of the period, is marked by quite an 
extraordinary power of vivid and concentrated 
character-sketching." The Bellman and Gtis- 
taf Adolf commemorative festivals, both held 
during the past year, are discussed at some 
length, and each has stimulated the production 
of a considerable literature. Herr Yictor Byd- 
berg is represented by '^ Yaria," a volume con- 
taining the ** pieces written by him of late years, 
pieces in which the author, with youthful en- 
thusiasm, goes forth to combat modem mater- 
ialism." Herr Tigerschiold's paper ends with 
the following bit of news : ^^ Ilie Swedish Au- 
thors' Union, which published its first literary 
calendar at Christmas, with contributions from 
many of our most eminent authors, has peti- 
tioned the Gt)vemment for several necessary 
modifications to the legislation referring to lit- 
erature, with a view to Sweden's accession to 
the Berne Convention." 




tH^^t ISOn ISooto* 

"Tble Comixg Continknt.*' * 

Victor Hugo's prediction that in the twen- 
tieth century Africa would be the cynosure of 
every eye seems ahready in a fair way of ful- 
filment. According to a later dictum, of Lord 
Salisbury, ^* foreign politics" already means 
for England African politics ; and what Europe 
in general thinks of the natural resources and 
political possibilities of the ^'coming continent " 
may be gathered from the broad fact that of 
its total area of 12,000,000 square miles she 
has left unappropriated only about 1,000,000, 
which are confined to the sandy wastes of the 
Libyan Desert and the powerful and inacces- 
sible States of the Soudan. Africa contains 
about one-quarter of the land of the globe, her 
area being more than thrice Europe's, or almost 
as much as North and South America's com- 
bined ; and as one-fifth of her surface consists 
of rich savannas, and one-half of imperfectly 
tilled fields and fairly fertile virgin soil, the 
Malthnsian danger in its broader aspect would 
seem to be, in our era of swift transport and 
world-wide commercial solidarity, relegated to 
the dim future, even for the populous countries 
of Western Europe. 

A popular general account of this deeply 
interesting transitional Africa of to-day, with 
its unique confrontation of the old and the 
new, the polished and the barbaric, which may 
serve in lieu of first-hand impressions that very 
few of us are likely to attain, is a need which 
is now satisfactorily met by Mr. Frank Yin- 
cent's ^^ Actual Africa." Mr. Vincent is a 
veteran traveller who needs no introduction in 
that capacity to our readers; and his latest 
work shows the same modest merits of pith and 
literalness of statement, and abstention from 
heightened colors and strained contrasts, which 
have made his widely-read volume on South 
America a favorite with readers in want of 
plain information. Leaving to more florid pens 
the task of painting the marvels and dilating 
on the mysterious and legendary past of the 
mighty continent that has inspired the literary 
fancy since the times of Herodotus and Strabo, 
he contents himself with setting forth in sim- 
ple prose such simple facts of actual observa- 
tion as any plain traveller seeking information 
would wish to gather for himself. If a certain 

* AoTUAii Afbioa ; or. The Coming Continent. A Tour of 
Ezplomtion. By fVank Vincent. Dlnstrated. New York: 
D. AppletoB A Co. 

flavor of the guide-book is now and then mani- 
fest in Mr. Vincent's work, that does not, at 
least, impair its usefulness. ^^ Actual Africa " 
is the fruit of two years' travel, within which 
period the continent was circled, and several 
deep dips were taken into the interior — ^notably 
one, by river and caravan-road, to the capital 
of the famous Basongo chieftain, Pania Mu- 
tembo, in the heart of the Congo Free State. 
Nearly all the capitals and large towns, native 
and foreign, of the seaboard countries were 
visited ; Madagascar was traversed ; a long ex- 
cursion was made through the centre of the 
Boer Republics and British Colonies ; the Nile, 
Quanza, Congo, Kassai, Sankuru, and Kuilu 
rivers were ascended ; and a ditotir was made 
by Madeira, the Canaries, and the Cape Yerdes. 
The author's attention was about evenly divided 
between the native States, with their depen- 
dencies, on the one hand, and European pos- 
sessions and protectorates, on the other ; and 
it may perhaps be objected that a rather dis- 
proportionate amount of space (over a third of 
the volume) 'is given to the already familiar 
Mediterranean countries, which are now well 
within the orbit even of ^* conducted " tourists. 
Mr. Vincent is a quick observer and a succinct 
writer ; and while anything like a fair rSsumS 
of his very copious record is out of the ques- 
tion here, a few random passages from the more 
noteworthy chapters may serve as samples of 
the whole. 

An interesting account is given of Kimber- 
ley, the capital and centre of the diamond min- 
ing district. Kimberley is a progressive mod- 
em city, with its population of 80,000, its 
tramways, electric lighting, cabs, good shops, 
hotels, theatres, daily papers, and Botanical 
Garden. The four great mines, the Kimberley, 
the De Beers, and the Bulf ontein and Dutoits- 
pan, lie on the outskirts of the town, and are 
now united under the control of the De Beers 
Consolidated Mines, Limited, with a capital of 
$20,000,000, a sum about equalling the annual 
output. During the past twenty years South 
Africa has exported over fifty nulUons of car- 
ats of diamonds, of a total value of $875,000,- 
000 ; so that, a carat equalling four grains, the 
weight of diamonds exported has amounted to 
about fifteen tons I The Kimberley gems pre- 
sent a great variety of colors — green, blue, 
pink, brown, yellow, orange, eto., with the in- 
termediate tints. The stones vary in size from 
those of that of a pin's head to one found a few 
years ago in the De Beers Mine, which weighed 
in the rough 428^ carats, and measured (un- 



[Aug. 1, 

cat} nearly two inches throagh the longest axis. 
About 12,000 natives are now employed, night 
and day, in the mines, under the supervision 
of some 1800 Europeans. 

« Formerly there was a great deal of diamond steal- 
ing by native diggers and dishonest buying by white 
merchants. It is even said that these thieyes stole one- 
qoarter of the entire yield. Improved methods of sur- 
yeillance are rapidly diminishing this loss. Now none 
bnt authorized agents are permitted to purchase or pos- 
sess rough diamonds, a large detective force is employed, 
and the natives are domiciled and confined in < com- 
pounds ' or Tillages, enclosed by high walls, with doom 
of sheet iron." 

At the Kimberley Mine the author inspected 
one of these *' compounds '* — a great square 
lined by ircm sheds, surrounded by a high fence, 
and partially covered by a wire netting ar- 
ranged so as to prevent the miners throwing 
diamonds to confederates outside the barriers. 
The period of service for which the diggers 
engage is usually three months. 

From Kimberley the author went by rail to 
Cape Tovm, whence he sailed for Madeira, and 
thence back, touching at the Canaries and the 
Cape Verdes, to the Portuguese province of 
Angola. The Angolan towns of Loanda, Ben- 
gadsLj Mossamedes, eto., were inspected, and a 
run of five hundred miles was made into the 
anterior. Of the natural condition of Angola 
Mr. Vincent speaks most favorably, pronounc- 
ing it, in view of its geographical position, 
variety of climate, and natural resources, su- 
perior to any other European possession of 
tropical Africa. He takes occasion at this 
point to interpolate a chapter touching the cav- 
alier treatment of Portugal by the Powers in 
respect of her African territory — especially by 
England. The Berlin Conference deprived 
her of the region between Congo and Angola 
(including the mouth of the Congo) with its 
valuable riparian revenues, and England^s ulti- 
matum of 1890 forced her to abandon her 
daims in the Shir^ Highlands and in Nyassa- 
land, as well as in Manica, Matabde, and Mash- 
onaland. Portugal's claims to African terri- 
tory, resting on papal grant, discovery, priority 
of possession, and continuous manifestations 
(usually rather symbolical, we think) of sov- 
ereignty, have been pushed aside by England 
on the eminently Anglo-Saxon plea that since 
the Portuguese have shown that they can 
neither govern, colonize, nor develop their ^^pos- 
sessions," it is high time that, in the interests 
of civilization, they were turned out of them. 
That African interests are likely to be better 
served in English than in Portuguese hands is 

scarcely an open question; but Mr. Vincent 
has no patience wiUi this sort of logic. It is 
not, he thinks, at all a question of superior 
methods of colonization, **' but simply to which 
nation belongs the truest * claims of posses- 
sion ' " — in which case, one might urge, the 
claims of the native tribes (though unsupported 
by papal grant) might even outweigh those of 
Portugal. The author goes on to say : 

" Whether England ean the better civilize inferior 
races, whether she can the sooner sU^ slavery or inter- 
trihal wars, whether she were the ablest to establish 
commerce, are interesting inqoiries but can have noth- 
ing whatever to do with the present matter, which is 
solely a question of ownership of ground, or what in 
Africa has always constituted ownership. ... In this 
political partition England has exactly reversed the 
maxim emblazoned on the fa^jade of the Boer Parliar 
ment House at Pretoria, that * right makes might,' and 
has taken a course with Portugal like that which she re> 
oently took atVenezuela, regarding the frontier of Gui- 
ana, and has previously taken seyeral times with smaller 
and feebler nations throu^out the world. She breaks 
the Zulu power, but not the Russian. Her policy of ex- 
pansion is always out of Europe ; in Europe she does noth- 
ing until she can find an ally. She has been thoroughly 
inunoral in her dealings with weaker States, and seems 
always ready and eager to follow up her * moral claims ' 
with very material troops and iron-dads. Is it not time 
that the motto < Dieu et num droit ' was changed to < Dieu 
et ma farce 7 " 

All generous spirits must lament, with Mr. 
Vinoent, Portugal's military and economic inar 
bility to defend and justify her claims to that 
large share of the African continent which she 
so magnificently founded in the days of Yasoo 
de Gama and Bartholomew Diaz. But in the 
centuries succeeding her period of maritime 
glory she has been hopelessly outstripped in the 
race of national progress ; and, sentiment aside, 
we find it difficult to regret that her once vast 
African possessions have largely slipped from 
her nerveless hands into the powerful grasp of 
the race which, with all its faults of territorial 
greed and apathy to the moral claims of weaker 
rivals, is the true Mother of Nations and the 
inheritor of the political and colonizing genius 
of ancient Rome. England has confessedly 
played the bully more than once with lesser 
nations, and her recent minor wars have re- 
dounded little to her credit. Mr. Rider Hag- 
gard has spoken plainly of her '^ unjustifiable" 
attack upon the Zulus, and Mr. Labouchere 
has poured upon her the vials of his party 
wrath, touching the Matabele war. There is 
even a tincture of truth in Mr. Chamberlain's 
frank avowal that her Empire is the fruit of 
generations of buccaneering. But it must nev- 
ertheless be admitted that if she has taken much. 




she has given more; that she has sown her 
path of oonquest and inflnenoe with the seeds 
of progress, and planted and maintained Iaw 
and order and the machinery of judicial jus- 
tice. where diarchy and pabliTrapiie have liea 
the rule for ages. The record of her sway oyer 
foreign lands and peoples, if necessarily marred 
by human errors of judgment and conscience, 
shows nevertheless in its long roll of successes 
and benefactions but one conspicuous failure. 
Such petty flings as that England ^^ breaks the 
Zulu power, but not the Bussian," and that 
«« her policy of expansion is always out of Eu- 
rope," seem sadly out of place in Mr. Vincent's 
usually sensible and informing book. That 
England has not wasted herself and embroiled 
Europe in an insane attempt to ^* break the 
power " of Russia, and that her *' policy of ex- 
pansion " has chosen the line of least resistance 
and widest promise, can scarcely be charged 
to her as a lapse either of statesmanship or 
good morals. 

The author g^ves a pithy and detailed ac- 
count of his trip from Boma, mainly by way of 
the Congo River and its tributaries, the Kasai, 
Lulua, Sankuru, Kuilu, etc., into the interior 
of the Congo Free State. Many interesting 
facts as to the natives and their wonderful coun- 
try are recorded, and Mr. Vincent's ascent of 
the Kuilu seems to fairly entitle him to rank 
as an African explorer. Near Leopoldville, in 
the Congo region, he had an opportunity of 
observing a native market. 

" The sellers were nearly all women. There was a 
good variety of local produce, bat no manufactures. 
Perhaps four hundred people were present, and their 
ohaifering produced a perfect Babel. These markets are 
held regularly twice a week. Ton see manioc in several 
styles, cooked and uncooked and ground into flour, palm 
oil and kernels, beans, maize, salad, fowls, eggs, plain- 
tains, sweet potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, peppers, to- 
bacco, large fish from the Congo, fruits, etc. These 
things will be bartered for cheap blue cotton cloth, col- 
ored handkerohiefe, and bits of coarse brass wire, shaped 
like staples. These last pass for change, and are gen- 
erally carried in large bunches." 

Regarding the mental condition of the Bar 
kongos, a tribe dwelling about the banks of 
the Kassai, Mr. Vincent observes : 

** They are in most respects in a similar condition to 
that of children of eight or ten years old. They do 
not seem to think, reflect, or remember. The experi- 
ence of one is not always utilized by another. . . . Fear 
they possess in no unstinted degree, but love, other 
than the mere animal fondness of the mother for her 
ofEspring, seems entirely wanting. . . . They seem to 
have few religious ideas, and fewer institutions. Like 
all such forest-folk the expression of their religious feel- 
ing seems due to fear, fear of all the phenomena and 
processes of Nature which they caimot comprehend. 

. . The missionaries have now been at work some ten 
years among this and kindred tribes, but their success 
has been very dubious. Satisfactory statistics are not 
forthcoming to outside inquirers. The trouble is the 
natives lack capacity. They cannot comprehend the 
Christian scheme of salvation, though they may be 
bribed to say they do, and to lead lives for a time in 
partial accordance therewith. But they are liable at 
any moment to relapse to paganism, and return to sav- 
agedom. . . . When I observe the prognathous heads 
and the utter bestial expression of these natives I am 
fully persuaded of the correctness of the Darwinian 
hypothesis. It requires no stretch of imagination to 
believe that this form of man, instead of being a little 
lower than the angels, is simply a trifle higher than the 

We have no desire of reviving in these col- 
umns any discussion of the ^* Missionary Ques- 
tion." But we venture to suggest that the real 
measure of the success of missionary enterprise 
among the Congo tribes is less the number of 
nominal Christians made than the degree in 
which the missionaries have succeeded in estab- 
lishing among these undeveloped anthropoid 
beings such rudimentary arts and conceptions 
of European culture as are within their mental 
grasp. There are no chasms in the continuity 
of human progress, individual or aggregate. 
To assert that so or so many of Mr. Vincent's 
Bakongos, Bakntus, or Bakubas have *< em- 
braced Christianity " is, rightly understood, to 
assert that they have made the enormous intel- 
lectual leap from the grossest fetishism to a 
refined and abstract system of theology — to 
say nothing of a doctrine of ideal morality the 
theory of which is as far out of their reach as 
its practice is out of that of the average Eu- 
ropean. The real difficulty in the way of mis- 
sionary progress is simply stated by our author 
when he says that the natives ^^ cannot compre- 
hend the Christian scheme of salvation "; and 
its only solution is partially indicated when he 
adds: ^^ Possibly by selecting a few of the 
brightest of the boys, and beginning their in- 
struction when very young, isolating them in 
the missions, and then pursuing the same course 
with their children for a few generations, some- 
thing might eventually result." 

We shall take leave of Mr. Vincent's nar- 
rative with an extract from his account of that 
redoubtable potentate, King Pania Mutembo : 

*• He appeared as a digpiified old gentleman, beariag 
a long wand as a badge of authority. He was dressed 
in a white shirt, open in front and worn over a oolored 
silk waist-doth, which deseended like a skirt to his bare 
feet Over the shirt he wore a light saok-coat, after 
the approved manner of Syrian and Egyptian drago- 
mans. His tnrban of blue doth was arranged with the 
ends extending at the sides like the head-gear of the 
conventional Egyptian Sphinx. Aronnd his neok he 



[Aug, 1, 

wore four or five chains of immebse blae beads, and 
also many braoelets of the same. Upon one finger was 
a copper ring, and upon his ankles were bands of leather. 
. . . The King went as he came, with mnoh hauteur, 
bis people fleeing in every direction before his approach. 
Pania Mntembo is reported to glory in opwards of five 
hundred < wives.' . . . We told the King that in our 
countries the married men were accustomed to haye 
but one wife each. He replied that there our wealth was 
in otiher things, in gold and silver, and in ships and fac- 
tories, but here his property was in these wives, whom 
if he chose he could barter for anything he wanted." 

As a popular general description of the Africa 
of to-day, Mr. Vincent's book has no superior. 
There are over one hundred photog^phic illus- 
trations, together with a good route map and 
a sufficient index; and the publishers have 
shown their usual sound taste and liberality in 
the general make-up of the volume. 

£. G. J. 


History op the United States.* 

The first chapter of the third volume of Mr. 
Bhodes's '' History of the United States " is de- 
voted to the material progress of the country 
Tfrom 1850 to 1860, leaving out of view the 
striking events and political agitations of this 
period, and dealing only with the common life 
of the people, or what the author calls '^ the 
blank leaves of history." And yet the subject 
is so admirably handled that we believe no 
chapter in the volume will awaken a livelier 
interest or better repay a careful perusal. He 
refers to the increase of our population and our 
material prosperity in their relation to the well- 
being of the masses. He dwells upon the pro- 
gress of mechanical invention and the marvel- 
lous growth of our merchant marine. He 
refers to railway extension and steam naviga- 
tion on our western rivers as great factors in 
our national progress. He devotes several 
pages to a very clear and timely exposition of 
the tarijff question in connection with the panic 
of 1857 and the tariff acts of that year and 
the year 1846, and he says these acts demon- 
strate that a high protective tariff is not nec- 
essary for the growth of our manufacturing in- 
dustry. He deals with the question of political 
corruption, the health of the people, their pro- 
gress in taste, refinement, and manners, the 
theatre, and the lecture system which reached 
its height during this period. He speaks of 
this decade as the golden age of American lit- 

*Hi8T0BT OF THE Unitbd Statbs, fiom the Compromise 
of 1860. fiy James Fords Rhodes. Volnme III. New York: 
Huper & Brothers. 

erature, giving it credit for Bryant, Presoott, 
Irving, Lowell, Holmes, Hawthorne, and Em- 
erson, and bestowing deserved praises upon the 
the only three magazines, **• Harper's," ^^ Put- 
nam's," and the *^ Atlantic." He deals with 
the sexual morality of the people, their relig- 
ious character, including a graphic account of 
the great revival of 1858, their seriousness 
combined with their love of humor, and their 
honesty in private life as contrasted with their 
lack of it in the management of public affairs. 
Indeed, the picture of American society and 
life is so charmingly drawn in this chapter that 
the impression left upon the mind of the reader 
is singularly wholesome and satisfying, while 
his love of country is heightened and his faith 
in our popular system of government is con- 

The other chapters of the volume deal with 
the state of the country following the presi- 
dential election of 1860 and including the first 
year of the War ; and they constitute by far 
the most important contribution to the history 
of this period which has yet appeared. The 
work is thoroughly and faithfully done, as at- 
tested by the ample foot-notes which support 
and illustrate the text, while the style is so 
lucid and animated that the attention of the 
reader is never intermitted. We feel confident 
that this volume will fully confirm the impres- 
sion made by the two preceding ones that the 
author has a genius for writing history. Mr. 
Rhodes discusses at much length the famous 
Crittenden Compromise, and he shows that it 
was not the secessionists of the Senate, as has 
often been asserted, but the Republican leaders, 
who defeated the measure. He thinks that 
Lincoln was chiefly responsible, for he says 
that if he had favored the measure Seward 
would have joined him and their influence 
would have secured its adoption, thus averting 
for the time the catastrophe of war. Whether 
Lincoln and the Republicans may be justified 
in their course at the bar of history he treats 
as a debatable question, and after considering 
it at considerable length and in all its bearings, 
he says : 

" Between these alternatives, one of which was civil 
war, with its waste of blood and treasure, with its train 
of men's sacrifices and women's anguish, and with its 
failure to settle the race question in the South; and the 
other, which would have been an aggravated repetition 
of what took place between 1854 and 1860, with the 
probability of a war to follow between more powerful 
contestants; between these an historian may well shrink 
from pronouncing a decided choice." 

We think this statement challenges criticism. 




It assumes that the qaestion of duty involved 
in the alternative here presented was to be de- 
termined by carefully estimating the conse- 
quences of the choice to be made and not by 
the character of the surrender which this com- 
promise offered the South for the sake of peace. 
It overlooks the fact that there are worse things 
than war, even civil war, with all its unspeak- 
able horrors, and that a nation has no right to 
purchase peace at the price of dishonor. What 
was this now almost forgotten compromise? 
It provided that in all the territory of the 
United States then held or thereafter acquired 
situate north of latitude 86^ 80' slavery should 
be prohibited, but that in all the territories south 
of said line it should be recognized as existing, 
and should not be interfered with by Congress, 
but should be protected as property by all the 
departments of the territorial government dur- 
ing its continuance. It provided that Congress 
should have no power to abolish slavery in 
places under its exclusive jurisdiction and sit- 
uate within the limits of States that permitted 
the holding of slaves ; that Congress should 
have no power to abolish slavery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia without compensation, and 
without the consent of its inhabitants, of Vir- 
ginia, and of Maryland ; that Congress should 
have no power to prohibit or hinder the trans- 
portation of slaves between slave-holding States 
and Territories ; that provision should be made 
for the payment of the owners by the United 
States for rescued fugitive slaves ; and that no 
future amendment of the Constitution should 
affect the five preceding articles, and no amend- 
ment should be made to the Constitution which 
would authorize or give to Congress any power 
to abolish or interfere with slavery in any of 
the States by whose laws it was or might be 
allowed or permitted. 

Under these provisions slavery would no 
longer be a local institution dependent upon 
State law, but a national institution made per- 
petual by unalterable provisions of the Consti- 
tution. That such concessions would be fol- 
lowed by further demands is as certain as the 
action of gravitation. The career of slavery in 
the United States up to this time proved this. 
The adoption of this compromise would have 
made the acquisition of Cuba the watchword 
and rallying cry of the South. Fillibustering 
for other tropical acquisitions would certainly 
have followed, while the revival of the foreign 
glave-trade would have been espoused as a part 
of the inevitable logic of the new dispensation. 
In a word, a great slave - holding and slave- 

breeding despotism would have been estab- 
lished on the ruins of the Republic, unless pre- 
vented by the military power of the free States 
in a conflict far more uncertain in its issue and 
more calamitous in its results than was our 
Civil War. But aside from any question of 
consequences, the Crittenden Compromise was 
utterly indefensible as a scheme of bare-faced 
treachery to freedom. In the words of Lin- 
coln, it would have *' put us again on the high- 
road to a slave empire." It was a shameless 
repudiation of the principle on which the peo- 
ple had made him president, and a wanton be- 
trayal of the country to its enemies. It would 
have gladdened the hearts of despots and stifled 
the voice of republicanism throughout the world. 
If the courage and clear-sightedness of Lin- 
coln averted these calamities, then he, of all the 
famous men of his time, has the best right to 
be honored as the savior of his country. 

Mr. Rhodes discusses the generally accepted 
theory that the work of secession was concocted 
by a cabal of Southern senators and represent- 
atives in Washington, who gave direction to 
the movement through its ramifications in the 
States and interfered with the free action of 
the people. He carefully overhauls the his- 
toric facts bearing upon the question, and 
reaches the conclusion that no such conspiracy 
existed. He had shown in dealing with the 
Crittenden Compromise that Jefferson Davis 
was ready for a settlement upon that basis, and 
deplored the necessity for war. The course of 
Stephens in opposition to secession is well- 
known. Even Toombs, with all his impulsive- 
nesjf and bluster, was complained of by his 
Southern friends as too conservative. Says 
Mr. Rhodes : 

" In its publie manifestations secession had all the 
marks of a popular movement, proceeding in the regu- 
lar manner which we should expect from a community 
accustomed to constitutional government and to dele- 
gate its powers to chosen representatives. Legislatures 
called oonyentions of the people. Then, after animated 
canvasses in Ahibama, Georgia, and Louisiana, and af- 
ter full understanding by the electors in all of the states 
that they were voting for immediate secession or in 
favor of delay, delegates were chosen to the eonyention 
at popular elections. Soon after each convention met 
it adopted by an imposing majority its ordinanoe of 


The facts of the case in some of the States are 
not all in harmony with these statements, but 
when carefully sifted they do not support the 
conspiracy theory. Mr. Rhodes thinks it very 
doubtful whether Davis, Toombs, Orr, and 
Benjamin, had they agreed with Stephens, 
could have prevented secession, and that if they 



[Aug. 1, 

had not headed the movement the people would 
have found other leaden. It will not be easy 
to dislodge the well-nigh universal opinion of 
the people of the Northern States ever since 
the outbreak of the Rebellion, and make them 
believe that the secession movement was the 
work of the people of the South, whose reputed 
leaders were only reluctant followers. But the 
truth ought to be known, and when supported 
by such authorities as Rhodes, Von Hoist, and 
Schouler, must finally be accepted. Had it 
been understood during the great conflict, it is 
probable that many a flaming speech in favor 
of the hanging of the rebel leaders would have 
been less savage in its tone. 

Among the most attractive features of this 
volume are the personal sketches of eminent 
men, including Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert 
E. Lee, Alexander H. Stephens, Jeremiah S. 
Black, ** Stonewall " Jackson, Joseph £. John- 
ston, and others. As an example, we quote a 
part of what the author says of General Lee 
at the beginning of the War, and we quote it 
for other reasons which will appear : 

** Lee, now fifty-four yean old, his f aee exhibiting 
the ruddy glow of health and his head without a grey 
hair, was physioally and morally a splendid example of 
manhood. Able to trace his lineage far back in the 
mother country, the best blood of Virginia flowed in 
his veins. The founder of the Virginia family, who 
emigrated in the time of Charles I., was a cavalier in 
sentiment; < Light-horse Harry' of the Revolution was 
the father of Robert £. Lee. Drawing from a knightly 
race all their virtues, he had inherited none of their 
vices. Honest, sincere, simple, magnanimous, forbear- 
ing, refined, courteous, yet dignified and proud, never 
lacking self-command, he was in all respects a true man. 
Graduating from West Point, his life had been exclu- 
sively that of a soldier, yet he had none of the soldier's 
bad habits. He used neither liquor nor tobacco, in- 
dulged rarely in a social glass of wine, and cared noth- 
ing for the pleasures of the table. He was a good en- 
gineer, and under General Scott had won distinction in 
Mexico. The work that had fallen to his lot he had 
performed in a systematic manner and with conscien- 
tious care. * Duty is the snblimest word in our lan- 
guage,' he wrote to his son. Sincerely religious. Provi- 
dence to him was a verity, and it may be truly said, he 
walked with Grod. ... As the years go on, we shall 
see that such a life can be judged by no partisan meas- 
ure, and we shall come to look upon him as the English 
of our day regard Washington, whom little more tlum a 
century ago they delighted to call a rebel. Indeed, in 
all essential characteristics, Lee resembled Washington, 
and had the great work of his life been crowned with 
success, or had he chosen the winning side, the world 
would have acknowledged that Virginia could in a cen- 
tury produce two men who were the embodiment of 
public and private virtue." 

This charming picture of a great Confeder- 
ate general suggests two instructive facts. In 
the first place, it shows how far we have drifted 

from the period of the Civil War and the ani- 
mosities which then filled the air. We recall 
some speeches in Congress and elsewhere about 
General Lee and his associates which would 
now seem as shocking and as completely oat of 
tune with the times as this eology would have 
been daring the conflict. The healing hand of 
time has done for both sections of ^ Union 
what no other agency ooold possibly have ao- 
complishedf and this volume, by its fairness in 
dealing with sectional and party issues, happily 
Yoices the general feeling of reconciliation and 
peace. In the second place, however, there 
may be some danger of too great a reaction 
from the patriotic memories and thrilling ex- 
periences of the great struggle for the nation's 
life. Moral distinctions are never to be con- 
founded. The world will always recognize a 
difference between fighting for a slave empire 
and fighting for freedom and the universal 
rights of men. The man who violates his oath 
of loyalty to the Union cannot occupy exactly 
the same moral level with the man who keeps 
it. Besides, General Lee did not believe in 
the right of secession under the Constitution. 
He was a Union man on principle, believing 
that Virginia had a peaceable and constitu- 
tional remedy for her grievances. Neither did 
he believe in negro slavery, but regarded it aa 
a great moral and political evil, and a greater 
curse to the white man than to the black. On 
his own showing, therefore, the secession of his 
native State was indefensible and unnecessary. 
The dilemma in which he was placed in having 
to choose between his loyalty to the Union and 
his duty to Yirg^ia was a most painful one, 
and no man wfll now jndge him harshly or on- 
charitably ; but the attempt to liken his case 
to that of Washington seems a little far-fetched, 
and is not necessary to a just appreciation of 
his remarkable pubUc career or his rare per- 
sonal traits. Georgb W. Juuan. 

Modern Akt Criticism.* 

Some years ago a celebrated student of Ital- 
ian painting, Giovanni Morelli, went up into 
Germany and did great service to art history by 
overthrowing many of the attributions of Itidian 
pictures in German galleries. He published the 
German ignorance of Italian art in several vol- 
umes, and was rewarded for his presumption by 

on ihe Hbtory of Art. By Adolf Fnrtwftngler ; edited by 
Ehic^nie SeUen. New York : Imported by Charles Sorilmer's 




no end of abuse from museum directors, con- 
noisseurs, and critics. Nevertheless, Morelli's 
shots struck home. The titles and ascriptions of 
many pictures were changed. Morelli was more 
often right than wrong in his judgments. He 
claimed that he was quite infallible because he 
was working with ^^ a scientific method." The 
method was of his own adaptation. It was, 
briefly stated, based upon the theory that every 
painter was more or less conventional in his 
drawing of such details as hands, feet, ears, 
eyes, noses ; that he was largely influenced by 
his masters and associates ; that his brush-work, 
color, architecture, and landscapes were so 
many ear-marks ; and that by considering all 
these details the author of a picture could be 
surely ascertained regardless of written docu- 
ment or signature. The ancient methods of 
determining the painter of a work by intuitive 
feeling, by the personality of the work, and by 
its general spirit, were set down as ridiculously 

The application of this method to pictures was 
orig^al with Morelli, but the method itself was 
not new. The Germans who jeered at him as 
*<an ignorant Swiss Doctor" had long before his 
time applied the method to the writing of his- 
tory. Bome was done over again with ^* the his- 
torical method " (a rebuke to Gibbon) by drop- 
ping out the imaginative element and basing 
statements on existing documents. A study of 
the materials only could give the truth. We 
have had a recent echo of this method in Amer- 
ica in Justin Winsor's *^ Columbus," an excel- 
lent example of all the virtues and all the vices 
of scientific history. We know the same method 
in literary criticism. It has been unsuccess- 
fully applied to Shakespeare, but its best known 
application has been to the books of the Old 
Testament. From Eichhom and Kuenen to 
Driver and Briggs, all the way down the line, 
the Pentateuch has been slashed at and worried 
in the name of ^' Higher Criticism." If we 
translate the Pentateuch into a picture and say 
that it could not have been painted by Moses 
because the style is not his, the brush-work is 
too mature, the signature is a forgery, this part 
is the work of a modern restorer, and that part 
an impudent erasure, we shall have the atti- 
tude of the biblical critics and also their rela- 
tionship to the art critics. The method is the 
same now among all '^advanced thinkers." 
Everything is flady placed on what is called a 
scientific basis at the start. We are not sur- 
prised then to find Professor Furtwangler in his 
** Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture," following 

these same methods. Indeed, he, in company 
with other German archteologists, has been fol- 
lowing them for years and telling us on material 
and scientific grounds what is an original, what 
is a copy, what is a variant, and what is a for- 
gery. Unfortunately, neither he nor any of 
the other scientific thinkers has told us what 
is logic. It is a great pity. Had they given 
us their notion of logic at the start, perhaps we 
should not have had occasion to find fault with 
their work. The conclusions deduced from as* 
sumed facts are the chief cause of skepticism 
and dissent on the part of the reader. 

No one doubts the long study, the intimate 
knowledge, the shrewd insight of these critics ; 
no one doubts that their scientific basis is the 
nearest to the true one that has ever been at* 
tained; no one doubts that their researches 
have lightened many dark spots in history and 
arohfBology. What one does doubt at times, 
however, is the proof of facts, the force of con- 
clusions. The journalistic way of assuming a 
point on one page and then declaring it ^^ proven" 
on the next page, the pettifogging manner of 
slipping around a hard knot because it cannot 
be untied, the naive forming of a theory and 
then calling every fact that interferes with it 
a forgery and every dissenting critic an igno- 
ramus, are not calculated to breed confidence 
in the reasoning. And then, the vast super- 
fluity of arrogance and pretension ! From Mor- 
elli to Briggs, they are all bubbling over with 
conceit. It is not that their method is a new 
aid, sheds new light,, helps on the sum of 
knowledge, and taken in connection with past 
knowledge places us on a firmer basis; but 
their method is infallible, their say-so incon- 
testable, their conclusions final, and everything 
to the contrary is mere *^ leather and prunello," 
to be brushed aside. All this operates in the 
reader's mind against the method and against 
much that is incontestably true and just in the 
results. Professor Furtwangler's book, with all 
its knowledge, leaves the reader in a bad humor 
because of its arbitrary assumption, its pro- 
fessorial arrogance, its '* confounded cocksure- 
ness." The editor of the volume tells us that 
it has been *^ received almost with acclamation 
by scholars of all schools." Very likely. It 
is so good a book that one feels vexed with its 
author that it is not better. There was need 
for a reconstructed history of Greek sculpture, 
and Professor Furtwangler's book has come at 
the right time. Had it come modestly it would 
have been the more welcome, but even in its 
present shape it is not a book to be lightly oast 



[Aug. 1, 

aside. It is an invaluable library of critical 
research into Greek sculpture. Heretofore the 
study of Greek art has run in narrow channels. 
Professor Furtwangler has sought to broaden 
them by reconstruction. Instead of speculation 
over the few Greek marbles that are left to us, 
he proposes to go back to the great lost orig- 
inals, by studying them in the Roman copies. 
He claims that with few exceptions (notably 
the Hermes of Praxiteles} the existing Greek 
marbles are by inferior men, whereas the Roman 
copies were copies of celebrated works by cel- 
ebrated men. He admits that there is a rich 
mine of error in discriminating between what 
is exactly reproduced and what is adapted in 
the copies, but he thinks he can avoid gross 
errors. So on this basis he starts out to recon- 
struct the art of Pheidias, from whose hand we 
have nothing that is absolutely authenticated. 
The Lemnian Athena was an original by 
Pheidias preferred by the ancients to all his 
other works. It must have been copied by the 
Romans. Two statues at Dresden are said to 
be faithful copies of it. There is a third mu- 
tilated copy in the Vatican. Professor Furt- 
wangler restores the statue by placing a helmet 
in the right hand and a spear in the left. His 
warrant for the helmet he gets from a Roman 
gem in which an Athena appears with a helmet 
put in at the side by the gem-cutter to fill space, 
and his warrant for the spear is the muscular 
play of the left arm and shoulder. He assumes 
from the technique of the copies that the origi- 
nal by Pheidias was in bronze, of life size, and 
in general like the copies. Then, after five 
pages of postulated facts, we have him saying : 
** We are now justified, I think, in claiming to 
possess exact copies after a bronze by Pheidias, 
and to have thereby gained for the first time 
a full conception of this artist's achievements 
in the round." The alleged copies which are 
said to be '^ faithful " and ^^ accurate '' become 
then the criterion of Pheidian style and tech- 
nique, and everything that tallies with them is 
put into the charmed Pheidian circle. So Pro- 
fessor Furtwangler goes on to tell us that the 
Dresden copy has all the *^ characteristic and 
personal qualities of Pheidias' Parthenos." He 
makes a comparison between the Parthenos and 
the Lemnia, and thus reestablishes the Par- 
thenos. He then pays his respects to the Olym- 
pian Zeus in the same manner, discusses the 
Parthenon frieze, and tells us what in extant 
work is Pheidian and what is not, on the pri- 
mary assumption that he has the Pheidian style 
in the alleged copies of the Lemnia. 

Now all this, covering as it does over 110 
pages, is shrewdly argued and plausibly pat. 
Professor Furtwangler knows his subject so 
thoroughly — knows all the technique of sculp- 
ture as well as the classic traditions — that one 
is disposed to follow him wherever he leads. 
He is very likely right in his conclusions ; but 
suppose he is wrong in his first premises, what 
then becomes of his fine argument ? And what 
are his actual premises ? Lucian refers to the 
Lemnia of Pheidias. It did exist, but no work 
of Pheidias is now knovm to us. That it was 
copied is assumed ; that the Dresden and Vati- 
can Athenas were all copies of the original 
Lemnia, is merely a shrewd guess. On page 
76 Professor Furtwangler shows how easy it is 
to be mistaken about copies spring^g from a 
common original. Possibly they were not copies 
at all, but Roman eclectic works. The Romans 
did make copies of the Greek marbles, but the 
assumption Uiat they never made anything else 
is an error. And if copies, why indisputably 
after Pheidias ? Athena was the Greek and 
Roman Madonna, and there may have been 
many conceptions of her by sculptors of rank 
whose very names are now forgotten. On page 
42 Professor Furtwangler rebukes Loschcke 
for assuming that the Zeus Talleyrand in the 
Louvre is ^^ a copy of a work belonging to the 
middle of the fifth century B. c." This he de- 
clares is a ** daring assertion." So it is, but 
not more daring than his own assertions. But 
to continue. The restorations of the alleged 
copies are probably correct, the ^^ full concep- 
tion " of Pheidias means only a conception of 
the alleged copies. The ^^ Pheidian circle " is 
Professor Furtwangler's circle, and **' the char- 
acteristic and personal qualities of Pheidias " 
are things that have only been hinted at by 
the ancient writers. In fact, the premises are 
strewn with pitfalls, and a false step anywhere 
along the line would be sufficient to overset the 
whole argument. As speculation, as suggestion 
for future work, the theory is capital and will 
undoubtedly lead to good results; as proven 
fact, not even the author's enthusiastic vehe- 
mence can make it wholly acceptable. 

With the Lemnia on one side of the circle 
and the Dioscuri of Monte Cavallo on the other 
side, our author thinks he has found '^ two fixed 
points which represent the opposite poles of 
Pheidian art." By way of additional proof he 
takes up the Parthenon marbles, the coins and 
vases, and also treats of the contemporary 
sculptors, Kresilas, Myron, and Polykleitoe. 
The style of each of these men is built up, not 




from originals, for there are none, but from 
Roman copies, as in the case of Pheidias. The 
allowances made for innovations and additions 
by the copyists are liberal, but possibly they 
are liberally erroneous. The general evidence, 
however, creates a probability of correctness. 
The same method is followed with the sculptors 
of the succeeding period, Skopas, Praxiteles, 
and Euphranor, though in the case of Praxiteles 
the famous original of Hermes lends more cer- 
tainty to the conclusions. The information 
thrown out in these discussions is valuable, and 
indeed, the arguments themselves are most in- 
genious and worthy of more consideration than 
can be given them in this place. The chapters 
take the form of an historical development, and 
the last chapter but one of the book is devoted 
to a new examination of the Venus of Milo. 
This is so very good, and the subject is so fa- 
miliar to all, that Professor Furtwangler's argu- 
ment should be outlined. 

With the statue of the Venus of Milo were 
found some fragments — a broken arm, a hand 
holding an apple ; an inscribed plinth, which 
was at first thought to be a later addition, was 
rejected, and was finally lost. Fortunately a 
drawing of the plinth had been made. It bore 
the artist's name, Agesandros of Antioch. It 
was rejected by savants because the artist was 
unknown and the work was supposed to be of 
an excellence worthy of Praxiteles. The find- 
ing-place of the Venus and all the contradic- 
tory stories told about it are thoroughly reex- 
amined to prove the genuineness of the frag- 
ments. They undoubtedly belonged to the 
statue. The restoration is then begun by plac- 
ing the inscribed plinth at the right of the 
statue, the left foot resting upon the raised 
block. The square hole in the plinth is fitted 
with a short pillar for which abundant warrant 
is found in terra-oottas, coins, gems, and reliefs. 
The left arm and hand are adjusted to the 
figure by reference to the dowel holes, and are 
placed resting on the top block of the pillar, 
the hand holding the apple palm upward. The 
rough workmanship of the back of the hand 
(first thought an inconsistency) is now ac- 
counted for. The back of the hand turned 
downwards, and was not to be seen by the spec- 
tator as it was originally placed. The right 
arm comes forward, and the hand clasps the 
falling drapery at the left hip. 

The uneasy motive of grasping the drapery 
with one hand and the restful motive of the 
hand loosely holding the apple are apparently 
contradictory. Professor Furtwangler explains I 

it by saying that Agesandros was not entirely 
original in this work, that he borrowed two tra- 
ditional types and tried to combine them by 
modification. The motive of the left arm was 
taken from the Tyche of Melos, but the main 
design was taken from an original of which the 
Venus of Capua is the best extant copy. The 
Capuan Venus held a shield resting upon her 
left thigh, and contemplated her beauty in it as 
in a glass. Agesandros borrowed this motive 
for the Venus of Milo, except that he removed 
the shield and placed the right hand holding up 
the drapeiy and the left hand holding the apple. 
The action is thus apparently strained, though 
whether the strain is in the statue or in Pro- 
fessor Furtwangler's theory we are at some loss 
to determine. He thinks the whole conception 
was based upon a Skopasian Venus, but was 
somewhat exaggerated in the modification, just 
as the Venus of Praxiteles was prettified into 
the Venus de Medici. Perhaps Professor Furt- 
wangler is just a little copy-mad and cannot see 
originality in anything. The technique of the 
statue, even, he thinks is borrowed. He detects 
a lack of definition, a weakening, a relaxation 
of firmness in the forms which is indicative of 
the decadence. This, with the epigraphy of the 
inscription, allows him to date the statue between 
150 and 50 B. c. '^ The stylistic peculiarities 
confirm this later date," he says. The hair is 
treated in the Skopasian manner, the drapery 
in the Pheidian manner ; but the latter is imi- 
tative, like almost all of the work of the middle 
of the second century. Therefore the sculptor 
was working in the style of Skopas, but availed 
himself of t^e technique of Pheidias in the drap- 
ery. Perhaps, again. 

This whole tiieory is most interesting, but we 
doubt very much if it will be accepted as the 
final word on the Venus of Milo. In the mean 
time the Venus, the Samothracian Victory, the 
Hermes, loom colossal in their beauty, and while 
archsdologists are quarrelling over their dates, 
attributions, and restorations, how few there are 
who see the marbles with Greek eyes and appre- 
ciate their inherent excellence regardless of his- 
tory, name, or inscription. 

Prof essor Furtwangler has written a book and 
shown his erudition as becomes a German pro- 
fessor. It is really a learned book, and has many 
excellent features that have not been mentioned 
here. It is a book that has come to stay for a 
generation or more, and, while it is positive to 
the quarrelling point, it is not a book that the 
student of archaeology can afford to neglect. He 
may doubt here and there, but the suggestive- 



[Aug. 1, 

nesB of the theories, the knowledge of materials, 
the keenness of insight, will more than com- 
pensate for errors of judgment or fact. The 
translation is good, and the publishers have 
dealt handsomdy with the book in the matter 
of binding, printing, and two hundred and 
seven reproductive illustrations that accompany 
the text. John C. Van Dyke. 

Some New Botanies.* 

Probably botanical activity has never been so great 
as daring Uie last decade, and the notable feature of 
this activity is that it has been largely along new lines. 
The popular fancy is still too apt to regard botany as 
the '^scientia amabilis," and this reputation has 
brought the study somewhat into reproach as some- 
thing not exactly serious. The science of botany, 
however, has been revolutionized, and its grasp of 
the great problems of life is both serious and fruitful. 
The sudden gush of books which are coming almost 
daily to the tables of English-speaking students, is 
due primarily to the fact that the numerous new 
lines of research have been developed far enough to 
begin to apply the results to the general subject, and 
to reconstouet ancient texts upon the basis of new 
knowledge. Botanists have waked up to the fact 
that they have no adequate expression of their science 
in existing books, notably English books, and they 
are writing and translating at a rate which bids fair 
soon to supply this deficiency. The fact of the matter 
is, no teacher of botany today is quite satisfied until he 
has written a book of his own, and publishers must 
be getting bewildered tbat no text they can secure 
finds very extensive sale in the schools. 

The new publications in botany are largely those 
which deal with the great departments of plant phy- 
siology, comparative morphology, and cscology. The 
most ancient subject, however, is also feeling the 
stimulus of new knowledge, and systematic botany 
has been clothed with so new a meaning that the 
ancient mummy is not to be recognized. Numerous 
notable publications on systematic botany have re- 
cently appeared, or are in the process of publication, 
but the one just now before us will serve as an illus- 
tration of the modem tendency. It is commonly 
spoken of as the Warming-Potter Botany, and is a 
translation by Professor Potter of Dr. E. Warming's 
Danish <*Haandbog i den Systematiske Botanik." 
The translation is a boon to English botanists, for 
this Danish work has long been recognized as an 

* A Hahdbook of Ststbmatio Botant. By E. Wanning ; 
tnuialatedandeditedbyM. C.Potter. lUnstrated. New York: 
Macmillan <fe Go. 

A Students' Tbzt-Book or Botany. By Sidney H. 
yines. Blnstrated. New York : MaomiUan <fe Co. 

Thb Natubal Histobt of Plants : Their Forms, Growth, 
Reprodnetion, and Distribntioii. From the German of Anton 
Kemer yon Marilann, by F. W. Oliver. Illnstrated. New 
York : Henry Holt A Co. 

original and important contribation to systematic 
botany. Professor Potter has done far more than 
the work of translation, for in the revision of many 
important parts be has called in the aid of distin- 
gaisbed authorities, notably Dr. Knoblauch for the 
Fungi, and Dr. Migula for the Bacteria. 

The classification of plants is a very old subject, 
in fact the oldest phase of botany, as it will be the 
latest. The earlier schemes, howerer, were artificial, 
confessedly so, and the original division into '< trees," 
<< shrubs," and <' herbs " is hardly less artificial than 
many that have come down to us and are current in 
existing manuals. Linnsdus is usually spoken of as 
the <* father of modem botany," which statement 
should be taken in a very restricted sense. His 
labors among plants were prodigious, but his results 
combined the labors of all those who worked with 
him and who had worked before him. Still, " Sys- 
tematic Botany" is using the Linnasan publications 
as the datum line, and we speak of pre-Iannssan and 
post-Linnasan times. Artificial classification culmin- 
ated in the famous twenty-four classes proposed by 
Linnsdus, an easy device for the naming of plants, 
but suggesting nothing as to their relationship. After 
Linnsdus " natural systems " began to be proposed, 
bom of an increasing knowledge of plants, and the 
names of Jussieu, De Candolle, Robert Brown, End- 
licher, Brongniart, Lindley, Braun, Hofmeister, 
Bentham and Hooker, Sachs, Eichler, Engler, mark 
the development of increasingly '^natnral systems." 

The recent rapid advance in our knowledge of the 
life histories of plants has thrown a flood of light 
upon their phylogeny, and these recent advances Dr. 
Warming has sought to express in his manoaL The 
larger outlines have been sketched for some time, 
and successive books are chiefly concerned in re- 
arranging the details, but it is astonishing with what 
persistence current manuals cling to obsolete arrange- 
ments and mislead the student. It would not be 
possible to critically compare the Warming presen- 
tation with others that have gone before and have 
appeared since, but they are. all broadly alike. To 
the general reader it is a matter of greater interest 
to know what really is a modem classification of 
plants. In the book before us, five grand divisions 
are recognized, being one more than the usual number. 
The lowest division includes the "ThaUophytes«" 
plants which in general show no differentiation of 
the body into such vegetative organs as root, stem, 
and leaf. This lowest group has always been an un- 
certain one, for its forms are numerous and puzzling, 
and it may fairly be regarded as an artificial assem- 
blage. The three subdivisions of Thallophytes are, 
(1) the Myxomycetes, or '< slime-fungi," with bodies 
of naked protoplasm which are claimed alike by 
botanists and zoologists ; (2) the Algie, that great 
assemblage of aquatic plants which represent the 
first development of the plant kingdom; (3) the 
Fungi, a host of saprophytes and parasites which by 
degenerate habits have faUen from the alga state. 
The next grand division includes the " Bryophytes," 
the mosses and liverworts, where root and stem 



and leaf are for the meet part worked out, bat whose 
bodies are weak from lack of a supporting woody 
framework. The third division ineludes the first of 
<< vertebrated " pUmts, the ^^Pteridophytes," where 
belong not merely the ferns, but the scooring rushes, 
the club-mosses, and certain groups that do not 
come within the common experience, but are of vast 
interest to the botanist. Pteridophytes have a woody 
framework and may attain tree-like proportions, but 
their spores are early separated from the parent, in 
a sort of oviparous fashion. The fourth and fifth 
divisions have been commonly kept together, as rep- 
resenting the great group of seed-producing plants, 
called <* Phanerogams," and commonly '* flowering 
plants." Flowers are not peculiar to them, however, 
as Pteridophjrtes also produce true flowers ; but the 
habit of retaining the spore on the parent during its 
germination, resulting in the structure known as the 
seed, a kind of viviparous habit, is peculiar to the 
group. Dr. Warming finds in the old group Phan- 
erogams sufiBicient diversity to raise its two usual 
subdivisions to the rank of main divisions, and hence 
'< Gymnosperms," including Conifers and Cycads, be- 
come the fourth grand division, and " Angiosperms," 
the true flowering plants, the fifth and highest. It 
has long been known that the 63rmnosperm8 are more 
closely related to the Pteridophytes than to the An- 
giosperms, and the present arrangement but empha- 
sizes this fact It is very curious that in certain man- 
uals still current the 63rmnosperm8 are placed in the 
very midst of the Angiosperms. To one familiar 
with the ordinary school manuals the arrangement 
of the families of Angiosperms would seem very 
strange, but it is just at this point that recent research 
appears, and, as a consequence, the old artificial 
grouping disappears. It is very evident that the old 
systematic botany, with its sets of pigeon-holes and 
ito search for plant names, has been set aside, and 
that the new systematic botany deals with genetic 

One of the notable books of the year is Dr. Vines's 
<< Text-Book of Botany." Ever since his admirable 
work on Plant Physiology, Dr. Vines has been recog- 
nized as one of our foremost teachers, and the knowl- 
edge that he had a general text-book in preparation 
created such a demand for it that the first part of 
the volume was issued separately in 1894, and was 
followed by the remaining part in 1895. The whole 
presents the most complete and compact view of mod- 
em botany yet published. The notable feature of 
the book is that it presents a consistent terminology 
throughout, and that homologies are not disguised 
by a variable set of terms. Aa one approaches the 
higher plants from a study of the lower, he has been 
confronted by a morphology bred of antiquated ideas 
that has been confusing and misleading. It may 
come as a shock that '< stamens "and '< pistils " are 
not ''male" and ''female" organs, and that our 
whole conception of a " flower " was radically wrong, 
but it is just as well to have the truth presented. It 
would be impossible to present the details of such a 

book, and it can only be said that it binds the whole 
plant kingdom together in one consistent scheme. 
It is interesting to note Dr. Vines's great divisions 
of the subject of Botany. The book is divided into 
four parts, entitled (1) Morphology, (2) The Inti- 
mate Structure of Plants, (3) The Classification of 
Plants, (4) Physiology. There can be no question 
that morphology and physiology are two very dis- 
tinct and fundamental divisions of the subject, and 
that classification (better taxonomy) is a sort of 
cap-sheaf for all departments; but anatomy and 
histology should be considered more as a means to 
an end than a great division by itself. It enters 
essentially into all work, but can hardly be said to 
have any worthy autonomy. The compound micro- 
scope is also essential in most work, but it is hardly 
worth while to have a division of " microscopy." 
The recognition of anatomy as an end, however, is 
not so surprising as the failure to recognize the great 
department of cBCology. In one sense it may be 
included under physiology, but hardly more so than 
morphology could be included under taxonomy. 
This book will do more than bring to the beginning 
student the science of botany based upon the most 
recent morphology ; it will also go far towards bring- 
ing about that uniform terminology which was a 
crying need of botany. 

A most fascinating book, not only for the bot- 
anist but for the general reader also, is Mr. Oliver's 
translation of Kemer's " Natural History of Plants." 
There are to be five parts, two of which are before 
us. The work is copiously and beautifully illus- 
trated, and deals in popular style, but with scien- 
tific accuracy, with some of the most interesting 
problems in the life of plants. It is a pily that the 
translator does not give even a brief preface ex- 
planatory of the status of the work and its purpose. 
Several colored illustrations supplement the num- 
erous original woodcuts. Professor Kemer has done 
what more botanists should do : he has brought the 
most recent researches within reach of the intelli- 
gent reader, and in a style so charming that even 
the professional teacher may learn a lesson in the 
art of presentation. In the two volumes before ub 
the general subjects presented are : " the living prin- 
ciple of plants," a discussion of the fascinating prob- 
lem of protoplasm and its activities ; " absorption 
of nutriment," taking up the various sources of sup- 
ply, which leads into such questions as parasitism, 
symbiosis, etc.; " conduction of food," where those 
who think they know something about the '* ascent 
of sap " may find something to learn ; " formation 
of organic food," the story of the conversion of the 
mineral into the organic ; " metabolism and trans- 
port of materials," under which is described the 
inner activities of the plant; "growth and construc- 
tion of plants"; and "plant-forms as completed 
structures." The two parts contain nearly 800 
pages, but the subjects of reproduction and distri- 
bution, to be considered in the remaining parts, are 
capable of still greater interest in presentation. It 


3 DIAIi 

[Aug. 1, 

will be noticed that the subjects deiJt with pertain 
chiefly to morphology and odcology. It is such books 
as this that will bring botany fairly before the pub- 
lic as a subject of absorbing interest; that will 
illominate the botanical lecture-room ; that will con- 
vert the Gradgrind of our modern laboratory into a 
student of Nature ; that will help carry us Uirough 
the regions of analysis to those of synthesis, where 
lies the real domain of science. 

John M. Coultbb. 

Briefs ok :njebw Books. 

NapoUom's/aU "The Decline and Fall of Napo- 
amdtkerUe leon," by Yiscount Wolseley, and 

nf WeiHmgum, « ^he Rise of WeUington," by Gen- 
eral Lord Roberts, form the initial volumes of a 
promising series of reprints (from the " Fall Mall 
Magazine") of which Messrs. Roberts Bros, of 
Boston are the American publishers. The ability 
of both the writers named to treat their respective 
themes adequately from the military standpoint 
needs no comment, while the literary competence 
of the former is amply attested by his brilliant Life 
of Marlborough. The central thesis of Lord Wol- 
seley 's book is that the series of disasters, from 1812 
to the final catastrophe at Waterloo, which marked 
the declining phase of Napoleon's career were due 
to the periodic attacks of a mysterious malady to 
which he is known to have been subject during his 
later years. These attacks, resulting probably from 
overwork and other less pardonable excesses, took 
the form of sudden fits of intense lethargy and 
moral prostration, and occurred at seasons of un- 
usual nervous strain and anxiety — that is to say, 
precisely at those critical junctures where his su- 
preme gift of rapid forecast and decision were most 
needed. It is known, for instance, that Napoleon 
was in a state of partial coma on the morning of 
Waterloo. Grouchy strove to see him at daybreak, 
but was unable to secure his orders until afternoon 
— a most disastrous delay which enabled Blttcher 
to reach the field in time the following day to give 
the French their final dispatch there. Said Van- 
damme: *<The Napoleon whom we have known 
exists no more ; our yesterday's success (of Ligny) 
will have no result." Lord Wolseley does not hes- 
itate to assign this curious malady as the primary 
cause of the Emperor's overthrow at Waterloo. 
Had Napoleon, he concludes, been able to bring the 
impetuous energy of his early days to bear upon his 
grandly-conceived plan for the destruction of Wel- 
lington and Bltlcher (why will the English insist on 
printing it <<Blucher"?) in Belgium, the cautious 
Englishman would have at least retreated to his 
transports at Ostend, while the fiery Prussian would 
have been almost destroyed at Ligny and only too 
glad to place the Rhine between the remnants of 
his army and the victor of Jena. Lord Wolseley's 
account of the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814, 

of the Hundred Days, and of Waterloo, is necessar- 
ily concise; but it is graphic and pithy, and in- 
formed with a soldier's enthusiasm for his calling. 
— Lord Roberts's << Rise of Wellington " is really 
a compact biographical sketch, touching lightly on 
the " Iron Duke's " boyhood and youth, and more 
fully upon his military career, which naturally di- 
vides itself into three periods — ^the Indian, the Pen- 
insular, and the one during which he commanded the 
Allied Forces in the Netherlands, and plucked a leaf 
from Napoleon's fading military laureb at Waterloo. 
Lord Roberts's style is smooth, balanced, and log- 
ical, and well adapted to his usually cool and crit- 
ical treatment of his theme. He gives an accurate 
presentment of Wellington's strong and masterful, 
if not very attractive, personality ; but we confess 
his conclusion that, as a general, the Duke was Na- 
poleon's equal, if not his superior, strikes us as al- 
most as questionable as Lord Wolseley's opinion 
that Napoleon was << by far the greatest of all great 
men." The intellectual gulf between Napoleon and 
Wellington is measured by the interval between 
genius and sound practical sense. Although he had 
Uie good fortune to command at Waterloo (when 
famine, the snow, and the Cossacks had reduced to 
a spectre the superb flighting force which the lib- 
eral genius of the French Revolution lannchep 
against Feudalism), Wellington still shows on the 
pag^ of history as a pygmy beside the inspired ad- 
venturer who, springing from the meanest obscurity, 
turned the torrent of the Revolution into the cluui- 
nel of his private ambition, and mastered Europe. 
The little volumes are very neatly gotten up, and 
are liberally sprinkled with charts and wood-cuts. 

Life md toaut ^ pleasant little volume, brimful of 
in **8t&omuom** suggestions grateful to the fancy 
Samoa,** these torrid days, is Miss Marie Fra- 

ser's "In Stevenson's Samoa" (Macmillan). The 
book is the outcome of a several months' sojourn 
at Apia, within easy reach of ^^Yailima," Mr. Steven- 
son's retreat, and affords an alluring glimpse of the 
idyllic life which so charmed the lamented g^ius 
who now " lies where he longed to be," at rest on 
the towering peak of Vala. Miss Eraser has natur- 
ally woven into her Samoan idyl many memories 
of her gifted neighbor, and they all bespeak the 
gracious temper and unique personal fascination 
which cast so potent a spell over those who knew 
him. Mr. Stevenson was deeply enamored of the 
primitive life about him, and would seem to have 
preferred to sever himself as completely as might 
be from the prose and ceremony of the bustling 
world to the westward. Even the library at "Vai- 
lima," with its books and pictures and sug^gestions 
of a renounced civilization, was formal enough to 
clog the wings of his fancy. " I can't write in that 
room," he would say, '< it 's all so suitable for a lit- 
erary man — drives every idea out of my head." 
So he would retreat to his work-room, a little "den " 
with bare floor and varnished walls, from whence 
could be seen the snow-white tropic birds soaring 




over distant Vala, the summit of which he osed to 
Mi)eak of as his final resting-place. " This,*' he said, 
'* is the sort of a place I can write in — where noth- 
ing looks like literature. A deal table and a small 
bed are all I require ; chairs are an umiecessary 
luxury ; a mat flung on the ground is aU one wants." 
So minded, he used to inveigh with comic vehe- 
mence against the untimely £uropeanizing of his 
])icturesque islanders — especially in the matter of 
dress. His own household retuners wore, as a 
matter of right and duty, their graceful, if scanty, 
native garb ; and he was one day much scandalized 
at finding the Samoan servants of a neighboring 
English lady primly incased in <<made dresses." 
His sarcastic comments thereon drew the chaste re- 
ply : ^^ Yes, they are all dothed ; no woman shall 
come into my presence who shows any part of her 
body." " WeU,*' continued Louis Stevenson, << I just 
blazed at her. < Woman,' I thundered, < is your 
mind so base that you cannot see and admire what 
is beautiful in the form God Almighty created? do 
you not understand that their own dress is right 
for the climate and their simple way of living? and 
do you not see that the first tiling you do on land- 
ing on this beautiful island is to pollute their minds 
and sully their modest thoughts? " The rejoinder 
of the British Matron is not recorded. We would 
by no means imply that Miss Eraser's book is inter- 
esting solely for what it tells us of Mt. Stevenson. It 
is vivaciously written, with all the frank charm and 
gayety of the author's sex and youth. Miss Era- 
ser's story of her house-hunting and house-keeping 
adventures at Apia is very amusing ;: Mid' she draws 
an altogether engaging picture of Samoan life and 
ways — so engaging, indeed, as almost to reconcile 
one to the philosophy of Jlsan-Jmcqpes, as unfolded 
in tiie Discourses. Mr. James Payn furnishes a 
commendatory preface, and there is a frontispiece 
sketch of the family group at << Yailima.'* 

Si^ificanc^i^ihs I« "Th« Tragedy of Potiieringay " 
ex«!uHon of ^aryy (Macmillan & Co.) the Hbn. Mrs. 
Q^^o/stou, MaxweU Sfeott, of Abbotsford, tells 
the story of Mary Stuart's last days, of her trial and 
execution, in a spirit of loyalty to tiie memory of 
one whom the autiior evidbntiy Iboks upon as a- mar- 
tfyr to her religious fkith. l%e book is- based on the 
b^st sources for tliese incidents; principally upon 
^le iLetters of Str Amyas Paulet, the Queen's jailer, 
aiid^ the Jioumal of D. Bourgoing, her physician, 
l^iis Journal was discovered at Quny some years 
ago, in an anonymous copy by the French histori- 
cal writer M. R^gis Chiantelauze, who published 
the text, in 1876, at the end of a volume not unlike 
Mrs. Scott's work in scope. It is with mixed feel- 
ings that the reader turns the leaves of this book. 
There is pity for the fate of such a woman as the 
Queen of Scots, and admiration for the noble dig- 
nity with which she faced a death of, to say the 
least, ambiguous significance. She seized every oc- 
casion to suggest the idea that she was to suffer for 
her religion. When Lord Buckhurst came to warn 

her of her approaching death, she said in her reply, 
'^ I thank Grod for giving me this grace of dying in 
His quarrel. No greater good can come to me in 
this world ; it is what I have most begged of God 
and most wished for." Such words do not carry 
conviction : the case is not made out. The English 
crown, rather than ^< Grod's quarrel," seems to have 
been the centre of her schemes. Memories of 
Mary's dubious career in Scotland come in still fur- 
ther to temper one's sorrow over her later misfor- 
tunes. Since Mrs. Scott does not take up the broad 
historical questions connected with Mary's death, 
she says nothing about Mary's stanch defense of 
the <* divine right" principle of the succession to 
the crown, as opposed to rights based upon par- 
liamentary decree. Probably Elizabeth, in sending 
her cousin to the block, did not realize how bad an 
example she was setting to the next generation 
of radical Puritans; but if she could execute an 
anointed Queen for reasons of state, they would 
doubtiess find it easier for similar reasons to exe- 
cute this Queen's grandson. Mary's execution is 
consequentiy more important, historically, as an ele- 
ment in the break-down of the monarchical prin- 
ciple than as an incident in the religious struggles 
of the sixteenth century. 

W& Wum^o/ The fiftii volume of " The Writings 
th9*'WriiUig9 of Thomas Jefferson" (Putnam) 
ofJ^ffenon.^' covers the period preceding the open^ 
ing of the States-general, when the amiable but 
unfortunate Louis XVI., with the help of M. de La* 
f ayette, was endeavoring to fiind a basis of settiement 
between the aristocracy and the French people ; also* 
that of the launching of the American Ship of State 
under command of George Washington, witiithe Gon«' 
stitution as a compass. What a stnking contrast be- 
tween the unrest and despair filling aU the bounds^ 
of France, and the ardent expectations of four mil- 
lions of people in the New World ! J«£Eerson re- 
tired from tiie French mission in time to escape the* 
bloody scenes of Paris, and was succeeded' by Grou>- 
vemeur Morris, who sympathizted with the BSng and' 
was horrified at the anarchy which emerged from 
the ranks of the tiers Stat. In this volume, the 
writings of Jefferson relating to the organization of 
the American Grovernment, and the commercial 
treaties with Great Britain and Spain, are of chief 
interest Out of crude suggestions and tentative 
forms grew the simple republican system under 
which we have prospered, as a people, to an extent 
surpassing all previous experience. The wish of 
John Adams, and a few others, to retain class dis* 
tinctions was overruled by the practical common- 
sense of the majority, who, Jefferson declared, 
showed genuine dignity in placing all on an equality. 
The unfortunate feature in Jefferson's career is the 
evidence of party bias — of narrow judgments and 
jealousy. He could not live up to his own ideal. 
Thus, we find him saying to the Rev. Charles Clay, 
candidate for Congress in 1790, " I know you are 
too honest a patriot not to wish to see our country 



[Aug. 1, 

prosper by any means, though they be not exactly 
those you would have preferred," and that *< It takes 
time to persuade men to do even what is for their 
own good." Yet, in brief, while he denounces the 
majority of the Washington administration for act- 
ing upon this principle, and persuades himself that 
his political opponents are monarchists in disguise, 
we see principally, in this volume, the benevolent 
and philosophical side of Jefferson, and this is 
always charming and instructive. 

Some literary ^h® ^^^ ®^ autobiography of which 
tuuoHoffraphy *^ My Literary Passions" (Harper) 
from Mr. Howeiu. jg ^ example is always interesting. 
Mr. Howells is by no means the first to write upon 
the theme of *' Books Which Have Influenced Me," 
but we do not just now think of anyone before him 
who has made it the subject of a whole volume. 
Mr. Howells has had many << literary passions " — 
fifty, or thereabouts, to reckon only from the chap- 
ter headings — and in not a few cases it is obvious 
that he has loved not wisely, but too well. What 
we particularly like about the book, aside from the 
unfailing charm of its manner, is the frankly sub- 
jective diaraeter of the record. Mr. Howells has 
elsewhere sinned not a little in attempting to pass 
off his personal likes and dislikes as objective criti- 
cism, but in the present case what he writes is just 
what it pretends to be — a consecutive account of 
the books that came into his hands during his im- 
pressionable early years, and of the feelings with 
which he read them. There is an occasional touch 
of Philistinism, as in the plea more than once made 
for bowdlerizing the English classics in general, or 
of a lack of appreciation which is simply ^mazing, as 
in this opinion : << I do not think I should have lost 
much if I had never read * Pericles ' and < Winter's 
Tale.' " In the present work Mr. Howells is con- 
cerned with the books that he read, and not with 
those tliat he wrote, but he does have a word to say 
of his own first volume, and it is to this amusing 
effect : ** The * Poems of Two Friends ' became in- 
stantly and lastingly unknown to fame ; the West 
waited, as it always does, to hear what thn East 
should say ; the East said nothing, and two-thirds 
of the small edition of five hundi*ed came back upon 
the publbher's hands." 

''Four Years of Novel -Reading" 

forl^^t^e,. (H«»*h) " ^ interesting educational 

tract, descriptive of the work done 
by a Reading Union in a Northumberland country 
town. Tlie work included the reading of a certain 
number of seleeted novels by each member of the 
association, of meetings for discussion of the novels, 
and of the preparation of papers upon special sub- 
jects suggested by the novels. The little volume 
now published gives an account of the Union by Mr. 
Barrow, its secretary; an introduction on ''The 
Study of Fiction," by Mr. R. 6. Moulton; and 
four of the papers prepared by members of the 
Union. The list of books read during the four years 

includes twenty-five titles, among which "The Wan- 
dering Jew" and "The Shadow of the Sword" 
seem strangely out of place in an otherwise care- 
fully-selected company. With each novel is given 
a number of points which the readers were partic- 
ularly called upon to notice, and the subjects of the 
debiJtes or essays which some of them were expected 
to prepare. Thus, in the ease of Hugo's " Ninety- 
three," the " points " are the absence of female char- 
acters, the respects in which the story is " character- 
istically French" (whatever that may mean), and 
Lantenac as typicdi of the best side of the anden 
rSgime. The '^ debate " is on the question of Ci- 
mourdain's oondemnation of Gauvain, and the " es- 
say " on Hugo's view of the Revolution. The book 
will prove helpful to reading-circles having self- 
improvement as their aim, and suggests a means of 
culture partienlariy adapted to the needs of country 
towns and other small communities. 


Mr. M. C. Cooke ("Uncle Matt** upon the title- 
page) is the author of a series of five little books about 
the inld flowers, intended for the use of ebildren. The 
books are of English origin, and published by Messrs. 
T. Nelson & Sons. Each has a colored cover and f ron- 
tiBpiece, besides many simple cuts. The species de- 
scribed are English, but so many of them occur in this 
country that the books will be found helpful by Ameri- 
can children. The titles are these: " Down the Lane and 
Back," «• Across the Common,*' <'Throagh the Copse,'* 
« Around a Com-Field,'* and " A Stroll in a Marsh." 

** Appletons* General Guide to the United States and 
Canada " makes its annual appearance a little late for 
the tourist seaaon. The usual assurances are given that 
the work has been carefully revised to date, and we 
notice considerable eridenoe that such a revision has 
really been made, although the book presents much the 
same appearance as in former years. The Canadian 
section is very meagre. Although this is one of the 
most satisfactory guide-books produced in the United 
States, it is still far iuferior to the Baedeker manuals, 
and might learn many lessons from them. 

A beautifully-printed and but moderately expensive 
reissue of Mr. Henry Edward Watts's '< Don Quixote " 
is in course of publication by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. 
There ai*e to be four volumes, plus a fifth in the shape 
of a biography of Cervantes. This translation is, on 
the whole, the best that we have in English, and even 
those who need no translation of the immortal romance 
will find the work almost a necessity to their libraries, 
on account of its notes and appendiees, to say nothing 
of the forthcoming biography. 

A new edition of " Gradatim," prepared by Mr. W. 
C. Collar, has been pablished by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 
Some errors have been corrected, a number of the old 
anecdotes dropped, and about thirty pages of new mat- 
ter, from Mr. F. Ritchie's « Fabulse Faoiles," added. 
The same publishers issue a selection of easy Latin 
prose from Erasmus, edited by Mr. Victor S. Clark. 
We are glad to note these attempts to enlarge the read- 
ing of beginners in Latin, and trust that many more 
UMks of 1^ sort will be forthcoming. 





A tranglatioii of Kenan's « Ma Sceur Henriette " will 
soon be issued by Messrs. Roberts Brothers. 

A pretty, limited edition, at a moderate price, of Fitz 
Gerald's ** Omar " will be published in a few weeks by 
the £. W. Porter Co., of St Paul. 

Smollett's " Pere^ne Piekle," in four volumes, has 
just been added to the eharming edition of that novelist 
which is sold in this country by the J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Beginning with the May number, Messrs. D. C. Heath 
& Co. will issue in the United States the monthly peri- 
odical " Science Progress," well-known and successful 
in England. 

Mr. Sidney Colvin's biography of Stevenson need not 
be expected for two years or thereabouts, but a volume 
of the novelist's correspondence is promised for the 
coming season. 

** The New Gralazy " is the title of a new ten-cent 
monthly magazine, published by Mr. Harry C. Jones, 
favorably known as editor and publisher of <<The 
Monthly Ulnstrator." 

<<The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan," by 
James Morier, has been added to the Macmillan reprints 
of popular oldtime fiction. It has an introduction by 
the Hon. George Curzon. 

An authorized translation of Dr. Paulsen's " Intro- 
duction to Philosophy," prepared by Professor Frank 
Thilly, of the University of Missouri, with a preface by 
Professor WiUiam James of Harvard, is to be published 
immediately by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 

The Committee of Twelve of the Ameriean Philolog- 
ical Association have issued an address in support of 
their contention that <* not less than three years of in- 
struction in Greek should be required " in our second- 
ary schools as preparation for the classical college course. 

*• A Ref ormate Wordsworthian " writes from Trinity 
College, Dublin, to the « Saturday Review," apropos of 
the poetical vocabulary of Mr. Francis Thompson, in 
the following terms: *<SiR, — Could we not touch up 
the more popular songs of the obsolete poets so as to 
make them intelligible to the admirers of < illuminate 
and volute redundance ' ? Mr. Francis Thompson has 
enriched the English language with words like tuxrb, 
croceany o$tends, lampadSf preparate (for ready), reform" 
ale (for reformed), and many equally desiderable latinate 
vocabules. Might we not, by following Mr. Thomp- 
son's method, add some degree of * literary gorgeous- 
ness ' even to the least Thompsonian of our poems ? 
For instance, certain well-known verses would be re» 
deemed from much of their sordid quietude if presented 

By fonts of Dove, ways inoalcable, 
Did habitate 

A virgin largely inamable 
And illaudate. 

A violet by a musooee stone 

FormoBe as astre when but one 

(Stands its vnlt. 

She lived incognita, few oonld know 

When aha oaasatad. 
But O the difFaienoa whan, lo. 

She 'a tnmnlated. 

Much obsolete poetry might thus be brought up to 
date." If this be not the hand of Professor Terrell, we 
lose our guess. 

Topics in IjEAdino PsRioDicAiiS. 

Auguit, 1 895 {Fi rst List). 

Abbey, Edwin A., The Pastela of. F. H. Smith. Scribner. 
Africa, the Coming Continent. Ota/. 
Art Criticism, Modem. John C. Van Dyke. Diai. 
Art Critioiam, The New. Mary Logan. Atlantic, 
Atlanta Exposition, The. J. K. Ohl. Chautavquan. 
Baptiat Jonmaliam. Henry C. Vedder. Chautauquan. 
Bicycling Era, The. John G. Speed. Lippincott. 
BioycUng in Faria. Ars^ne Alexandre. Scribner. 
Bond Syndicate, The. A. B. Hepburn. Forum. 
Botaniea, Some New. John M. Coulter. Dial, 
Canada. W. H. Withrow. Chautauquan, 
Carioatnre. Nellie B. MoCune. Lippincott, 
Chantanqna, Albert S. Cook. Forum. 
China, Bvery-day Scenea in. Julian Ralph. Harper. 
Cirona Pe»fomier, Life of a. Cleveland Moffett. McClure. 
Civil Service Reform, Six Years of. T. Rooaevelt. Saibner. 
Continental Dteratnre, A Year of. Dial. 
Cracker Cowfaoya of Florida. Frederic Remington. Harper. 
Deep-Waterwaya Problem, The. E. V. Smalley. Forum. 
Daatiny, Human. W. £. Manley. Arena, 
Electric light. Frank Pamona. Arena, 
Goethe ArohiTea, The. Brio Schmidt Forum. 
Juryman, Wranga of the. H. N. Shepard. Atlantic. 
ICan, The Oasaa of. Peroival Lowell. Atlantic. 
Moltke'a Method of War. Azehibald Forbea. McClure. 
Santa Barbara Flower Feativala. Chautauquan. 
Sound, Myateiy of. Will M. Clemena. Lippincott, 
Telegraph in Aigland, The. Walter Clark. Arena. 
Twentieth Centnry, The. Henry B. Brown. Forum, 
United Statea, The, 1860-60. George W. Julian. Dial. 
Vincent, Biahop, and the Chautauqua Aaaembly. McClure, 
Woman, The " New." Alice Hilton. Chautauquan. 

liisT OF New Books. 

[The Mowing list, containing 60 titles, includes books re- 
ceived by Thb Dial since its last issue.] 


The Golden Book of Golerld^e. Edited, with an Introduc- 
tion, by Stopford A. Brooke. With portrait, 16mo. gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 289. Macmillan A Co. $1.60. 

The Lyric Poems of Shelley. Edited by Emaat Rhya. 

With portrait, 18mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 283. Macmillan 

A Co. $1.00. 
Metaphor and Simile in the Blinor Elizabethan Drama : A 

Diaaertation. By Frederic Ivea Carpenter. 8vo, pp.217. 

Univeiaity of Chicago Preea. 

A New BnffllBh Dictionary on Hiatorioal Prinoiidea. Ed- 
ited by Dr. Jamea A. H. Murray. VdL HI., Fart IH., 
Deject— Depravation ; 4to. Macmillan A Co. 60 ota. 

Notes, Critiaal and Biographical, on the Art Collection of 
W. T. Waltera. 8vo, pp. 217. Beaton : J. M. Bowlea. 75 ota. 


Meadow Grass: Talea of New England Life. By Alice 
Brown. IGmo, uncut, pp. 315. Copeland A Day. $1.60. 

When Valmond Game to Pontiac: The Story of a Loat 
Napoleon. By Gilbert Parker. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp.222. Stone ft Kimball. $1.50. 

The Old Bdalde' Club. By I. Zangwill, author of '*The 
Baohelor'a Club.*' Ulna., 12mo, pp. 333. Lovell, Coryell 
ft Co. $1.25. 

A Gallic Girl. By Gyp ; tranalated by Henri P^ra Dn Boia. 
12mo, pp. 272. Brentano*a "Modem life Library." $1.25. 

In the Year of Jubilee. By George Giaaing, author of 
'* Eve'a Ranaom.'* 12nio, pp. 404. D. Applaton ft Co. $1. 

Captain Dreams, and Other Storiea. By Capt. Chariaa King. 
12mo, pp. 210. J. B. lippincott Co. $1. 

A Maflrnlflcent Younv Man. By John Straai^ Winter, 
author of " BooUe'a Baby." 12mo, pp. 326. tippinoott'a 
''Select Novela.*' $1. 



[Aug. 1, 1895. 

The Giii from tbe Farm. By Gertrude Da. IGmo, pp. 

2KB. RuhehmBtm. $1. 
Tbe MtBliOM of Quest. Bj Adeline Seiceant, aotlior off 

''UaderFabePretenoee.'' 12iiio, pp. 336. D. Appleton 

A Co. $1. 
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^ semi-monthly journal of 

VoiwM XIX, 
FRANCIS F. BROWNE. ( No. 220, 


CHICAGO, AUGUST 16, 1896. '",f i"^' | CJ^iSrt^;. 


Messrs. WAY & WILLIAMS, Publishers, 


Beg to announce the following List of their Autumn Publications. 


Poems by Mr. Francis F. Browne, editor of <* The 
DUl." Limited edition; 160 copies printed, of wbich 
150 will be for sale. 

QUEEN HELEN, and Other Poems. 

By Mr. John Vance Cheney. Limited edition; 160 
copies printed, of which 150 will be for sale. 



A Romance. Translated from the Danish of Holoeb 



This is a register of the miracles as they occurred 
(1300-.1500) and, really, a set of vignettes of life 
during the Hundred Years' War. It is hardly known, 
if at all, and very humorous. Translated, with in- 
troduction, by Mr. Andrew Lang. 

THE DEATH WAKE; or, Lunacy. 

A Neeromaunt in Three Chimeras. By Thomas T. 
Stoddard. With Introduction by Mr. Andrew 


By Mr. William Morton Payne. A selection from 
editorial articles written for « The Dial " by Mr. W. 
M. Payne, associate editor. 


A dainty reprint of Shelley's little-known translation of 
« The Banquet of Plato/' prefaeed by the poet's frag- 
mentary note on « The Symposium." 


By Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Printed by Mr. Will- 
iam Morris, at the Kelmscott Press, in <* Golden " 
type, with specially designed title-page and border, 
and in special binding. 

VESPERTILIA, and Other Verses. 

By Rosamund Marriott Watson, author of "A 
Summer Night " and « The Bird-Bride." 


A Novel. By George Gissing. 


Translated by R. Nisbet Bain. Illustrated by C. M. 


By S. Baring Gould. Illustrated by F. D. Bedford. 


A portrait of the celebrated printer, etched by Mr. 
Thomas Johnson. 

*J^ Prices of these works, with other details, will be announced later, by 

WAY & WILLIAMS, Publishers, 

MoMADNOCK Block . . 




[Aug. 16, 1895. 

Macmillan & Co/s New Publications 

^ tJsQew U^ffvel by OArs. HUMPHRY IVARD, Author of " OAarcetta," etc. 


By Mrs. Humphry Ward. Uniform with '< Maroella." 1 vol., 12mo, doth, 75 cents. 

" It is the best work Mis. Ward has dons.*'— PAtVacfe/pAia Frtti. 

"Mrs. Ward*s new story is one of the daintiest little gems I haTe come across in my weekly literature hnnt."— Alait 
Dalb, in the New York World, 

" The pieoe of Botion under consideration is the best short story presented in many yean if not in a decade. . . • Pre- 
sented so thrillingly and graphically, we cannot aroid pronooncing this short tale a masterpiece." — Mmira Telegram. 

** Every one who did not follow the story as it came out in the magazine will be glad of its appearance in book form, and 
it will find a wide reading, not only for the interest and originality of the story, bnt for the onriosity of seeing the author ia 
an entirely new rein. As it stands completed it bears the unmistakable mark of an artist's hand. In erery way a remark- 
ably hnman and lifelike portraiture, which will take its place as a small but brilliant gem in the distinguished author*s literary 
crown." — Botion Courier, 

**Mis, Ward has done nothing finer than this brief story. The susUuaed interest, which does not permit the reader to 
miss a line ; the Tirid clearness in which each character stands out in self-rerelation ; the unfailing insist into the familiar 
and confused workings of the Tillage mind — all represent work of the highest class. *The Story of Bessie Gostrell' will 
become an English daaric.*'— Ckrislian World. 

** There are masterly touches and striking sentences in many pages of this little Tolume. . . . Mrs. Humphry Waid'a 
admirers will say that she has seldom written with more force than in describing the tardy remorse of the hard, uiirelentii«^ 
husband.*' — London TSmee, 

" Every page shows it to be the work of an artist. The observations of the trained eye, the touches of the skiUed writer, 
are all there, and what I like in the story is that no words are wasted in the telling. . . . The interest is too strong for one to- 
lay the book down until it is finished. Mrs. Ward has never written anything more dramatic than this story ; the agony of 
Old John over his loss, the tragedy of Bearie's end, thrill the reader as few stories succeed in doing, though many of thena 
make greater efforts."— .yew Forib IFor/d. 

^^An Arctic Adventwre,^^ 


By AuBTK Tbevos-Batttb, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. l^th nu- 
merous Illustrations and Drawings, and 3 Maps. Large 8vo, 
cloth, gilt top, S7.00. 

** The 1(017 if told in a dellghtf ally limple and spontMieoas maimer. 
Mr. Tr€T0T'Battr9*» dmple and unaffected narntive enablee na to 
learn a good deel*^— Xofiooii Timet. 

** From beginning to end tbe stoiy of this adventore it oateide tbe 
oomnum lines. It ii a tale of aoooeai of an odd kind."— Spedaior. 

** A Tolume eojojable for Its manner ae It ii interesting for Ite mat- 
ter."— QUugow Herald. 

" Written in the true spirit <ifthe Alpine climber.^* 


By Sir WiLUAM Mabtdt Goitwat. ITHth 100 Illustrationa. 

by A. D. MoCoBiacK. Large demy 8vo, cloth, $7.00. 

" A higb place among tbeee books of cUmblns, whicb i^peal to many 
wbo cannot climb as well as to all wlio can, wQl be tsken by tiie very 
pleasant volame, * TIm Alps from End to End.* "— T^me*. 

" Written in the true spirit of tlie Alpine cUmber. Tbe book con- 
tains a hundred foil-page illnstrations by that admirable por^ayer of 
rockand ice scenery, w. A. D. KcCormfok."— Sooteman. 

" A« pUMMtt m. pnMnwrirm — any w^iwrA th^ thla tl»»<lltii|r spOrt haS- 

inspired in its devotees."— Itei/y Chronicle. 


A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the History, the 
Physical and Chemical Properties, and the Manufacture of 
Explosives. By Osgab GuTTMAXir, Assoc. M. Inst., C.E., 
F.I.C., etc. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth, $9.00 net. 

WRIGHT.— Birdcraft. 

A Field Book of Two Hundred Song, Game, and Water 
Birds. By Mabbl Osgood Wrioht. With numerous full- 
page Plates containing 128 Birds in the Natural colors, and 
other Illustrations. 8vo, bound in linen, $3.00 net, 

KOVALEVSKY.— Sonia Kovalevsky. 

Biography and Autobiography. I. MEMOIR. By A. C. 
LxFFLBB (Edgren), Dnchessa di Cajanello. II. REMIN- 
ISCENCES OF CHILDHOOD. Written by Herself. 
Translated into English by Louise von Comel. With 
Frontispiece. 12mo, cloth, 317 pages, $1.25. 

BALZAC The Novels of H. De Balzac. 

Yd. II. THE CHOUANS (Les Chouans). Translated by 
Bllks BiABBiAQE. With an Introduction by George 
Saimtebubt. Illustrated. 12mo, silk, gilt top, 280 pages, 

New Volume qfthe'' Cambridge Hittorical Seriet.'' Edited 
by O. W. Prothero, Litt.D., etc. 



(From their Foundation to the Year 1893.) By Edwakd 
Jenks, M.A., Professor of Law in University College, Liv- 
erpool. 12mo, doth, $1.00 net. 

WATTS Miguel de Cervantes. 

His Life and Works. By Heioit Edwabd Watts. A 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with a complete Bib- 
liography and Index. V^th Portrait. 8vo, cloth, gilt top.. 
(Uniform in size and binding with the Don Quixote.) $2.50. 

SWETTENH AM.— Malay Sketches. 

By Frank Athelstavb Swettenham, Oificier Acad^mie. 
1^0, decorated linen, 289 pages, $2.00. 

JACKSON.— The Great Frozen Land. 

Narratives of a Winter Journey Across the Tundras and a- 
Sojourn Among the Samoyads. By Geoboe F. Jaokson, 
Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, snd Leader of 
the Jackson-EUumsworth Polar Expedition. With Illus- 
trations and Maps. Edited from his Journals by Abthub. 
MoMTBFiOBE. 8vo, doth, xvii.+ 297 pages, $4.50. 

MACMILLAN & COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



TBS DIAZ {Jmmdtdin 1880) U pubtUked on the lat and 16lh ^ 
-eaehmonlh, Taun or BuMumraov, $2,00 a ymr in odvaiee, postage 
prtptM in iht UnU«d 8UUMy Canada, and Metieo; in othar eomUriet 
-cam pr i Md in the Pottal Union, 60 oentt a year for extra pottage muet 
be added, Unieu eiheneUe ordered, eubterlptione vfitt begin wUh the 
a nr r ent nmm hor . Bhirtavom thonid be by ekeek, or by eaprets or 
poetal order, pagabie to TUB DIAL, BnouL Ratm to Olom and 
for enbteripHont wUh other pubUeaHom wiO be eent on appUeoHem; 
and^AanmOononreeelpt^flOeenlM, A inaaxuu m BjamAemtehed 
en applieaUen, AU eommunteaHom ahould be addreeted to 

TSB DIAL, 316 Wabash Ave,, Chhago. 

No. 2»0, AUGUST 16, 1896. Vol, XIX. 




ENGLAND IN TUDOR TIBiES. A. B. Woodfwd . 87 


Starr 89 


Howard Noll 90 

RECENT FICTION. WUliam Morton Payne ... 91 

Bin. Cnigie*8 The Gods, Sone Mortab, and Lend 
Wiokenhain.— Mn. Ward's The Story of Bessie Cos- 
trell. — Miss Montr^sor's Into the Sffhways and 
Hedces. — Pembeiton's The Impregnable City. — 
Mnriay's The Mar^jred FooL—Upwaad's The Prinoe 
of Balhistan. — Glaring's In the Year of Jubilee. — 
Conrad's Almayer's FoDy. — Boothby's A Lost En- 
deaTor.— Boothby's The Marriage of Esther.— Miss 
Dougall's The Zeit-Geist.— Miss Dongall's The Mer- 
maid. — Parker's When Valmond Came to Pontiao. 
— Mrs. Harrison's An Errant Wooing. — Miss Bige- 
low's Diplomatie Disenehantments. — Perry's The 
Plated City. — Miss Goodwin's The Head of a Hnn- 
dred.— Underwood's Doctor Gray's Quest. — Besant's 
In Deacon's Orders.— lioore's Celibates.— Grahame's 
The Golden Age.— Baasett's Hippolyte a^ Gdden- 
Beak.— Harland's Gray Roses.— Ifiss Murfree's The 
Phantoms of the Foot-Bridge. 


A Tolome of English fishing lore. — Essays by a 
** Pnnoh " contributor. — New selections from Cole- 
ridge and Shelley. — Pictures of mstie Englsnd. — 
Spiritual life in modem English poetry. — The new 
FJigliwh edition of Balzac. — Industries of primitiTe 





The condensation of the *^ Athen»um '* sum- 
mary of European literary productivity dur- 
ing ihe past year, begun in our last issue, will 
now be completed by a consideration of the re- 
ports from Italy and Spain, Greece and Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, Poland, and Russia. 

That a new poet has arisen in Italy is the 
cheering announcement of the Commendatore 
Bonghi, who writes of things Italian in this 
series of articles. Sig. Gioyanni Pascoli, a pro- 
fessor at L^hom, is the individual in question, 
and his volume is called ^* MyriesB " — a sug- 
gestion of the Yirg^ian 

^' Noo onuies arbnsta jurant humilssque myricn." 

Chastity and simplicity are the leading notes of 
this poet, although the simplicity is of thought 
rather than of style. Sig. Alfredo BaceUi's 
*^ Yittime e Bebelli " is also a meritorious vol- 
ume of verse, and not as socialistic as the title 
would indicate. Sig. Carducci's ode to the city 
of Ferrara, written on tiie occasion of the ter- 
centenary of Tasso's death, is, of oourse, the 
most important poetical product of the year in 
Italy. The Tasso celebration, indeed, *^has 
been the principal literary eiroitement of the 
twelve months," and has evoked many publica- 
tions. Chief of tiiese is the three-volume work 
by Professor Solerti, which includes both the 
life and the correspondence of the poet. Other 
Tasso publications are : three volumes of Sig. 
Solerti's critical edition, Sig. Prinsivalli's ^^ Tor- 
quato Tasso a Roma " and ^* Torquato Tasso 
nella Vita e nelle Opere," Sig. Prote*s ^^ Rin- 
aldo," and Sig. Carducci's critique of the 
^^ Aminta." Only one novel of the year is found 
deserving of praise, that one being Sig. Rovet- 
ta's *^La Baraonda," an «* exceedingly clever 
picture of the cottlisses of political life." *^ Pic- 
ooli Schiavi Bianohi," by Sig. G. Errico, is a 
coUectmn of short stories ^* dealing with the 
troubles and sorrows of the poorer classes." 
The following paragraph about Sig. d'Annun- 
zio is of oonsiderable interest : ** According to 
a French interviewer, he is now contemplating 
a series of novels which will be called ^ I Gigli.' 
He intends to publish these exclusively in 



[Aug. 16, 

Frencb, becanse he thinks that only French 
readers have ever really understood hun. This 
is as good as saying that he does not wish these 
novels to appear in his own language. Never- 
theless the first of the series, * La Vergine alle 
Boccie/ is undoubtedly coming out in ^ H Con- 
yito,' a very dainty periodical, in which the 
school of * Young Italy ' dispLiys its prowess. 
I cannot pretend to criticize it, as * II Convito ' 
is at present only in its third number, and it is 
impossible to say how ^ La Vergine ' will turn 

Don Juan Riafio, writing of Spain, b^;ins 
with an account of the work being done by the 
Royal Academy of History, and the remarka- 
ble activity recently shown in historical, archsB- 
ological, and topographical fields. Even the 
novelist, Seiior Giddos, figures in this depart- 
ment with his ^* Cuarenta Leguas por Canta- 
bria." The colonies also continue to occupy 
the attention of many writers. ^^ Columbus's 
quatercentenary has passed away, and yet most 
of the periodical publications, collections of 
documents, reviews, and so forth, started on 
account of it, go on still printing papers and 
tracts (nay, works in three or more volumes) 
exclusively relating to America.'* Seiior Du- 
puy de Lome has recently published an account 
of the war between China and Japan. Spanish 
poetry is in a state of decay, and the ^^ long- 
winded epic " seems *^ doomed to disappear alto- 
gether." In tiie drama, there have been two 
comedies by Seiior Echegaray — ^^La Monja 
Descaka " and ^* Mancha que Limpia." The 
*^ Teresa " of Seiior Alas and the dramatization 
of ^* Torquemada y San Pedro," by Seiior Gal- 
doB, have both proved failures. Some plays 
have been written in Catalan and produced at 
Barcelona, and we are told that the Catalan is 
*^ spreading more than ever in the eastern prov- 
inces of the Peninsula." In fiction, SeSor 
Pereda's '' Peiias Arriba " and Seiior Yalera's 
^^ La Buena Fama " have been well received, 
while the great success of the year has been 
Father Coloma's ^^ Retratos de Antaiio," which 
is rather more history than fiction, and might 
fairly be called ^^ Memoirs of the Court of 
France at the End of the Eighteentii Century." 
The author closes with a somewhat lengthy dis- 
cussion of Cervantes literature and the prob- 
lems recently raised in connection with tiie im- 
mortal author of ^^ Don Quijote." The most 
important book in this department seems to be 
^^ Cervantes Vascofilo," a vindication from the 
charge that Cervantes thought and wrote dis- 
paragingly of the Basques. 

We do not expect much literature from mod- 
em Greece, but Professor Lambros gives us 
an interesting article upon the subject Among 
the books which he enumerates are a treatise 
on *^ Greek Metres," by Professor Semitelos ; 
a ^^ History of Greek Literature," by Professor 
Mistriotis ; some ^* Studies of Byzantine His- 
tory from the First to the Final Conquest of 
Constantinople," by Mr. Paul Callegas; a 
^^ History of Athens from the Birth of Christ 
to A. D. 1821," by Mr. George Constantinides ; 
a work on ^* Popular Cosmographic Myths," 
dedicated to Professor E. Curtius by the au- 
thor. Professor Nicolaus Politis ; and the second 
volume of the '^ Memoirs of Al^umder Rhan- 
g^b^," coming down to 1856. ** Most engag- 
ingly, sometimes inu^^atively, written, this 
book helps to illuminate the history of modem 
Greece, more especiaUy of its civilization, and 
furnishes much that is novel with regard to 
those incidents in which the author himself 
bore a part." In beUes-leUreSj there is litde 
that is noteworthy. Mr. Ephtaliotis has pro- 
duced a oollection of dialect ^^ Island Stories," 
and Mr. Passojannis, in his ^^ First Fairy 
Tales," a volume of dialect popular legends. 
The tragedy of '' Fausta," by Mr. D. Bemard- 
akis, IB the foremost poetical work of the year. 

The celebration, last February, of Herr 
J6kai'8 seventieth birthday provides Herr M. 
L. Katscher with an appropriate introduction 
to his report upon Hungarian literature. Thirty 
volumes have appeared of the ^^ jubilee edition " 
of J6kai, to be followed by seventy more. Of 
Herr Br 6dy, perhaps ^*our second-best novelist," 
a twelve - volume edition has been published, 
besides a new novelette, *' Snow-white." The 
following new works of fiction are noteworthy : 
« Occidental Tales," by Herr Herczeg ; " The 
Destruction of Nineveh," by Herr Ambrus ; 
'^ King Midas," by the same author ; ^^ The Key 
of the Temple," by Herr Tabori ; and " The 
Life of the Poholys," by Herr Gardonyi. Sev- 
eral volumes of poetry are briefly characterized, 
and two or three plays, among the latter Herr 
Varady's iambic tragedy of " Charitas." " Its 
diction is splendid." *^ In anticipation of the 
millennial celebration, in 1896, of the founda- 
tion of Hungary, a grand ^ Millennial National 
History of Hungary ' is being issued in many 
volumes, three of which have already seen the 
light. It is being written by various eminent 
historians — Professor Marczali among the rest 
— splendidly got up, illustrated with thousands 
of pictures, excellentiy edited by Herr Sandor 
SzUagyi, and published by the Hungarian 




Athenseam Society. The same Society issues 
a similar monumental work by many writers, 
entitled * Illustrated History of Literature,' and 
having a biographical basis." 

Bohemia, too, has had its literary centennial 
during the year, according to Dr. J. Krejci, 
this honor having been bestowed upon the 
memory of Paul Joseph Safarik, historian, 
archsdologist, and philologist. As for the lit- 
erature of the twelvemonth, it is rich in belle- 
tristic work. ^* Two volumes of verse, ^ Here 
Roses ought to Blow' and ^Magdalena,' by 
Mr. J. S. Machar, are the most conspicuous 
productions of last year. The former contains 
a series of beautiful lyrics, passages from the 
lives of suffering women; the latter, scenes 
from the romance of a girl who, without any 
fault of her own, had been thrown into the 
gutter." Mr. Svatopluk Cech's " Songs of a 
Slave" is a volume that has gone through 
twenty-three editions in three or four months. 
'^ Freedom and liberty are the writer's themes, 
and therefore the interest his verses have awak- 
ened is easily explained, considering our pecu- 
liar political circumstances. His lyrics have 
an eminently political tendency — the author 
has himself acknowledged this — and they have 
struck the right chord." Many other books of 
poetry are named, but those we have mentioned 
seem the most important. Bohemian writers 
of fiction have been ^^ especially diligent in 
writing stories of family and country life." 
'^ Mr. A. l£. Muzfk's ^ Ruins of Life ' contains 
some simple but touching pictures of human 
misery. Mr. K. V. Rais describes in ^ Forgot- 
ten Patriots' some of the best and noblest, 
though unacknowledged workers in the national 
cause. The same author's pictures of highland 
life, under the title of ' Toil,' are marked by 
the warm-hearted feeling which characterizes 
him. Mr. Klostermann's story ^From the 
World of Forest Solitudes' introduces the 
reader to the depths of the Bohemian Forest, 
while another of his tales, perhaps the best of 
them, ^ In Search of Good Fortune,' treats of 
the life of Bohemians who reside in Vienna, 
which is to many of them a foreign soil." The 
works of the savants are mostly continuations 
or new editions, and Bohemian scholarship is 
also represented by new historical and geo- 
graphical reviews. 

Dr. Belcikowski tells us, what we might have 
been shrewd enough to guess, that *' The Pol- 
aniecki Family," by Mr. Sienkiewicz, is the 
most important contribution to the Polish lit- 
erature of the year. Under the title ^' Children 

of the Soil," this work was reviewed by us some 
weeks ago. The following paragraph embodies 
the most important remaining news of Polish 
fiction : ^^ Mr. J. Zacharyasiewicz, who has just 
celebrated his fortieth year of literary work, is 
still, in spite of his years, busy, maintaining his 
well-merited reputation by new efforts, and has 
in the last twelve months brought out three 
new volumes : *• Under the Three Govern- 
ments,' ^ Orion and Chrysanthema,' a cutting 
satire on the naturalistic school of the present 
day, and above all, the novel f Bread,' to which 
the political condition in recent years of Prus- 
sian Poland forms a background that is de- 
picted with much skill. In a similar manner, 
but with a considerable infusion of satire, the 
celebrated Mr. T. T. Jez has in his romance 
^Elizabeth' portrayed the condition of Gali- 
cia." Besides these novels, mention is made 
of ^^ Begun in the Morning," a *^ combination 
of realistic truth with a cheerful optimism," by 
Mr. Gawalewicz ; ** Cotton," a story of an in- 
dustrial town, by Mr. Kosiakiewicz ; and ^^ The 
Gt>Iden Chains " of Mr. Gomulicki, ^^ the 
highly esteemed lyrical poet and writer of short 
stories." The drama has not flourished of late 
in Poland, only a few second-rate plays being 
named ; on the other hand, Mr. Kaszewski has 
made a new translation, ^< which meets all ar- 
tistic and literary requirements," of the trag- 
edies of ^schylns. Mr. K. Tetmajer has come 
to the front with a new volume of poems. *^ He 
possesses a powerful fancy and integrity of 
feeling, yet most of his poems express an inner 
doubt and skepticism or an intoxication of the 
senses." ^^ Sobieski before Vienna " is a note- 
worthy poem by ^^ Deotyma," a lady of the later 
Romantic School. Finally, we must not fail to 
record the completion of the four-volume life 
of Mickiewicz, by his son. 

The last country upon our list is Russia, and 
Professor Paul Milyoukov is the correspondent 
from the great Empire of the North. Fully 
half of his article is devoted to an account of 
economic and social discussion, the general ten- 
dency of which, in Russia, appears to be rather 
toward collectivism in one form or another. In 
bdleS'lettres '* the past year has produced noth- 
ing of capital importance." A novel by Mr. Bob- 
urikin (not named), one by Mr. Mamin-Sibir- 
iak, entitled ^* Bread," and Count Tolstoy's 
^* Master and Man," are the chief representa- 
tives of the year's fiction. Mr. Korolenko, who 
recently made a trip to England and America, 
has published ^^ A Free Fight in the House," 
a semi-literary commentary on a well-known 



[Aug. 16, 

incident in the Honse of Commons"; and 
*^ Without a Tongue," which is ^^descriptive 
of a charming and touching incident in the life 
of some Western Russian peasant emigrants, 
hopelessly lost amidst what was to them the 
strange population of New York." Amongst 
scholarly works, special prominence is given to 
•♦ The Origins of Contemporary Democracy," 
by Mr. Kovalevski ; and ^* The Russian His- 
torical Epos," by Mr. Jdanof . The following 
facts seem to us of peculiar significance : ^^ The 
great awakening of interest in reading and self- 
culture in all classes of society, to which I re- 
ferred in my last article, is confirmed this year 
by observation and facts. Inquiries amongst 
people connected with and interested in rural 
schools have revealed the existence everywhere 
of a profound interest in education amongst 
the rural population. The interest taken by 
the higher classes of the reading public is 
brought to light in the recently issued work by 
Mr. Rubakin entitled 'A Study of the Russian 
Reading Public,' as well as by the great suc- 
cess attained by the Moscow Commission for 
the Organization of Home Reading, which has 
scarcely commenced work and has already 
issued three editions of its * Programme of 
Home Reading,' or about 25,000 copies. Be- 
sides endeavoring to give a direction to home 
reading, the Commission has made the first at- 
tempt to introduce another form of university 
extension by causing public lectures to be de- 
livered in the provinces by travelling lecturers. 
Parallel with this movement the issue of pop- 
ular works on science has made great strides, 
though these are as yet principally transla- 


Few men have so endeared themselves to the 
American people as Dr. George F. Root of Chicago, 
who died at his summer home on the Maine sea* 
coast, the sucth of this month. To << write the songs 
of the people " has been held by excellent authority 
to be a nobler function than that of the statesman ; 
and Dr. Root was our song-writer at a time when 
song was most needed. Not a composer of music 
in any very high sense, he yet knew what chords 
would find responsive echo in the popular heart, and 
his gift was not grudgingly bestowed. *< Tramp, 
Tramp, Tramp " and " The Vacant Chair " and " The 
Battle Cry of Freedom " are as much a part of our 
lives as *^ America " and " The Scar Spangled Ban- 
ner," and we shall not forget to cherish the mem- 
ory of the man to whom we owe them. 

On the first of August the news came of the death 
of Heinrieh von Sybel, the gpreat G^erman historian, 
at the age of seventy-seven. He was bom in 1817, 
at Dttsseldorf, and studied at Berlin under Ranke. 
He occupied chairs at Bonn, Marburg, and Munich. 
He also took a prominent part in politics, joining 
forces with the liberals. His greatest work is his 
« Geschichte der Revolutionszeit," in five volumes, 
brilliant in style and sound in scholarship, which 
mainly occupied him for a score of years. He also 
wrote an '^Entstehung des Deutschen KOnigrthums/' 
and numerous books of less importance. He was 
the founder, in 1856, of the '^Historische Zeitschrift,'* 
and director of the Prussian State Archives. 

The death of Julius Zupitsa, on the sixth of July, 
coming so soon after the loss of Ten Brink, is a 
heavy blow to English scholarship in Germany. 
Born in 1844, he died at the early age of fifty-one. 
His academic posts were at Oppeln, Breslan, Vienna, 
and Berlin, and he filled the latter for nearly twenty 
years. His English studies were very numerous, 
and among them we should mention his edition of 
the '<Elene," his <<iElfric's Grammar," his fac- 
umile <' B^wulf ," and his ^ Romance of Guy of 
Warwick." One of his English friends thus writes 
of him in << The Athemenm ": *< He was a highly 
gifted, enthusiastic, yet methodical teacher, lucid 
in exposition, painstaking, extremely kind, enconr* 
aging, and helpful. He had the highest conceptions 
of the aims of university teaching and study ; his 
instruction was eminently effective, yet he never 
stooped to using merely utilitarian methods of in- 
struction. He always insisted on the absolute neces- 
sity of a truly scientific stady of the English lan- 
guage and literature in their lustorical development, 
but he no less insisted on his students gaining a 
thorough knowledge of the present state of the lan- 
guage and of the masterpieces of modem literature, 
and he would urge them to make themselves familiar 
with English life and manners, if possible, by visits 
to tins country." 

Mr. G. C. Macaulay, whose discovery of a manuscript 
claimed to be the lost French poem of Gower we noted 
some weeks ago, now writes to the <' Academy " sum- 
marizing the reasons in support of bis claim. He says, 
in part: *< The title, the number of divisions, and the 
contents of the book, all correspond exactly with the 
account given by Grower of his own work. The author 
is an Englishman and a layman, and the French in 
which he writes is the same in all essential points with 
that of Gower's acknowledged French poems. At the 
same time, in its style and manner of treatment, this 
book most strikingly resembles the other acknowledged 
works of Gower. Finally, the book abounds with pas- 
sages which occur also in the * Confessio Amaatu ' or in 
the * Vox Clamantis,' and of the few stories which it 
contains most are reproduced in the < Confessio Aman- 
tis.' '' Mr. Macaulay's argument, which is developed 
at much length, and enforced by copious quotations 
from the newly-discovered poem, may be found in « The 
Academy " for July 27 and August 3. 




Elje IStSoa Booto« 

Cngl.^vni> in Tudor Timbs.* 

Mr. Traill's third volame f carries the story 
of England's progress forward through the six- 
teenth centary — the centary of Henry the 
Eighth and Elizabeth ; of Wolsey and Thomas 
Cromwell ; of Erasmus, Colet, and Sir Thomas 
More ; of William Cecil, Sir Walter Raleigh, 
and Sir Francis Drake; of Cranmer, Hugh 
Latimer, William Tyndale, and John Knox ; 
of the group of poets and prose writers whose 
work gave the name of Augustan to this period 
of English literature. It is a century full of 
adventure and of change, of things to interest 
and of things to instruct. Great names and 
great deeds crop out over it, as ^* Ik Marvel " 
has said, as thickly as leaves grow in summer. 
It is the first century of distinctively modem 
times ; the period when the transition from the 
spirit of medisBvalism to that of modem com- 
merce was becoming manifest, and not only 
changes were taking place in the industrial and 
the political world, but revolutions were devel* 
oping in the religious, and above all in the so- 
cial, life of the people, — revolutions which 
brought into England a ^^ new learning " and a 
Renaissance, a new church and a new state, a 
new home and a new school, a new industrial 
relation and commercial connection, and a new 
society. Thus is evident at once the need and 
the difficulty of a scientific treatment of the 
facts and factors of this great period, as afford- 
ing a guide to the work of present-day social 

Mr. Traill's purpose is clearly manifested in 
the titles he has given to the successive chap- 
ters : « The Old Order Changed," " The New 
Forces," "The New Order," and "The Ex- 
pansion of England." He and his co-laborers 
seek to show how the preceding causes made 
subsequent results inevitable. They endeavor 
to separate the forces which were fundamental 
and permanent, from the temporary incidents 
in the story. They fail in this, just because 
the controversial character of the period makes 
the personal equation more difficult to calcu- 

* Social Ekolaitd. A Record of the Progress of the Peo- 
ple in Reltgion, Laws, Leammflr, Arts, Industry, Commeroe, 
Science, Litermtue, and Manners, from the Earliest Times to 
the Present Day. By Various Writers. Edited by H. D. 
Traill, D.C.L. Vdlnme III. From the Accession of Henry 
VIII. to the Death of EUzabeth. New York : G. P. Put- 
nam's Son's. 

tSee The Dial, Vol. XVIII., No. 205, pp. 15-17. 

late ; as it is for this very reason that history 
has constantly to be rewritten. Each succeed* 
ing generation, and each new reading of the 
inscriptions on the walls, makes possible a 
clearer view of the essential elements in human 


The real historical significance of Tudor 

absolutism lies in the fact that by it England 

was steered safely through the revolutionary 

period of the sixteenth century. The storm of 

feudal controversy in the Wars of the Boses 

had prepared the way ; the culmination of the 

change, as the nations of Europe passed from 

the mediaeval to the modern mould, made the 

strong central power unnecessary. Before his 

death Henry VIII., ^^ vrithout an army, without 

an independent revenue, with no open breach 

in constitutional forms, was exercising over a 

nation, still proud of its instincts of freedom 

and jealous of political innovation, a self -willed 

authority that amounted to a real despotism " 

(p. 1). Men like Wolsey and Cromwell were 

instruments in his hands to be used in the 

building of a fabric of absolutism against which 

neither the Church nor Parliament, neither the 

aristocracy nor the third estate, was in a posi* 

tion to make a stand. 

** The bishops' courts, the privileges of sanctuary and 
clergy, had all been < blown upon ' under Henry VII.; 
and now the vast wealth and separate Parliament of the 
clerical estate, its alleged ownership of one-fifth of En- 
glish land, its dominance in the peerage (where the 
spiritual lords still numbered forty-eight out of eighty- 
four), its hold on political power through the almost 
unbroken succession of clerical ministers, as chancellors, 
keepers, and presidents of council, all provoked the cry 
« Restrain ' " (p. 49). 

So Henry restrained. The new church be- 
came dependent on the crown, and the great lay 
classes gained a social victory over the clerical 
estate which they have ever since maintained. 
The new nobility was entirely dependent upon 
the crown. 

« A personal nobility, indebted for their rank, their 
emoluments, their importance, and their emplojrment, 
to their personal services about the king, — enriched by 
waidships, by marriages, by forfeitures, by steward- 
ships in the royal demesnes, continually augmented by 
impeachments of the older houses, — owed everything 
to the king. ... As time went on, the ranks of the 
nobility were opened to merchants, lawyers, borough 
magistrates, and manufacturers, — ^men who, risen from 
small fortunes, had been enriched by the confiscation of 
the monastic property. And thus it came about that 
from the ranks of the courtiers and from the middle 
classes arose a nobility which owed its position to wealth 
or to the favor of the king — a nobility which was for 
many years utterly powerless to check the absolnUs B 
of the crown " (p. 32). 

Perhaps the chief practical significance of a 



[Aug. 16, 

study of this century lies, however, in the light 
it throws on the lines of commercial develop- 
ment. A revolution was going on, in agricul- 
ture and industry, which Henry was powerless 
to direct, although his ministers set themselves, 
all through the reign, to oppose the current 
tendency, and they were supported by all the 
preachers and thinkers of the day. Growing 
wool had become profitable and a commercial 
spirit was thus infused into agriculture, of 
which the results were twofold : ^^ First, the 
breaking up of the old agrarian partnerships, 
in which lords of the manor, parsons, yeomen, 
farmers, copyholders, and laborers were asso- 
ciated for the supply of the wants of the vil- 
lages ; and, secondly, the substitution of pas- 
turage for tillage, and of sheep for com 
[wheat]." This led to extensive enclosures of 
common land and to an entirely new relation- 
ship between lord and tenant. ^^ Under the 
old system, it was open to the idleness of one 
man to cripple the energy of fifty others. 
To exchange, divide, enclose, and so consol- 
idate the holdings, became the object of the 
rural aristocracy" (p. 858). This movement 
was greatly aided, consequently, by Henry's 
schemes of confiscation from monastery and 
guild. In the mean time, manufacturing towns 
were springing up. 

** Whilst the old < corporate ' towns are decaying, the 
<viUages' of Manchester, Birmingham, and Sheffield 
were growing in importance, — ^partly, no donbt, because 
they were comparatively free from yezatious restric- 
tions. Parliament vainly tried to compel people to 
work in the old towns. Economic forces were too strong 
for the Government ; in fact, the mediaeval organiza- 
tions of labor were breaking down on all sides. The 
rise in the price of wool was inducing landlords to turn 
their arable land into pasture, and this change involved 
extensive ejectments of agriculturists" (p. 121). 

The growth of the spirit of commercialism 
among Englishmen in the sixteenth century is 
evidenced further in the changed feeling re- 
garding the taking of interest (usury). The 
class of capitalist artisans was now developing 
into a class of capitalist employers ; a market 
was thus created for the productive use of 
wealth belonging to others. The mutually bene- 
ficial agreement to share the profits of the en- 
terprise, and gradually to take a definite per- 
centage on the capital as ^^ interest," was the 
inevitable result. The forces compelling it lie 
behind all government, deeply buried in the 
springs to human activity. Law may direct 
the current which it is entirely helpless to 
abolish. This principle is further illustrated 
by the laws which debased the currency so rap- 

idly and on so great a scale that the shilling 
issued in 1551 contained less than one-seventh 
of the amount of fine silver in the shilling of 
1527. This naturally threw prices and wages 
into confusion. A great temptation to coun- 
terfeiters aggravated the difficulty of estimat- 
ing how far the rapacity and ignorance of the 
dishonest Council might carry debasement of 
the coin. All this was superadded to the change 
which must have come with the increase in the 
supply of the money metals resulting from the 
Spanish conquests in America. It thus hap- 
pened that the upper and middle classes derived 
almost the whole of the increased wealth in the 
sixteenth century. 

All transitions from one industrial pursuit 
to another are attended with much misery to a 
large body of the laborers. In this instance, 
the government persistently interfered to make 
it harder for agricultural laborers to adapt 
themselves to the new conditions. The late 
Professor Rogers goes so far as to hold that 
even in this century the laborers of England 
have not recovered the level of the halcyon 
days of the fourteenth, from which Tudor des- 
potism degraded them. 

The classes immediately above the wage- 
earners, which included small farmers, shop- 
keepers, and the small employers, naturally 
profited greatly by the rise in prices, and they 
greatly increased, both in numbers and wealth, 
during the reign of Elizabeth. 

<< Among the upper classes, too, we find many evi- 
dences of increased prosperity. The rise in rents was 
not, indeed, proportionate to the general rise in prices; 
but the upper classes invested largely in the trading and 
buccaneering enterprises of the time, which, in spite of 
frequent losses, brought in on the whole very advan- 
tageous returns. Moreover, owing to the spread of 
commerce, the prices of nuiny luxuries from abroad ac- 
tually fell, while others only slightly advanced. The 
upper classes now lived in houses built of brick or stone, 
with chimneys and glass windows, carpets, cushions, and 
other comforts, which had been, before Elizabeth's 
reign, almost unattainable luxuries; and there was a 
corresponding improvement in their dress and in their 
food "(p. 548). 

It is the articles dealing with food and dress, 
with manners and customs, amusements, and 
the like, and contributed to this volume by 
Miss Bateson, that give the reader the best 
view of social England. Human life is a 
growth, a development, an unfolding. Nowhere 
is this life more clearly registered than in the 
everyday affairs. Civilization is revealed in 
the social habits of people in the large cities. 

A. B. Woodford. 




Darwinism and Race Progress.* 

It 18 easy for most persooB to admit a great 
scientific principle in a general way, without 
realizing what its application to details really 
involves. Many, who unhesitatingly accept 
the great Darwinian principle of Natural Selec- 
tion, probably have not thought of applying it 
to sociologicsd questions. Professor Haycraf t, 
in his little book, ^^ Darwinism and Kace Pro- 
gress," makes such an application. 

Race and nation are widely different words. 

A nation may rise and fall without the race or 

races interested in it being profoundly affected. 

Our author says : 

<«It would be quite impoesible for our Empire to 
omiuble away from us. It is a political organization 
dependent upon ties of mutual advantage and sentiment 
and likewise upon the tolerance and weakness of other 
nations. But we may lose our colonies and be stripped 
of our prestige, and yet remain, man for man, as fine 
individually as when we gained them; for bone, mus- 
cle, and brain are one thing, whilst the political union 
that binds us together is another.'' 

To improve race is the problem. Before we 
can solve it, we must know the laws of racial 
change. The fundamental law is selection. It 
should have free course ; the unfit must die, 
the fit must survive. Nature works constantly 
to such results. Haycraf t says, ^^ leprosy ex- 
terminates the unhealthy," *^ phthisis and scrof- 
ula are social friends," ^* if we stamp out in- 
fectious diseases we perpetuate poor types." 
We are prone in these days of science to point 
with pride to what we are doing to prolong 
human life. We speak of a lengthening life 
average, we decrease infant mortality by im- 
proved sanitation, we rob smallpox of its ter- 
rors by inoculation. All of this is interesting ; 
nay more, it is wonderful achievement. But 
what is undoubtedly individual gain is racial 
loss. Lengthening the life of the weak or unfit 
increases the chances of their leaving behind 
them weak and unfit progeny. When pesti- 
lence sweeps a land but few physically able 
persons succumb ; the survivors are usually the 
ones whose progeny is desirable. Beducing 
quantity, the pestilence has distinctly improved 
quality. The statement appears harsh, but is 
it not true ? 

Take a single well-known disease — consump- 
tion. Of it our author says : 

*< Now this phthisical type is very common with us 
indeed, and it appears to be an innate variation to which 

* Darwihisx and Race Pboobsss. By John Beny Hay- 
craft. ** Social Science Series.*' London: Swan Sonneur 
flohein A Go. (Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons, New 


our race is liable. It is evident, therefore, that those 
people with the tuberculous variation who, even under 
the present circumstances, manage to contribute their 
quota to the population, would, were the bacillus tuber- 
culosus altogether exterminated, contribute more than 
their share, and the type would become more common. 
And let it be remembered that this type, apart from 
the action of the bacillus, is a delicate and fragile one 
and liable to other affections, and the effect of giving 
the type any advantage in the struggle for life would 
surely imperil the well-being of the future of the race.** 

*' The finest races are bred by hardship." Hard- 
ship destroys the fragile and weak, leaving the 
strong, hardy, and vigorous to continue the race. 
The race begins already to feel the results 
of preventive medicine. Insanity and nervous 
derangement increase wherever civilization goes 
with germicides, inoculation, and sanitation. 
Well-meant agitations and reforms tend to dan- 
gerous ends. What is alcoholism ? — ^^ a habit, 
a sign of mental instability." ^* Drink is a 
selective agency " destroying early and surely 
a class of persons whose continued existence is 
a menace to the race. Drunkenness is symp- 
tomatic of unbalancement. What results must 
follow and have followed prohibitory legisla- 
tion ? In Maine we find insanity, pauperism, 
crime, on the increase at an abnormally large 
rate ; in Kansas ^^ there were more prisoners 
in its penitentiary and county jails in propor- 
tion to population in 1890 than there were in 
1880," and it has a larger ratio of prisoners 
to population than its neighboring states ; in 
an Iowa town, where wine could not be had 
for a communion service, opium dens flourished 
for poor wretches whose craving for liquor 
could not be satisfied. Students of ethnology 
know into what insane methods of intoxication 
Mohammedans have been driven by the Koran 
prohibition of wine. Whole districts in Ire- 
land are to-day given over to ether drinking be- 
cause of Father Matthew's phenomenal success 
in his temperance crusade. The whole matter 
lies in a nutshell in this statement : 

« Excessive drinking can only be looked upon as a 
symptom of a debilitated or depraved nature, which, 
without access to drink, would show itself depraved in 
other ways, and which, if artificially kept sober and as- 
sisted thereby to live, will tend to perpetuate itself and 
widen the circle of its depravity.'' 

The author then studies the criminals and 
incapables, whom at present we seem to prefer 
to help to live and leave descendants. He shows 
in a study of competition how the ranks of the 
unfortunate are constantly recruited. Success 
to-day, in civilization, is not sure to go to the 
best — unless by best we mean the ^^ pushing 
and diplomatic," the possessor of ^^ talons and 



[Aug, 16^ 

claws." Still worse, ^^ talent is being bred out 
of as," for the successful career in modem life 
«« carries with it and necessitates relative ster- 
ility." Among animals the fit are the ones who 
produce many and healthy young ; among men, 
^^ the capable and successful are rewarded by 
honor and wealth, but are relatively sterile, and 
the man that society is inclined to overlook con- 
tributes a large percentage to the race of the 

All of which no doubt sounds to some pes- 
simistic and gloomy. Haycraft has his pan- 
acea. He does not demand relaxation in ef- 
forts to save individuals ; he cannot help us at 
one sweep of the arm to rid ourselves of the 
insane, criminal, and incapable. He would have 
high-minded but diseased persons refrain from 
marriage ; he would have the bad and insane 
prevented from marriage or restricted in the 
production of children; he would have the 
truly capable careful in selection of life part- 
ners, early in marrying, and oonscientio^ in 
their duty as producers of children. With such 
steps taken, tiie unfit would soon disappear and 
the race would advance. 

The book will hardly meet an enthusiastic 
reception : it contains far too much of good, 
hard, common-sense. The author is thoroughly 
in earnest. His style is direct, forcible, inter- 
esting. However sound his argument may be, 
it will probably have little direct result. But 
he will set many to thinking, and it is well that 
some one should show us quite fearlessly and 
clearly that Darwinism cannot stop just where 
we might like, and that Natural Selection af- 
fects man in society as much as any species or 

variety of animal. -c* ^ 

^ Frederick Starr. 


When the first two volumes of Mr. Lamed's 
^'History for Eeady Beference and Topical 
Beading " were noticed in The Dial [Septem- 
ber 16, 1894], the promise was made that the 
work when completed would add to the refer- 
ence books already in existence a most valuable 
guide to the broad domain of history. We find 
this promise more than fulfilled in the five im- 
perial volumes now before us, aggregating 3985 
pages, completing the work, and, by means of 

* HisTOBT FOB Ready Rbfbbehcx, from the best Histo- 
riAJiB, Biographen, and Speeialists. By J. N. Lamed. With 
numeioiia hiatorical maps from original stndiee and drawings 
by AJan C. Reiley. In fiye Tolunes. Sold only by snbsorip- 
tion. Springfield, Mass.: The C. A. Nichols Co. 

a Supplement iiidnded in the fifth volume^ 
bringing it up to within the present year. 

By a rough estimate, four thousand histor- 
ical subjects are fully treated in articles vary- 
ing in length from a single paragraph to four 
hundred pages. Thus are included complete 
histories of all the nations of the earth, past 
and present, as well as of the smaller political 
divisions and important cities. Fully twelve 
thousand titles, chiefly biographical and geo- 
graphical, are introduced as cross references*. 
An eclectic method has been employed in the 
preparation of these histories, and the works- 
of experts and specialists have been freely 
quoted and duly accredited. To do this, fifteen 
hundred authors have been drawn upon, be- 
sides a large number of historical documents- 
and the proceedings of historical societies. 
From the bibliographical tables in the supple- 
ment, it may be seen that over five thousand 
volumes have been made tributary to the work ;: 
and in further aid of the student of history^ 
references are given to double that number of 

All this attests the amount of labor required 
for the preparation of such a work. That Mr. 
Lamed, who planned this reference library of 
history and has carried it forward to its suc- 
cessful completion, was amply equipped for the 
task, has been evident from the start. His con- 
nection with public libraries has given him an 
exhaustive knowledge of the sources of histor- 
ical information and ready access to the neces- 
sary materials for his work. Close scrutiny of 
the result proves that he has made a most judi- 
cious use of his materials. He has been espe- 
cially liberal in his choice of subjects, and care- 
ful that his work should be as comprehensive 
as possible and that nothing pertaining to the 
field of history should be overlooked. The fol- 
lowing subjects, fully treated, exhibit the wide 
scope he has given to his work: Education, 
Electrical Discovery, Factory Legislation, Debt 
Legislation, Civil Service Reform, Hellenic 
Genius and Influence, Hieroglyphics, Law, 
Libraries, Medical Science, Money and Bank- 
ing, Navigation Laws, Printing and the Press^ 
Social Movements, Tariff Legislation, and (in 
the Supplement) Commerce. The editor has 
furthermore furnished transcripts of the con- 
stitutions of the various constitutional coun- 
tries, dynastic genealogies, chronological tables, 
and every other conceivable aid to the success- 
ful pursuit of historical study or reading. 

In the performance of his task, Mr. Lamed 
has formed some fortunate alliances. The long 




article on the history of Law was prepared by 
Professor Austin Abbott, Dean of the New 
York University Law School. Mr. Alan C. 
Beilly, an expert in historical geography, has 
supplied (bcMsides several outline maps and 
plans) twenty-five ethnographic and historical 
maps, printed in colors, and exhibiting at a 
glance the changes history has made in the 
political divisions of the world at various times. 
In its presentation of universal history in 
oonvenient enc^clopsBdicform, this work stands 
alone. The eclectic method pursued is a guar- 
anty of its trustworthiness ; but to make as- 
surance doubly sure in that reg^ard, the editor 
has been earful to introduce the evidence on 
both sides of such historical questions as are 
still undecided, and to give references to recog- 
nized authorities holding views opposed to those 
selected for extended presentation. There re- 
mains to be applied the experimentum cruds, 
— the use of these volumes as designed by their 
projector. This we have begun, and thus far 
have found such satisfactory results as to an- 
ticipate a material lightening of the labor here- 
tofore bestowed upon historical research. 

Arthur Howard Noll. 

Rkcbnt Fiction.* 

That something more is needed in the equipment 
of a novelist than a pretty talent for the turning of 
cynical epigrams, or, indeed, than a single pretty 
talent of any sort, is plainly illustrated by the book 
to which Mrs. Craigie has given the meaningless title, 
<' The Gods, Some Mortals, and Lord Wickenham." 

* Thb Gone, Somb Mortals, avd Lobd Wickxmham. By 
Jolm CMiver HoblMe. New York : D. Appkton A Go. 

Thx Stobt of Bessie Costrell. By Mn. Hamphry 
Ward. New York : Mscmillen A Go. 

Imo THE HioHWATS AKD Hedoes. By F. F. Montr^eor. 
New York : D. Appleton A Go. 

The luFREONABiiE GiTT. A Romance. By Bftax Pern- 
berton. New York : Dodd, Mead A Go. 

The Mabttred Fooi*. ANotoI. By David Ghristie Mur- 
ray. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

The Prince of Balkjstan. By Allen Upward. Phila- 
delphia : J. B. Lippinoott Go. 

br THE Year of Jubhee. A NoyoI. By George Giasing. 
New York : D. Appleton A Go. 

Almateb's FohLY. A Story of an BSastem River. By 
Joseph Gonrad. New York : Macmillan A Go. 

A Lost Emdeavob. By Guy Boothby. New York: Mac- 
millan A Go. 

The Mabhiage of Esthbb. By Gay Boothby. New 
York : D. Appleton & Go. 

TheZbit-Geist. By L. Dongall. New York: D.Apple- 
ton & Go. 

The Mkrmatp. A Love Tale. By L. Dongall. New 
York : D. Appleton A Go. 

Ak Ebbaht Wooing. By Mrs. Barton Harrison. New 
Yoik : The Gentary Go. 

It is the only story of any length that the writer has 
thus far sought to tell, and it hreaks down com- 
pletely when suhjected to the tests we are bonnd to 
apply to fnll-fledged works of fiction. There is no 
description worth speaking of ; there is none of that 
power of characterization which gives inevitahle- 
ness to the acts of the men and women concerned ; 
there is not very much to be said for the occasional 
pages of psychological analysis, although what praise 
the book deserves must be given to this feature and 
to the general phrase-making therewith associated. 
But the heaviest indictment against the book must 
be based upon the fact that its main interest cen- 
tres about a woman of type so loathsome that it is 
questionable whether it ought even to appear in 
fiction, and quite certain that it should be presented, 
if at all, wiui some measure of decent reserve. 

We are accustomed to such deep draughts of 
fiction from Mrs. Humphry Ward, to canvases so 
large and filled so full with faithful det»il, that << The 
Story of Bessie CostreU," being nothing more than 
a novelette, makes a disappointing impression, in 
spite of the fineness of its conception and execu- 
tion. It is a village tragedy, combined with a study 
of the peasant chjuacter as it exists in the midland 
districts. The central incident is the theft of an 
old man's hoarded savings — as in << Silas Marner," 
which it naturally suggests — and the pathos is in 
both cases almost unbearable. The wretched woman 
who steals the money is a carefully studied type, 
but somehow comes just short of being a genuine 
creation. There is no doubt, however, of the fine 
quality of the constructive art displayed in these 
pages, and no living novelist would need to be 
ashamed of having written them. 

" Into the Highways and Hedges " is a title that 
straightway suggests the theme of the book that bears 
it. The story is of an itinerant evangelist of fanati- 
cal type, yet a man of singular simplicity, directness, 

Whbn VAiiifOiffn Gamb to Pontiao. The Story of a 
Lost Naiwleon. By Gflhert Parker. Ghieago: Stone A 

Diplomatic Disbhchastmbkts. A Novel. By Edith 
Bigelow. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Thb Platbd Grrr. By Bliss Perry. New York : Gharles 
Soribner*s Sons. 

Thb Hbaj> OF A HuBPBXD. Being an Aoeonnt of Gertaia 
Pkssagee in the Life of Humphrey Hantoon, Esqr., Some- 
time an Officer in the Golony erf Virginia. Edited by Mand 
Wilder Goodwin. Boston : Little, Brown, A Go. 

DooTOB Qbat*s Qubst. By VmaoM H. Underwood, LL.D. 
Boston : Lee A Shepaid. 

Iif Dbacom's Qbdebs, and Other Stories. By Walter Be- 
sant. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Gbubatbs. By Gecnge Moore. New York: Maomillan 

Thb Goldbn Aob. By Kenneth Grahame. Ghieago: 
Stone A KimbaU. 

Hippolttb AUD Goldbn-Bbax. Two Stories. By George 
Bassett. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Gbat Rosbs. By Henry Harland. Boston: Roberts 

Thb Phantoms or thb Foot-Bbidqb, and Other Sto- 
ries. By Gharles Bgbwt Graddoek. New York : Harper A 



[Aug. 16, 

and force withal. His mission takes him now to the 
morally benighted rural districts, now to the slums 
of London, and, since the period chosen is the mid- 
dle of the present century, the conditions he meets 
with are greatly different from those of the present 
day. Among those to whom his message makes a 
personal appeal is a young girl of refinement and 
good social position, unhappy in her home surround- 
ings, and* impulsive enough to renounce them for 
the sake of sharing, as his wife, the hard existence 
of the preacher. It is an unpromising theme, and 
Miss Montr^sor achieves something of a triumph in 
compelling our sympathetic acceptance of so un- 
natural a relation. The simplicity, the courage, and 
the moral energy of the illiterate preacher end by 
winning the reader's heart as they win the heart of 
the heroine, and these two types, at least, are de- 
lineated with real insight into the workings of char- 
acter. The remaining features of the book are 
rather mechanical, and we get no very vivid reali- 
zation of the other persons concerned. But the 
conception of the whole thing is a fine one, empha- 
sizing, as it constantly does, the fact that genuine 
worth is largely independent of the accidents of 
birth and breeding. 

Tales of the marvellous can nearly always count 
npon an audience, and Mr. Max Pemberton is an 
adept in their narration. His marvels, to be sure, 
are of the rational sort made possible by science, 
but for that reason none the less impressive. His 
notion of an '< Impregnable City,'* built upon a 
rocky island in the South Pacific, and made by its 
founder (an enthusiast of the Count Tolstoy type) 
a city of refuge for the oppressed of all nations, is 
sufiiciently novel to keep the interest alert, and the 
story is told with vivid coloring and dramatic effect. 
The love passages of the story are rather thin and 
unreal, but there is no doubt of the exciting quality 
of the chapters which depict the sieg^ of the City 
and its downfall. 

In « The Martyred Fool," Mr. Christie Murray 
has given us a careful study of an anarchist of the 
practical modem sort, and an account of the con- 
dition and influences which are at work in society, 
and which are adequate here and there to shape a 
character of this, at first, seemingly inexplicable 
type. The first part of the book shows us our an- 
archist in embryo, a child in the Australian bush, 
living in extreme poverty, learning from his parents 
only one thing — that the rich are always and every- 
where the oppressors of the poor, taking the lesson 
deep into his passionate heart, a child to whom the 
trial and execution of his father for murder appear 
only in the light of a triumphant substantiation of 
the truth of that lesson ; here is enough to account 
for the anarchistic predisposition, at least. In the 
second part, the boy, befriended and provided with 
an education, has grown to be a man, but his asso- 
ciations have been such as to confirm the prejudiced 
and bitter view of the social structure impressed 
upon him as a child, and a small group of desper- 

ate conspirators, making Paris their headquarters,* 
find in him a ready tool. At the last moment, how- 
ever, realizing the essential baseness of the work 
that he has rashly undertaken to perform, and at 
the same time furious at the discovery that his as- 
sociates have tricked him, he turns the bomb with 
which the crime was to have been committed into 
an instrument of destruction for himself and for 
the more hardened criminals who have urged him 
on. The whole story is told with directness and 
dramatic effect, and the hero, little deserving of 
sympathy as he is, gets enough of it to remain 
throughout an object of interest. Abhorrence for 
the ideas and practices of the anarchist are not alto- 
gether incompatible with a certain degree of respect 
for his courage and his devotion to what he believes 
to be the cause of justice. This seems to us to be 
one of the best of Mr. Murray's many books, and 
at the same time one of the best of the recent novels 
of <^ underground Europe." It is far from reach- 
ing the level of Mr. Black's *' Sunrise," for exam- 
ple, but it is also well above the level of the merely 
sensational stories of similar theme that have be- 
come so abundant of late. 

<< The Prince of Balkistan ** is not so distinctly 
raised above that level, and in some of its scenes 
becomes the merest melodrama. But a slight meas- 
ure of redemption may be claimed for it on behalf 
of its variety of ingenious incident, and the fresh- 
ness of some of its material. Balkistan is one of 
the Balkan States, and its Prince is a German placed 
upon the throne in accordance with the will of the 
people whom he governs, but in defiance of the 
wishes of Russia. The reference to recent happen- 
ings in Southeastern Europe is so obvious through- 
out that there is no real disguise in any of the proper 
names devised by the author. The story is essen- 
tially one of intrigue and adventure, well-planned 
and exciting. 

It is difficult to justify the existence of a book 
that makes its readers think meanly of mankind, 
although it possess all the virtues of finished style, 
symmetrical construction, and vital characterization. 
Since Mr. Gissing's newest fiction, << In the Year 
of Jubilee," makes not the slightest approach to any 
of these forms of excellence, and since its chief 
characters are without exception sordid and vulgar 
examples of humanity, the most complaisant of 
critics would find some difficulty in finding anything 
to praise. Mr. Gissing's portrayals of low and mid- 
dle-class life in England are, with their dull real- 
ism, about as uninviting as anything that we have 
lately been called upon to contemplate, and the 
present example seems to be the worst of them all. 

The story of " Almayer's Folly " takes us to so 
remote a place as Borneo, and tells the sombre 
tragedy of a Dutch trader, seeking a fortune that 
ever eludes him, and living unhappily with a Malay 
wife. Almost as much interest attaches to his 
daughter, in whose nature the strain of Malay sav- 
agery struggles with the European, and finaUy as- 




serts its mastery. Deserting her parents for the 
caresses of a native lover, she crashes the last hope 
remaining to her father, and leaves him to the min- 
istries of gin and opium that soon put an end to his 
miserahle life. The Malay and Arab characters 
that figure in the narrative seem to be portrayed 
with fidelity to their respective racial types, and, 
by their contrast with the European, enforces once 
more the lesson that << East is East, and West is 
West, and never the twain shall meet." 

It might be a little rash to say that the place of 
Louis Stevenson, as a biographer of the beach-com- 
ber and a chronicler of life in the isles of the South- 
ern Seas, had been already filled, but it is certain 
that it has a not unworthy occupant in Mr. Guy 
Boothby, two novels by whom are before us. While 
these books have not the felicity of style character- 
istic of " The Ebb-Tide," and while they make oc- 
casional concessions to the lower instincts of novel- 
readers — such, for example, as letting us know that 
the heroes in both cases are English noblemen in 
disguise — that Stevenson, with his healthy demo- 
cratic instincts, would never have made, yet they 
curiously reproduce in many ways the schooling of 
their unacknowledged but unquestionable exemplar. 
Of the two, << A Lost Endeavor " is the slighter per- 
formance, but perhaps the more artistic in the work- 
ing out. In << The Marriage of Esther," there are 
more loose ends, so to speak, more trains of sugges- 
tion started by the novelist and left for the reader 
to do what he can with. But both books are dis- 
tinctly clever performances, and their author is a 
man whom we are likely to have to reckon with dur- 
ing the next few years. 

Neither "The Zeit-Geist" nor "The Mermaid" 
will add anything to the reputation gained for Miss 
Dougall by her two earlier novels. The former is 
hardly a story at all, but rather a theological dis- 
quisition of mystical flavor ; the other is so clumsy 
in its machinery that it keeps a reader continually 
out of patience. Both books are characterized by 
preoccupation with religious matters, and the writer 
seems to be struggling, not so much for suitable 
expression as for a distinct realization in her own 
mind of certain fundamental religious problems. 
This imperfect mastery of her material, coupled 
with much amateurishness and unnatural solemnity, 
prevents Miss Dougall*s work from making a deep 
impression. It is too strenuous to be forcible, too 
monotonous to be attractive. Its main interest is 
to be found in its glimpses of everyday life in the 
Provinces of Lower Canada. 

Mr. Gilbert Parker has allowed a fantastic im- 
agination to run riot in his tale of the year "When 
Yalmond Came to Pontiac." Yet utterly prepos- 
terous as is the conception of the story, it is told 
with such gprace of diction and intensity of feeling 
that we are constrained for the moment to accept 
the hero and his claims, to sympathize with him in 
his devotion to his cause. For Yalmond, coming to 
the little Canadian village of Pontiac one summer 

in the late forties, with well-lined purse and the 
most winning of ways, passes himself off upon the 
simple village folk as a natural son of the great 
Napoleon, and with their aid sets about the realiza- 
tion of a mad plan for the raising of an army, and 
the expulsion of Louis Philippe from the Tnileries. 
Yalmond is represented as the embodiment of an 
almost fanatical enthusiasm for the Napoleonic idea, 
and as carrying self-delusion almost to the point of 
believing in his own claims. His influence upon 
the Pontiac folk, and the contagion of his enthusi- 
asm, are finely-planned effects in pure romance, and 
Mr. Parker is to be congratulated upon having 
achieved a success almost commensurate with the 
daring of his invention. We do not know that much 
is gained by telling us, in an epilogue, that Yal- 
mond really was, unknown to himself, what he had 
pretended, and almost believed himself to be. Yet 
the irony of the revelation, coming after his tragic 
end, is not without being impressive, and the study 
of Yalmond's character has evidently been made 
with this explanation in ultimate view. 

Mrs. Burton Harrison's latest novel is in a new 
vein, for she has chosen, after the fashion of Mr. 
William Black, to associate with the interest of a 
love-story the interest of travel in some of the most 
romantic parts of Europe, and thus to provide a pic- 
turesque and varied background for the " Errant 
Wooing " of her heroes and heroines. Of these there 
are four, and their story is one of " elective affini- 
ties," declared early enough to preserve the con- 
ventionalities and avoid post-matrimonial complica- 
tions. It is pleasant to accompany these well-bred 
people in their wanderings through England, Spain, 
and Morocco, and to share in their hopes and fears, 
their ambitions and achievements. The novel is 
of the " international " genus, and brings into con- 
trast, with no litde spicy sugg^tion, the character- 
istics of its English and American characters. 

The mark of the amateur is upon almost every 
page of Miss Bigelow's *' Diplomatic Disenchant- 
ments," yet it seems less of a defect than it usuaUy 
is, and g^ves the impression that the writer will soon 
and easily learn to avoid it. In spite thereof, and 
equally in spite of a certain carelessness of diction 
and of slips in the use of foreign words and proper 
names, there is a charm about this unpretentious 
story — the charm of freshness and spontaneity, the 
charm that comes from an observant eye and a vivid 
sense of the minor humors of life. Then the ex- 
periences of an American scholar, suddenly trans- 
planted, rather against his inclination, from the pre- 
cincts of a New England college to the United States 
Legation at a European capitol, is by no means bad 
stuff for a novel, especially when the writer is qual- 
ified by residence in the capital concerned to write 
entertainingly and truthfully about it. But we ob- 
ject to her having come so dangerously near to mak- 
ing her minister out to be a simpleton ; it was her 
desire to score a few humorous points, rather than 
her better judgment, that caused him to be thus 



[Aug. 16, 

pictured as the embodiment of guilelessness. Some 
of our national representatives in the diplomatic ser- 
yice abroad do qaeer things. Heaven knows, but not 
those belonging to the social stratum in which Miss 
Bigelow has chosen to find her example of the class. 

Mr. Bliss Perry is one of the most promising of 
the younger Americans who have taken to story^ 
telling, and one takes up with pleasurable anticiper 
tions his latest and most ambitious book. ** The 
Plated City " is not so very ambitious, either, for 
it deals only with a little group of people in a Con- 
necticut manufacturing town, and its plot has but 
a moderate degree of complication. The most no- 
ticeable thing about the book is the careful finish of 
the workmanship ; there is nothing scamped, even 
in the lesser details. This quality is a source of 
distinct and unfailing pleasure in itself, and when 
we add that it is conjoined with good style and ex- 
cellent taste, an interesting story and shrewd sym- 
pathetic character-drawing, we need hardly make in 
so many words the inference that Mr. Perry has 
done a very satisfactory piece of work. 

One of the most healthful symptoms of our recent 
literature has been the multiplication of novels based 
upon the history of our colomal period. Mr. Bynner 
and Mrs. Austin gave us much admirable writing of 
this sort, and many others of our late writers have re- 
verted to the scenes and incidents of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. Miss Maud Wilder Grood- 
win, already accredited to literature by her finished 
study of <' The Colonial Cavalier," now joins the ranks 
of our colonial novelists with ^' The Head of a Hun- 
dred," a story of Virginia in the early seventeenth 
century. It is an exceptionally graceful piece of 
work, a love-story told with feeling and insight, im- 
bued with the spirit of its period, and made quaint 
by effective touches of archaism. The career of 
the hero is unfolded, in well-ordered sequence, from 
the time when he seeks the New World to forget 
the maiden whom he fancies is lost to him, through 
various exciting episodes of frontier adventure and 
Indian warfare, to the final reunion with the wo- 
man who has loved him all the time, he being too 
modest or dull-witted to realize it. The book is a 
very charming one, simple, tasteful, and bathed in 
the atmosphere of romance. 

Dr. Underwood's posthumous novel comes to us 
as something of a surprise, for we had supposed 
that the author early in life abandoned fiction as a 
medium of self-expression. <* Quabbin," to be sure, 
had the semblance of a novel, but the semblance 
only, for it was evident enough that the real pur- 
pose of that remarkable book was the presentation 
of a social study. *' Dr. Gray's Quest," too, has 
something of this character, and will perhaps be 
more highly valued for its intimate view of New 
England town life early in the century than for its 
qualities as mere narrative. In some of its aspects 
it is even too intimate to get much sympathy from 
readers not of the very puritan stock with which it 
deals, while those who are of that stock will prob- 

ably exaggerate the merits of the book, and give to 
constructive art the credit for what is, after all, 
nothing more than keen observation and close com* 
prehension of a bygone phase of American life, 
clothed in the mellow wisdom of phikMophic age. 
For the present writer, it is no easy task to charac- 
terize this book, so strong is its personal appeal, yet 
we are compelled to recognize the fact that it has 
many faults, that some of its incidents are highly 
improbable and some of its characters very imper- 
fectly vitalized ; that the action is stiff throughout,, 
and the method old-fashioned in the bad sense as- 
well as the good. On the other hand, the general 
plan is well-conceived and even striking, while two* 
or three at least of the leading figures are strongly* 

Of the many volumes of short stories brought 
forth by the past few months, few seem deserving 
of special mention. We have chosen half a dozen 
of Uiem, English and American, that seem to call 
for consideration in this article. Sir Walter Besant 
shall head the list with << In Deacon's Orders and 
Other Stories." There are eleven pieces in this- 
collection, that which gives it a title being the most 
important The author calls it a study in '< relig- 
iosity," a word which is hardly adequate to express- 
the consummate rascality and hypocrisy combined 
of its principal character. The remaining stories 
are slight productions, and two or three have a dis- 
tinct flavor of allegory. They are marked by ease 
and fluency, much fertility of invention, and whole- 
someness of tone. 

Mr. George Moore's three studies of << Celibates'^ 
are as distinctly unwholesome as Sir Walter's tales- 
are wholesome. They have a certain finish of style^ 
and attempt a subtlety of analysis that we should 
hardly expect of Sir Walter, but the sane outlook 
of the latter is a far more desirable equipment than 
Mr. Moore's jaundiced vision. Indeed, it takes as 
ugly a word as bestial to characterize the imagina- 
tion revealed in the worst scenes of this book. There 
is nothing edifying, or even attractive, about the- 
sickly types of manhood and womanhood that fill 
Mr. Moore's gallery ; they are *^ degenerates " of a 
peculiarly disagreeable sort The author's impres- 
sionist method, moreover, is as unsatisf aetory in an 
artistic sense, as, from a moral point of view, is his- 
choice of subjects. 

To turn from Mr. Moore's pages to those of Mr. 
Kenneth Grahame, in ^' The Golden Age," is like 
passing from the miasmatic exhalations of a swamp 
to the fragrant air of some daisy-starred adjoining 
meadow. Mr. Grahame's *' golden age " is Uie one 
in which we have all lived for a brief space, the age 
when the world was full of wonder, and the imag- 
ination doubted not of its own creations. But few 
of us, when we have outlived it, are able to erect 
once more in thought the structure of that age, its 
form and pressure ; the once firm outlines are irre- 
vocably lost, and the passion of our regret clings to 
images that are but shifting, and to memories 




whereof we may not undentand why they remain 
so dear. ^>Mr. Ghrahame is one of the few fortunate 
to whom, in manhood, the child's point of view re- 
mains yet accessible, and these little stories or 
sketches, that so irresistibly command alternate 
smiles and tears, are anmatched by anything that we 
know of, unless it be Stevenson's volume of child- 
hood verse. No descriptive words can do justice to 
the exquisite art of this lovely book — to the charm 
of its style, the gentleness of its irony, the lambency 
of its humor, or the deep tenderness of its feeling. 
Such sketches as <' A Harvesting/' << The Argo- 
nauts," and ''The Roman Road" are classics in 
miniature, to be read and reread with ever deepen- 
ing delight. 

There are but two stories in Mr. Greorge Bas- 
sett's '' Hippolyte and Grolden Beak," and the com- 
ponent parts of this tide are their respective names. 
The author, though he writes from the wilds of Wis- 
consin, appears to be an Englishman. Both stories 
are well told, and provided with startling dhunte* 
ments. Hippolyte is a precocious French boy who 
serves as a genUeman's valet, and ends his career 
with the explosion of a dynamite bomb, snatched 
and run away with in time to save the lives which 
it threatened ; Golden Beak, — alias Mrs. Potwin, 
is an American divaroSe, loved by a descendant of 
the Tokugawa shoguns, and by him murdered* in 
strange Oriental fashion, when he deems her faith- 

Mr. Henry Harland is, we trust, still an Amer- 
ican, although we have lost his presence, and although 
Yellow Bo<^ and Parisian hannts now claim las 
attention. The '' Gray Roses " of his new volume 
Are nine in number. They are tales and sketches 
tinged with the pathos of retrospect, and prefaced 
by this '' keynote " motto: '' Yes, the conception was 
a rose, but the achievement is a rose grown gray." 
Several of them are stories of Pays LaHn^ and 
most of them are infused with the sentiment of the 
Quarter. '< The Bohemian Girl " and <' Castles near 
•Spain," first and last in the collection, are probably 
the most successful of these pieces. 

It is a relief to pass from these sketches of a 
sophisticated civilisation to Miss Murf ree's pictures 
of nature and primitive man in the Tennessee 
mountains. Miss Murfree has turned to the short 
-story onee more, and five such stories, finely imag- 
inative, fill the volume before us. The scenes are 
by this time familiar enough to her readers, but the 
Rembrandt-like quality of her art has the old f ascin* 
.ation, and its essential truthfulness makes it accept- 
able in spite of its repetitions. Perhaps the grave 
•and studied rhetoric of the descriptive passages is 
not altogether in keeping with the simple conditions 
•of life that are portrayed, or with the rugged emo- 
tional nature of these untutored mountain-folk, but 
the sum total of the effect is certainly impressive, 
and reveals one of the most masterly hands now at 
-work in American literature. 

William Morton Patne. 

A vciume 
fttMng Ion, 

Bbikfs o n yjsw Books. 

Holiday-makers of a piscatorial turn 
will find Mr. John Bickerdyke's 
*^ Days of My Life " (Longmans) a 
rare book to beguile the evening after a hard day's 
fishing. Indeed, we should be puszled to name on 
short notice anoUier one of the class quite so good. 
The author, we need scarcely say, b a noted English 
Brother of the Angle, and his stories are all first-hand 
and capitally told. They range themselves under 
the two main headings : «« Fresh Water " and << Salt 
Water," with such pleasantly suggestive minor tides 
as "Three Thames Trout," "In the Murgthal," 
"A Glacier Salmon River," "On a May Day," 
" Trout Problems," " The Bass of the Maelstrom," 
etc. Several of the papers are of a humorous turn, 
among them one with the curious title ^^Fin-ds- 
Sihde Fish." Fvnrde-sihcU fish, as we gather from 
Mr. Bickerdyke, are of no special scientific variety. 
An outcome of civilization, and found always near 
great centres of population, their chief character- 
istic is extreme distrust of man, and consequent in- 
difference to the usual blandishments in the way of 
bait. If caught at all, it is only by uncouth and 
unorthodox methods — as in the case of Mr. Bicker- 
dyke's famous fin-de^hols trout. This sagacious 
fish " had his headquarters opposite a clubhouse on 
a certain famous stream." Flies innumerable had 
floated capdvatingly, yet harmlessly, above his ven- 
erable head ; and there was a story that once, in an 
unguarded moment, getting hooked on a piece of 
brMul, he had quickly " warped " the line round a 
convenient stump, extracted the hook, and was pla- 
cidly rising to some natural flies half an hour after- 
wards. New club-members used to bet they would 
catch him, and old ones would take their bets and 
pocket their money, as a matter of course. One day 
there joined the club a comparative novice who, 
with a novice's conceit, promptly proposed to catch 
\he finrde-siMe trout. Old members laughed, took 
his bets as usual, and languidly awaited the result. 
Next evening the new member arrived provided 
with many bluebottle flies and (Shade of Walton !) 
a peashooter. He at once began, so to speak, to lay 
his parallels. Says our author: "Deftly a half- 
dead bluebottle was puffed out of the tube in front 
of the fish. It was taken, of course, as everything 
eatable from a trout's point of view was taken. The 
fish had a rare supper that evening. ... He fed 
the trout in this way for more than a week ; the 
others smiled and looked on.- < I will catch him 
soon,' said the new member, < I am only waiting for 
wind.' In three weeks there came a day when a 
stiff breeze was blowing up-stream. The new mem- 
ber appeared at the clubhouse with a long, slender 
rod, with running tackle and a length of fine but 
strong gut, terminating with a single hook. He took 
his stand some distance below the fish and began 
feeding him as usual. On the hook was a bluebottle. 
GU>od luck helped our friend, who, however, exhibited 
some skill. The up-stream breeze took the hooked 



[Aug. 16, 

fly just over the trout, and the new member at the 
Bame time puffed a fly out of the tube. Which would 
the trout take? Had the rod been in front instead 
of behind him he would have taken neither. But 
he did not see the rod, having no eyes in his tail 
(this has been questioned), and the fly containing 
the hook was sucked in. How he fought ! He died, 
as wise and grand a specimen of & fin-de-si^ele fish 
as has ever been seen in a trout stream." A good 
deal of English fishing lore may be extracted from 
Mr. Bickerdyke's book. 


^' Our Square and Circle " (Macmil- 
lan), by ^<Jack Easel, sometime 
Punch's Roving Correspondent," is 
not a treatise on geometry or carpentry, as one may 
hastily infer from the title. ^^ Mr. Easel's " Square 
is only Dexter Square, Bayswater ; and his Circle 
is merely that of his acquantances and household. 
The reader will perhaps " shy " at first at the omi- 
nous fact (strangely paraded on the title-page) of the 
author's '* sometime " connection with '* Punch " — 
a journal of rather atrabiliary suggestions to the 
American mind. We hasten to say, however, that 
<< Mr. Easel's " humor is as remote in quality from 
the depressing article that forms the staple of that 
respectable London weekly as it is from the cheap 
buffoonery of the miscalleid *^ humorous columns " 
of our own daily papers. << Mr. Easel " is a de- 
lightfully amusing and withal refined writer, with a 
playful, gently-satiric vein, at times almost Thack- 
erayan in quidity. His book comprises a series of 
brief causeries on his drawing-room, his sanctum, 
his books, pets, servants, amusements, etc., spiced 
with any number of piquant *•*' asides " on all sorts 
of topics. Evidences of sound taste and sound read- 
ing are abundant ; and if ^^ Mr. Easel's " standards 
and preferences in art and letters are not exactly of 
the ultra ^' up-to-date " order, our readers are not 
likely to think the less of him for that. As to paint- 
ing, for instance, he complains, with much reason : 
<< Old canons of style and gprace are forgotten — 
old standards of excellence are set aside. The one 
essential condition of success for hfivrde-Mcle pic- 
ture is that it shall be origrinal. Group your figures 
in constrained attitudes — enshroud Uiem with fog 
or deck them in all the colors of the rainbow : paint 
your skies red and your meadows blue : show us a 
sea without ships, knights without courage, youth 
without joy, love-making without beauty, drapery 
without texture — < impressions ' good, bad, or indif- 
ferent — no matter so long as they are original / " 
Had <^ Mr. Easel," in this passage, written " eccen- 
tric " in place of ^< original " he would seem to have 
hit the case fairly well. We suspect that *^ impres- 
sionism " (a much-abused term) is made to cover a 
multitude of sins in the direction of personal inca^ 
pacity and lack of technical skill ; and certainly the 
ways of Providence are not more inscrutable than 
is Uie current vogue of those amazing productions in 
purple, orange, pink, pea-green, and vermillion, that 
one is nowadays asked to accept (on trust) as quite 

peculiarly truthful representations of nature. Luck- 
ily, however, every fad has its day; so we may 
cheerfully expect ^56im2o- impressionism to go the 
way of good Bishop Berkeley's tar-water and Gren- 
eraJ Pleasanton's blue-glass ere long. 

yewseiecHan, !' Th® Golden Book of Coleridge" 
from Coleridge is the happy title chosen by the Rev. 
and Shelley, Stopf ord A. Brooke to adorn his vol- 

ume of selections from Coleridge's verse. A golden 
book it must be that contains << Christabel " and 
^' Kubla Khan," in spite of whatever alloy of the 
less finished work the editor has thought it wise to 
include. A feature of the book that must not be over- 
looked is the remarkable introductory essay, which 
makes us more impatient than ever for the comple- 
tion of the author's long-planned and partly executed 
history of English poetiy. The essay is upwards 
of sixty pages in length, and at least equals tiie best 
critical treatment to which the poetry of Coleridge 
has yet been subject We cannot refrain from quot- 
ing a part of what is said of the poet's opium-eating : 
« More than enough has been said about it from the 
moral point of view. The mass of right and gentle- 
thinking folk are thoroughly sick of the Pharisaic 
habit in which so many writers indulge, of making 
the great poets as well as other men of genius the 
moral object-lessons of mankind, or of using their 
errors, especially in matters relating to women, as 
the ground for endless discussions in biographies, 
reviews, sermons, and the daily press. These dis- 
cussions minister to the ugliest of all the cravings 
of Society. . . . The long discussion about Shelley 
and his wife and Mary Grodwin is intolerable, and 
as uninteresting, except to those whose nectar is 
scandal and whose ambrosia is gossip. And how 
wicked it has been ! It has turned men's eyes away 
from the permanent and noble in him to the tran- 
sient and the commonplace. The reverence due to 
his work has been lowered, and this is an injury to 
mankind. Even Matthew Arnold was carried away 
into a ludicrous attempt to make Shelley vulgar. 
He might as well have tried to vulgarize the star 
Arcturus." These are words that have long needed 
to be said, and we are glad that Mr. Brooke has 
spoken them with so much emphasis. — We may 
fitly couple with this volume of Coleridge the sim- 
ilar volume, edited by Mr. Ernest Rhys, of *< The 
Lyric Poems of Shelley." The editor's introduc- 
tion is brief but just in its appreciation. Both of 
these books have Uie Dent imprint, and are supplied 
in this country by Messrs. MacmUlan & Co. 

Mr. William H. Rideing's '' In the 
^%:^iand, L«^d Of Lormt Doone" (CroweU) 

is a pretty, mexpensive book, com- 
prising five brief descriptive papers of a rural and 
*< summery " flavor, which readers with a taste for 
literary quality will do well to add to their sum- 
mer's list. The volume takes its title from that of 
the initial paper, the others being : ^^ In Cornwall with 
an Umbrella," ^* Coaching Trips out of London," 




" A Bit of the Yorluhire Coast," and << Amy Robsart, 
Kenilworth, and Warwick." Mr. Rideing'0 grace- 
ful and graphic pen seems to bring one very near 
the rustic England of Abbey and Hugh Thomson 
— the England, as he says, " of < The Quiet Life,' of 
fat meadows, flowing verdure, tiled and thatched 
cottages, mossy, dripping mill-wheels, hawthorn 
hedges, inviting inns, and spacious parks, where the 
beeches and oaks throw out rounded, drooping vol- 
umes of foliage, that have the soft density of an 
exhalation, and where the cuckoo, lark, and night- 
ingale are fearless visitors." The reader who is 
familiar with the polished, park-like beauties of old 
England will feel the tmUi of Mr. Rideing's de- 
scription. It accentuates, too, it may be added, pre- 
cisely that note of English landscape which, charm 
as it may at first, soon palls upon the transatlantic 
visitor, Ld awiU^en. a longing for the wilder and 
less prim and regular beauties of American field 
and woodland. Very different, however, from En- 
glish landscape in general is that of the land of 
'' Loma Doone " — mostly moorland, wild, unculti- 
vated, and solitary, clothed with only gorse, heather, 
and bracken, or clumps of scrub oaks and dwarf 
pines, still the haunt and cover of the wild deer. 
Nearly everyone who visits this country nowadays 
brings, as a matter of course, Mr. Blackmore's ro- 
mance with him. ^< The visitors," says our author, 
^* go forth in the morning, book in hand, and make 
it the gospel for the day " — which ought to be glory 
enough for Mr. Blackmore. Mr. Bideing has sea- 
soned his pages with some quaint specimens of rustic 
dialect. Here is one from Cornwall : << While we were 
at Penzance a high-pressure sermon was delivered 
against modem unbelief ; and a fisherman who was 
asked what he thought of the preacher answered, 
< Aw ! a stunner a was. He es the boy f er the in- 
ferels. Iss aw iss ; and a sent the sances (sciences) 
to shivereens too. Es no good f er ould Bardar^ 
laugh or Darby (Darwin) to coom where a is.' " 
We infer that Uiose ancient temporal and spiritual 
lords, the <^ squire" and the << parson," are still 
strong in Cornwall. 

'< The Life of the Spirit in the Mod- 
em English Poets " (Houghton), by 
Bngiuhpoetry. j^jgg yida D. Scudder, is a work 

difficult of characterization in a few words. At- 
tempting, although on a smaller scale and within 
the limits of a single nationality, what Dr. Brandos 
has attempted in his << HovedstrOmninger," Miss 
Scudder has sought to isolate for special study such 
aspects of modem thought as have attracted to them- 
selves the greater part of English poetic energy — 
such things, for example, as the revolutionary im- 
pulse, the new scientific spirit, the sympathetic envis- 
agement of the historical past, and the aspirations 
of a deanthropomorphized reli^on. <^ Let us study," 
she says, '^ the influence of science in all our poets ; 
the new democracy, especially in Wordsworth ; the 
early religious and social ideals, especially in Shelley ; 
the power of the past in the poetry of reversion ; 


the power of the present in the ironic art of Brown- 
ing ; the poetry of religious inquiry in its various 
phases ; and, finally, the oudook of faith." This is 
a praiseworthy programme, even if we may not ac- 
cept the conclusion, <^ that the poetry of our age has 
a vital unity, and witnesses to an advance of the 
spirit, straight as the log^c of experience, from doubt 
to faith and cheer." Anyone who starts out upon 
a critical excursion with such a thesis as this to 
maintain will be apt unconsciously to make the 
facts fit therewith ; and, however plausibly they are 
arrayed by Miss Scudder in support of her conten- 
tion, we feel at many points that something might 
be said upon the other side. Her appreciation of 
the spiritual elements in Victorian poetry is usually 
keen and adequate, although she now and then dis- 
plays a curious blindness, as, for example, toward the 
social and ethical phases of Mr. Swinburne's work. 
To speak of him as '< acknowledging no sphere but 
that of the senses and the passions " is the most gro- 
tesque of perversions. We are surprised, also, to find 
no account made of Mrs. Browning and Christina 
Bossetti, in which work the <* life of the spirit " is 
surely, if anywhere, to be found. But in spite of 
some defects, Miss Scudder's book is a noteworthy 
contribution to poetical criticisn^, and deserves the 
careful attention of students. 

Xhenmc ^' ^ Peau de Chagrin," translated 

BngiuhfdiHom by Miss Ellen Marriage as <*The 
^Bauac, ^q^j ^^»g g^j^ » inaugurates the 

new Dent-Macmillan edition of Balzac in English 
which Mr. Greorge Saintsbury has been engaged to 
edit and superintend generally. The edition will, 
we understand, be a practically complete version of 
the novels, extending to something like forty vol- 
umes. Each novel will have a special introduction 
by the editor, — these introductions forming, with the 
prefatory essay now published, ^< a sufficient study 
of Balzac and a sufficient commentary on his work." 
We have no doubt that Mr. Saintsbury will fulfil rea- 
sonably the boast implied in the above words, and 
shall await with pleasure his remarks upon the suc- 
cessive volumes. The first volume is well printed, 
tastefully bound, and provided with three etchings. 
If it may be assumed to set the standard for tiie 
series, the completion of the undertaking will pro- 
vide English rei&ders with a Balzac far more attract- 
ive mechanically than anything: existing in French. 

indwMuof ^'* ^^ '^* Mason, an author pro- 
primiHoe foundly interested in comparative 

p«^^' technology, presents us in ^'The 

Origins of Invention " (Contemporary Science se- 
ries, imported by Scribner's Sons) " a study of in- 
dustry among primitive people." Elarly man and 
his companion, early woman, were the g^at invent- 
ors. They found a world to be subdued. Fire was 
to be discovered and tamed ; water was to be har- 
nessed ; plants and animals were to be cultivated, 
domesticated, and improved ; materials were to be 
sought after and utilized. Professor Mason sketches 



[Aug. 16, 

the hiBtoiy of progress in these and other directions 
in this troiy interesting and suggestive book. The 
style, though yagae at times, is nsoally pleasing. 
Tlie descriptions of deyices are not always clear. 
The illustrations are mainly from specimens in the 
United States National Museum, with which the 
author is officially connected. 


In the « Library of Philosophy," edited by Mr. J. H. 
Moirhead (Macmillan^ there has recently been pub- 
lished a translation, oy Miss Helen Dendy, of the 
«( Logic " of Dr. Christoph Sigwart, of Tubingen. The 
translation is not only authorized, but has been earefnlly 
Tevised by the author. It fiUs nearly a thousand large 
pages, divided into two volomes. In comparison with 
this bulky treatise, Dr. Noah K. Davis's << Elements of 
Inductive Logic " (Harper) is as a pygmy to a giant, 
being designed for use as an elementary college text- 
l>ook. It is a systematic and carefully-written manual. 

Two translations of Count Tolstoy's "Master and 
Man " have reached us. One is translated by Mr. A. 
Hulme Beaman (Appleton), and has an introduction by 
Mr. W. D. Howells; the other is the joint production of 
Miss Tekaterina Alazandrovna Ludwig and Dr. George 
Bruce Halsted, and is published by <<The Keomon," in 
Austin, Texas. Thr latter version appears to be the 
more careful and exact. As for the story, it teaches, 
in the author's familiar didactic style, the lesson of the 
emnmon humanity that is shared by the lowest and the 
highest in the social scale, and exalts the beauty of sac- 
rifice in a singularly touching manner. 

Mr. Richard B. Gruelle is the author of a volume of 
" Notes, Critical and Biographical," upon the famous 
art collection of Mr. W. T. Walters, of Baltimore. 
Aside from the artistic feeling and critical insight dis- 
played in no small measure by this work, it appeals to 
the book-collector by the great beauty of its mechanical 
execution. The volume is one of over two hundred 
pages, and is printed in black and red, upon Michallet 
paper. It is published by Mr. J. M. Bowles, the editor 
of ** Modem Art," in a limited edition, and copies may 
be had at the absurdly low price of seventy-five cents. 
We predict that the edition will not last long. The ad- 
dress of Mr. Bowles is 286 Roxbury street, Boston. 

«DeutBoher Wortschatz; oder, Der Passende Aus- 
druok," IB the title of a sort of German thesaurus pre- 
pared by Herr A. Schlessing, and obtainable in this 
country from Messrs. B. Westermann & Co. Its lists 
of synonyms and groupings of allied words and expres- 
sions make it a very valuable aid for those who have 
occasion to express themselves in German, or to trans- 
late into that language. The work was first published 
three years age, and the present is a second and revised 

Dr. Morton W. Eastman's << Readings in G^wer " is 
a recent puUication of the University of Pennsylvania, 
obtainable through Messrs. Ginn & Co. Dr. Eastman 
has been going through the Gower nuiuuscripts in the 
British Museum, and has made a large number of cor- 
rections in the current printed texts. Every owner of 
Pauli will need this little volume as a supplement, and 
will be likely to share the author's conviction that a 
new edition of the " Confessio Amantis " is sorely needed. 

liiTiCRART Notes. 

«The American Historical Review," already an- 
nounced in these pages, will make its first appearance 
in October. 

Eighty-three titles are included in a list of the books 
written or edited by the Rev. Edward Everett Hale. 
May he live to complete his century I 

Professor James Taf t Hatfield reprints from the 
<< Methodist Review," in pamphlet form, a sympathetic 
critical study of « The Poetry of Wilhelm Miiller." 

" The Mid-Contment," until recently « The Southern 
Magazine," has discontinued publication, having sold 
its subscription list and good will to the publishers of 
" Scribner's Magazine," who will fill out sdl unexpired 

Mr. J. M. Bowles has moved his beautiful quarterly, 
« Modem Art," from Indianapolis to Boston, and now 
inaugurates his third volume with a number dated Jan- 
uary 1, 1896. Two more numbers will follow ui quick 
succession, enabling the periodical to ** catch up." A 
new typographical dress makes it more attractive than 

A new series of manuals of the history of literature, 
projected by Mr. Gosse, is pronused for the near future. 
English literature will be taken by the editor, French 
by Professor Dowden, Italian by Dr. Gamett, Greek by 
Professor G. G. A. Murray, Japanese by Mr. Basil Hall 
Chamberlain, and Modern Scandinavian by Dr. Georg 

Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. have purchased the library 
of Mr. Norton Q* Pope, of Brooklyn, and will place it 
on private sale. There are less than ten thousand vol- 
umes in the collection, but the average value is very 
high. The most famous number is the Caxton ** Morte 
Darthur," the only perfect copy in existence. It is re- 
ported that the price paid for the library was $150,000. 

The latest addition to the lengthening list of publican 
tions issuing from the University of Chicago Press is 
the first number of " The American Journal of Soci- 
ology," a bi-monthly review. The Faculty of Social 
Science, with Professor Albion W. Small at the head, 
constitutes the editorial board. The new review pre- 
sents a dignified appearance and an attractive pro- 
gramme. We congratulate the editors both upon their 
first number and upon their pioneer occupation of an 
important field. 

Mr. Frederick Saunders, librarian of the Astor Li- 
brary, celebrated his eighty-eighth birthday on the thir- 
teenth of August. He is well preserved and active. 
Mr. Saunders was bom in London, his father having 
been the senior member of the firm of Saunders & Ot- 
ley, book publishers. He was well educated, and at the 
age of thirty he was sent to this country to endeavor to 
influence such action by Congress as would prevent 
American piracy of English books. His attempts to 
this end were not successful, although petitions for an 
international copyright were headed by such men as 
Irving, Bancroft, and Bryant. Mr. Saunders deter- 
mined to remain in this country, and was engaged in 
various positions before becoming connected with the 
Astor Library. In 1859 he was appointed assistant 
librarian of the Astor Library, and in 1876 librarian, 
where he has continued ever since. Mr. Saunders is 
well known to book readers, particularly of the older 
generation, as the author of " Salad for the Solitary " 
and other once-popular volumes of light essays. 




liisT OF New Books. 

[I7i£ following list^ containing 4S titles^ includes book* re- 
ceived by Ths Dial since its l(ut i'mim.] 


New Studies in Literature. By Edward Dowden. 8yo, 
gih top, pp. 451. HooffhtOD, Hifflin A Co. $3. 

BlbUocrraphica: A llUeaziDe of Biblicffrephy. Put VI., 
4to, nnont. Chas. Scribner's Sons. 92. 

Twenty -five Letters on BnffUsh Authors. By Mary 
Fiaher. llhno, pp. 406. S. G. Grigga <& Co. $1.50. 

The Monist: A Quarterly MagaziDe. Vol. V.; 8yo, pp. 640. 
Open Court Piib*g Co. $3. 

Moods: A Journal Indme. Edited by E. St. Elmo 
Vol. 2; Ulna., 
PiMi. $1.26. 

Vol. 2; Ulna., 8to, nnont 

Sdited by 
. PhUad< 

elphia: The Jenaon 

Ckiethe's Faust. By Knno Fiaeher ; trana. by Harry Rigga 
Woloott. Vol. I., Fanat Literature before Goethe ; 12mo, 
pp. 218. Hanoheater, la.: H. R. Woloott. 


How Marcus Whitman Saved Oxygon : A Trae Romance. 
By Oliyer W. Nixon, LL.D.: with L&trodnotion by Rot. 
F. W. Onnaanlna, D.D. Qlna., 8yo, gUt top, pp. 339. 
Chicaso : Star Pab'g Co. 

British Rule in Central America. ByIraD.TraTi8,Ph.M. 
8to, pp. 36. Pnblieatiooa of the Bfioh. Political Science 
Aai*n. 25 eta. 


lAfib of Sir James FitsJames Stephen, Bart.^ K.CJB.I., 
A Judge of the Hwh Conrt of Jnatice. By hia BroUier, 
Lealie Stephen. With Portraita, 8yo, gUt top, nnont, pp. 
504. O. P. Pntaam'aSoM. $4JM). 

MiirueldeOervantes:Hii Life and Worka. By Henry Ed- 
ward WaMi^. New editieo, reriaed and enlsned ; with 
portrait, 8to, gUt top^ naont, pp. 292. MaomiJiaa & Co. 

Soola Kovalevsky. Memoir by A. C. LelBer (Edgren), 
Reminiaeenoea of Childhood, by Heraelf ; tranalated by 
Loniae Ton Coaael. Ulna., 12mo, gUt top, pp. 317. Mao- 
mUlan<&Co. $1.25. 

lA Hungf^ang. By Prof. Robert K. Donslaa. With por- 
trait. 12mo, nncnt, pp. £51. Wame^a Pnblic Men of 
To-day." $1.25. 

Lord John Russell. By Stnart J. Reid, ^Hth portrait, 
12mo, pp. 381. Harper A Broa. $1. 

-Wolfe. Bt a. G. Bradley. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 2l4. 
Maomillan*8*'£ngliah Men of Action." 60 eta. 


In Oaxnphor. Blna.. 12mo, gUt top, nncnt, op. 101. G. P. 
Pntnam'aSona. $1.25. ^ 


The Adventures of HsJjl Baha nf lapahaa. By Jamea 
Morier. In 2 Tola.; with portrait, 12mo, gUt topa, nncnt. 
Stone <&KimbaU'a''£i«li8hClaanca." $2.50. 

My Lady Nohody. By Maarten Maartena. Blna., 12mo, 
pp. 413. Haiiier A Broa. $1.75. 

"The Little Huguenot": A Romance of Fontainebleaa. 
By Max Pemberton, anthor of " The Impregnable City." 
With portrut, 18mo, pp. 177. Dodd, Mead A Co. 75 eta. 

When Charles the First Was King: A Romance of Oa- 

S^lderoaa, 1632-1649. By J. 8. netoher. 12mo, pp. 418. 
. C. MoQurg A Co. $1.50. 

The Story of a Marriage. By Mra. Alfred Baldwin, anthor 
of "Richard Dare." New and reyiaed edition; Ulna., 
gilt top, nncnt, pp. 317. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.50. 

An Imaginative Man. By Robert S. Hitohena, anthor of 
** The Green Carnation." 12mo, pp. 287. D. Appleton A 
Co. $1.25. 

The Veiled Doctor. By Varina Anne Jefferaon Dayia. 
12mo, pp. 220. Harper A Broa. $1.25. 

A Pair of Blue Byes. By Thomaa Hardy, anthor of *' Life'a 
little Ironiea." With frontiapiece, 12mo, pp. 454. Har- 
per A Broa. $1.50. 

BuUet and SheU : A Soldier^a Romance. By Geo. F. Will- 
iama, anthor of *' The Memorial War Book." Illna., 
12mo, pp. 454. Forda, Howard A Hnlbert. $1UK). 

Sentimental Studies, and A Set of ^Hllage Talea. By Hn- 
bert Crackanthoipe, anthor of ** Wreckage." 12mo, pp. 
288. G. P. Pntnam'a Sona. $1. 

Master WUl>erforoe: The Study of a Boy. By '* Rita," 
anthor of '' A Gender in Satin." 12mo, pp. 342. G. P. 
Pntaam^a Sona. $1. 

On the Point: A Summer Idyll. By Nathan Haakell Dole, 
anthor of ** Not Angela Q<ute." Ulna., 16mo, gUt top, 
nncnt, pp. 252. ' Joaeph Knight Co. $1. 

Her M^esty : A Romance of To-day. By Elizabeth Knight 
Tompkina, anthor of " An Unleasonea Girl." 12mo, pp. 
222. G. P. Putaam'a Sona. $1. 

A Bit of Finesse: A Story of Fifty Yeara Ago. By Harriet 
Newell Lodge. 12nBo, jrilt top, nnont, pp. 104. Indian- 
apolis : Bowen-Merrill Co. 

Cause and Bfliect. By EUinor Meiron. 18mo, pp. 291. G. 
P. Putnam's Sona. 75 ots. 


Lovell, Coryell's Series of American Novels: Talea of 
Soldiers and Ciyiliaaa, by Ambroae Bieroe ; 16mo, pp. 
300, 50 ots. 


Pony Tracks. Written and Blnatrated by Frederic Rem- 
ington. 8yo, pp. 209. Harper A Broa. $3. 

A Holiday in Spain and Norway. By Caroline Earie 
White, auUior of " Loye in the Tropica.^* lOmo, pp. 120. 
J. B. Lappuicott Co. 

A Trip to rangUtnd. By Goldwin Smith. 32mo, pp. 136. 
MaemUlan's '' Miniature Series." 25cte. 


Pan-Gnosticism: A Suggestion in Philosophy. By Noel 
Winter. 12mo, pp. 184. Transatlantic Pnb'g Co. 


A New Monetary System of Capital and Labor. By Ed- 
ward Kellogg. 12mo, pp. 374. U. S. Book Co. 25 cts. 

Are We Losing the West? By Maaon A. Green. 16mo, 
pp. 32. Boaton : C. £. Brown A Co. 10 cte. 


The Natural Course in Music for Public Schools. By Fred- 
eric H. Ripley and Thomaa Tapper. In six books ; 12mo* 
American Book Co. 

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By Gonnt Lbo Tolbtot. Tranalated hy A. Huucb Bbaman. 

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THB DIAL, 316 Wabash Ave,, Chicago, 

No. an. SEPTEMBER 1, 1895. Vol. XIX. 



THE HIGHBR AIM (Soiuiet). W. M. P 105 



B.O.J. 107 


B. A. HinedaU 110 

MALS. David 8. Jordan 112 


JohnBascom 112 

AsOtheisSawHim. — Satterlee'sACreedlesB Gos- 
pel and the Gospel Creed. — Shielda*8 The United 
Church of the United States. — Rays of Light from 
All Lands. — MaoCoU's life Here and Hereafter. — 
Balfour's Tlie Foundations of Belief. — Romanes's 
Thong'hts on Religion. 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne ... 115 
Lord De Tahley's Poems, Dramatio and Lyrical. — 
Johnson's Poems. — Homeward Songs by the Way. 
— Beesly's Ballads and Other Verse. — Block's The 
New World. — Mrs. Trash's Sonnets and Lyrics. — 
Father Tabb*s Poems. — Nesmith's Fhilootetes.— 
Mrs. Townsend's Distaff and Spindle. — Bolles's 
Choooma's Tenants. — Miss Lamed's In Woods and 
Fields.-Mn. Poole's A Bank of Violets.— Miss Mas- 
sey's God's Parable.— Lord's Blue and Gold. 


A new study of the capabilities of man yersus wo- 
man. — Mr. Smalley's studies of men. — A hopeful 
Tiew of the future of the English drama. — Some Tory 
childish " Moods." — A new life of the Chinese Vice- 
roy. — A collection of Alpine sketches. — History of 
the early noyel. — Readings from old English dram- 






Oh beati que' pochi che seggono a quella mensa ore il pane 
degli Angeli si mangia. — Convito, I., 1. 

Pan degli Angeli, del quale 
Virese qui, ma non sen vien satollo. 

— Paradi8oU.,ll,lS. 

We build and build; each generation's rise 
Brings us the old new question: what the way 
To shape the soul, and fit it for the fray 

That is the life of man. Shall these suffice — 

The rule of thumb, the formula concise, 
The pedant's wisdom hoarded day by day ? 
Dry husks of fact — do these the toU repay ? 

Shall this of all our labor be the price ? 

Nay, truth our aim, and truth is more than fact; 
Ere knowledge ripen into worthy act 

The spirit's glow must make it truth indeed, 
Of ardent aspiration all compact, 

Such truth as Dante won in sorest need, 
** Angelic bread " whereon the soul may feed. 

W. M. P. 


At no previous time in the history of this coun- 
try has the discussion of educational questions 
been so serious a preoccupation as it is at pres- 
ent. During the past quarter of a century we 
have become pretty thoroughly awakened, not 
so much to. the importance of education, which 
has never been questioned, as to the import- 
ance of establishing education upon the right 
foundation, and of conducting it in accordance 
with the most enlightened methods. So great 
a fermentation in so important a department 
of thought is, of course, a desirable thing, even 
if its blessings be not wholly unmixed. It is 
well occasionally to shake off our torpor, to get 
out of ruts, to avoid stagnation at almost any 
cost. But such a condition of inteUectual un- 
rest, such a determination to reexamine the old 
grounds of the faith, is always fraught with the 
danger that we may, in our haste to make all 
things new, sweep away the good with the bad, 
and discard some of the fundamental principles 
of the philosophy of a sound education. 

Many zealous advocates of what they are 
pleased to call ^^the new education" are so 
thoroughgoing in their notions that the tem- 
perate onlooker is compelled to view their pro- 
posed policy somewhat askance. They would 



[Sept. 1, 

have U8 believe that the world has hitherto been 
all astray, that the educational wisdom of the 
ages is little better than foolishness, that we are 
upon the eve of a reform in our practice which 
is to be nothing less than revolutionary in its 
effect. These theorists complain, briefly, that 
education has in the past been made too much 
a matter of words ; the remedy they offer is to 
make it in the f ature chiefly a matter of things. 
To bring about this radical change, it is pro- 
posed to displace, to a great extent, the sterile 
practices of literary, philological, and historical 
study, by the productive practices with which 
physical science acquaints us ; to substitute for 
the study of man in his social and political 
character the study of man in his character as 
a tool-making and tool-using animal, mainly 
intent upon material comfort and progress. 
The educational tendency here suggested is 
very marked at the present day, and the signs 
of the times in many ways force it upon our 
attention. It is a tendency more marked, per- 
haps, during recent years than ever before, 
and more marked, probably, in our own country 
than in any other. This is a fact easily to be ac- 
counted for. The development of physical sci- 
ence is the dominant intellectual characteristic 
of the age, and this development, with its count- 
less implied possibilities of material ameliora- 
tion, has diverted many eyes from those things 
of the spirit that are so essential to the higher 
welfare of mankind, fixing them instead upon 
the objects which their lower natures demand ; 
it has, in a word, substituted ideals of comfort 
for ideals of virtue and of the f nll-statured life 
of the soul. And this diversion of attention 
from the higher to the lower aims of life, this 
substitution of lesser ideals for greater, of ig- 
noble for noble purposes, has been nowhere 
else so nearly complete as in this country of 
unexampled material resources and unexam- 
pled material prosperity. 

Matthew Arnold, in one of his essays on re- 
ligious subjects, has a passage exactly descrip- 
tive of our too prevalent attitude toward the 
educational problem. This passage, with the 
necessary substitution of ^^ the humanities," or 
some such phrase, for the word ^^ religion," runs 
as follows : 

** Undoubtedly there are times when a reaction sets 
in, when an interest in the processes of productive indus- 
try, in physical science and the practical arts, is called 
an interest in things, and an interest in [the humanities] 
is called an interest in words. People really do seem to 
imagine that in seeing and learning how buttons are 
made, or papier mdche, they shall find some new and 
untried vital resource; that our prospects from this sort 

of study have something peculiarly hopeful and ani- 
mating about them; and that the positive and practical 
thing to do is to give up [the humanities] and turn to 

Now a great many sincere and weU-meaning 
people have been telling us of late that ^* the 
positive and practical tiling to do " in educa- 
tion is to set aside such useless studies as 
*'*' mere " hbtory and literature, as '^ dead " lan- 
guages and ancient civilisations; to restrict 
considerably the attention paid to most other 
kinds of ^^ book " learning ; and to devote the 
time thus reclaimed from waste to such scien- 
tific and even manual pursuits as are likely to 
have some direct bearing upon the everyday 
life of the men and women that our school- 
children are so soon to become. 

Half-truths are often more dangerous than 
downright errors, and the consequences of the 
sciolist theory of education just outlined are in 
many directions manifest. For one thing, there 
is the loud outcry, heard in many quarters, for 
the introduction of ^^ manual training " into our 
common-school systems, not as an adjunct to' 
intellectual training, which it may very prop- 
erly become, but as a substitute for what is 
contemptuously styled the Wortkram of the 
old-fashioned systems. One persistent advo- 
cate of this particular nostrum goes so far as 
to say that in the ideal school of his imagining 
^^ the highest text-books are tools, and how to 
use them most intelligently is the highest test 
of scholarship." In the field of higher educa- 
tion, the same spirit is illustrated by the im- 
mense expansion of the technological and sci- 
entific departments of our universities, at the 
expense, too often, of the humanities, and by 
the determined warfare that has been waged, 
during the past score of years, upon the clas- 
sical and other branches of the older education. 

In the development of the current popular 
opinion upon this all-important subject, we may 
distinguish two phases. To begin with, science, 
in the first flush of its great mid-century achieve- 
ments, put forth the arrogant plea that it alone 
was deserving of serious consideration as an 
educational discipline. Mr. Spencer's famous 
tractate upon ^^ Education" seemed to give 
cogency to this plea, and for a time did duty 
as a sort of gospel of the new dispensation. 
But the narrowness and inadequacy of that 
gospel became, after a while, apparent even to 
the less reflective of minds, and a new doctrine 
emerged to fit the altered educational attitude. 
That doctrine, which has lately been urged with 
considerable eloquence, is, substantially, that 




all sabjeots are equally valuable as intellectual 
disciplines, and that physics and biology, if 
pursued in the proper spirit, are as potent to 
build up the fuU-statured life as are history, 
and literature, and philosophy. But there are 
now indications that a third phase of the dis- 
cussion is at hand, and that the question of 
relative educational values is about to receive 
a more searching examination than it has ever 
had before. And, in this connection, it is in- 
deed significant that the President for 1895 of 
the National Educational Association, in pre- 
paring his inaugural address, should have felt 
that the time was ripe to use such words as the 
following : 

" If it be true that Spirit and Reason rule the universe, 
then the highest and most enduring knowledge is of the 
things of the Spirit. That subtle sense of the beauti- 
ful and the sublime which accompanies spiritual insight, 
and is part of it, is the highest achievement of which 
humanity is capable. . . . The study of nature is en- 
titled to recognition on grounds similar to those put 
forward for the study of literature, of art, and of his- 
tory. But among themselves these divisions of knowl- 
edge fall into an order of excellence as educational ma- 
terial that is determined by their respective relations 
to the development of the reflective Reason. The ap- 
plication of this test must inevitably lead us, while hon- 
oring science and insisting upon its study, to place above 
it the study of history, of literature, of art, and of in- 
stitutional life.'' 

Contrasted with such an ideal as this of the 
well-ordered education, how poor are all ideals 
that but proclaim the watchword of a narrow 
practicali^. One of the finest expressions ever 
given to the nobler view is embodied in this pas- 
sage from Newman*s '^ Idea of a University": 

** That perfection of the Intellect, which is the result 
of Education, and its beau ideal^ to be imparted to indi- 
viduals in their respective measures, is the clear, calm, 
accurate vision and comprehension of all things as far 
as the finite mind can embrace them, each in its place, 
and with its own characteristics upon it. It is almost 
prophetic from its knowledge of history; it is almost 
heart-searching from its knowledge of human nature; 
it has almost supernatural charity from its freedom 
from littleness and prejudice; it has almost the repose 
of faith, because nothing can startle it; it has almost 
the beauty and harmony of heavenly contemplation, so 
intimate is it with the eternal order of things and the 
music of the spheres.'' 

Ifor does this higher aim concern the advanced 
stages of educational work alone. It should 
be an inspiring force in the kindergarten no 
less than in the college ; for the child, as well 
as the man, does not live by bread alone, un- 
less, indeed, it be that ''pan degli Angeli" 
whereof Dante tells us. '' Those few," he says, 
^* are blessed who sit at the board " where it is 
eaten. Let it be our task to make the few the 
many, and the largess such as knows no stint. 

Witt IXOa iSooto. 


Mr. Leslie Stephen's Life of his brother. Sir 
James Fitzjames Stephen, is an admirable bio- 
graphy which may be read with interest even 
by those who care little for its ostensible theme. 
Fitzjames Stephen, eminent alike as journalist, 
judge, jurist, and writer on polity and jurispru- 
dence, seems to have corresponded pretty closely 
in his general make-up with what we Americans 
have in mind when we speak of the '' typical 
Englishman " — a type perhaps on the whole 
more forcible and virile than engaging. A rug- 
ged, combative, unpliable man, massive alike 
intellectually and physically, he could well 
afford to accept life (as we think he did accept 
it, under qualification) as an ordered form of 
the Hobbesian war of each against all — a grand 
trial of individual strengths, regulated by gov- 
ernment charged mainly with the duty of keep- 
ing the lists and seeing fair play between the 
competitors. All Fitzjames Stephen asked for 
himself in the contest was a fair field and no 
favors ; and we fancy he had a hearty contempt 
for anyone who asked for more. Our social 
ideals are constructed, however unconsciously, 
with reference to our own personal needs and 
aptitudes ; and Fitzjames Stephen, a born ath- 
lete, was naturally not averse to an order of 
things in which the race is to the swift and the 
battle to the strong. We find him once frankly 
declaring (though he seems to have been rather 
ashamed of the sentiment afterwards) that *' to 
be stronger than other people, and to have one's 
own will as against them, is the deepest and 
most general of human desires. If it were a 
wish which fulfilled itself, how very strong and 
how very triumphant I should be." His bio- 
grapher hastens, with brotherly solicitude, to 
style this outbreak '' a mere passing velleity "; 
but it seems characteristic enough of the speaker. 

The opening chapters contain a brief history 
of the Stephen family, dating from the early 
part of the last century, and beginning with 
James Stephen, a thrifty Aberdeenshire small 
farmer, '^ with no insuperable objection to deal- 
ing in contraband articles." The Stephens 
were a strong and prolific race, hardy and en- 
terprising, fruitful of fine women and stalwart 
men. Of James, the third son of the Aber- 
deenshire farmer, a young giant of six feet 

* Life of Sib Jambs Fitzjambs Stbphbn, Bart., K.C.S.I., 
Judge of the High Court of Jnstioe. By his Brother, Leslie 
Stephen. With Portnats. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 



[Sept. 1, 

three inches, tradition says that when a friend 
once offered him a pony to carry him home 
after dinner, '' he made and won a bet that he 
would carry the pony." As an amusing con- 
trast to this Titan may be mentioned a member 
of the family by marriage, one Mr. Garratt, 
a barrister of high character and standing, 
though a dwarf in stature. ^^ Mr. Garratt ! " 
an irascible judge once shouted, ^^when you 
are addressing the court you should stand up." 
^' I am standing up, my lord." '^ Then, Mr. 
Garratt, you should stand upon the bench." 
^^I am standing upon the bench, my lord," 
meekly rejoined Mr. Garratt. Sir James Ste- 
phen, grandson of the smuggling ancestor and 
father of Fitzjames and Leslie, was a really 
eminent man. As under Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, he ^^ literally ruled the Col- 
onial Empire," and seems to have been in his 
quiet way a masterful character, albeit cursed 
with a shyness beyond, said a colleague, '^ all 
shyness you could imagine in anyone whose 
soul had not been preexistent in a wild duck." 
A shining Evangelical light, Sir James was 
SBoetic by temperament, hating long dinners, 
abhorring port wine, and appearing to his sons 
a sort of living ^' categorical imperative." ^' Did 
you ever know your father do a thing because 
it was pleasant?" Lady Stephen once asked 
one of her children. ^^ Yes, once — when he 
married you," was the young courtier's neat 
reply. Sir James himself used to say, and it 
was no empty boast, that he was one of the few 
people to whom it was the same thing to eat a 
dinner and to perform an act of self-denial. 
He once smoked a cigar, and found it so de- 
licious that he never smoked again ; and he in- 
dulged in snuff until it suddenly occurred to 
him that snuff was superfluous, when the box 
was solemnly emptied out of the window and 
never refilled. 

Fitzjames Stephen was born on March 3, 
1829 ; and, if the maternal record of his in- 
fantile doings and sayings is to be trusted, he 
was a remarkable child indeed, a young non- 
conformist much given to reflection on precepts 
which are commonly taken on trust, and fiUed 
with notions which resolutely declined to run 
in the regulation moulds. At four we find him 
sagely refusing to join in a hymn which ex- 
presses a premature desire ^^ to die and be with 
God," on the ground that even good people 
may prefer to stay in this world ; and, later, 
he evolves a kind of Benthamee- Christian 
theory that, as naughtiness is extremely pleas- 
ant in itself, and as we know that it is finally 

expiable by repentance, thc' true rule would be 
'^ to be naughty all your life, and to repent just 
at the end," — thereby, we suppose, securing the 
greatest possible measure of bliss in this world, 
without unduly drawing on one's account in 
the next. Fitzjames's first school, at Brighton, 
was a sort of spiritual forcing-house, a young 
prig's paradise, where there was no cricket, no 
fighting, no fagging, and an excess of evan- 
gelical theology. At prayers (they were nearly 
always at prayers) the boys used to be ques- 
tioned: ^^Gurney, what's the difference be- 
tween justification and sanctification ? " ^^ Ste- 
phen, prove the omnipotence of God," — and 
so on. Rescued betimes from Brighton, Fitz- 
james was sent to Eton, where, it is needless to 
say, there was plenty of fighting and fagging, 
and no evangelical or other theology to speak 
of. A tutor once rather naively excused this 
lack on the ground that he ^^ was always of 
opinion that nothing was so important for boys 
as the preservation of Christian simplicity "; 
and Fitzjames always considered the answer a 
''perfectiy admirable" one. Partly because 
he was an " up-town boy " — he lived with his 
parents at Windsor, and not in college — and 
partly because of his rather unsocial turn, Fitz- 
james was at first dreadfully bullied at the 
shrine of ^^ Henry's holy shade." But he pres- 
ently grew so tall and strong that it was dan- 
gerous to attack him. As pugnacious as Keats, 
the once passive victim became a doughty cham- 
pion in his turn. Says an old Etonian : 

** Often have I applauded hiB baokhanders as the fore- 
most in the fray. He was only vanquished by numbers. 
His bill for hats must have amounted to a stiff figure, 
for my visions of Fitzjames are of a discrowned war- 
rior, returning to Windsor bareheaded, his hair moist 
with the steam of recent conflict. . . . The kicks, cuffs, 
and hat-smashing had no other result than to steel his 
mind forever against oppression, tyranny, and unfair- 
ness of every kind." 

We do not find that Fitzjames was among 
the crack verse-makers at Eton, or that he spe- 
cially distinguished himself in any way — save 
pugilistically ; but he there learned the lesson 
which he never forgot, that to be weak is to be 
wretehed, that the state of nature is a state of 
war and Vce Victis Nature's primal law. His 
recollections of Eton (like his brother's) are 
not wholly flattering : 

** The teaching was < wretched'; the hours irregular 
and very unpunctual; the classes were excessively large, 
and the tutorial instruction supposed to be given out of 
school frequently neglected. « I do not believe,' says my 
brother, * that I was ever once called on to construe at 
my tutor's after I got into the fifth form. . . .' Bal- 
ston, our tutor, was a good scholar after the fashion of 




the day and famous for Latin verse; but he was essen- 
tially a commonplace don. < Stephen mo/or,' he once 
said to ray brother, < if yon do not take more pains, how 
can yon ever expect to write good longs and shorts ? If 
you do not write good longs and shorts, how can you 
ever be a man of taste ? If you are not a man of taste, 
how can you ever hope to be of use in the world ? ' — a 
sorites, says my brother, which must be somewhere de- 

A man of taste Stephen major certainly 
never became, though he acquired a forcible 
and even brilliant prose style. For art he cared 
little, and for poetry less. He honestly con- 
fessed, to the dismay of the judicious Balston, 
that he could not see why people wrote poetry 
at all. ** When a man has anything to say, I 
am always tempted to ask why he cannot say 
it in plain prose.'* The Eton course was fol- 
lowed by two rather profitable years at King's 
College, London, where the principal. Dr. Jelf, 
represented the high and dry, cock-sure form 
of Anglicanism. Says our author : 

<* I can remember how, a little later, I used to listen 
with wonder to his expositions of the Thirty-nine Arti- 
cles. What a marvellous piece of good fortune it was, 
I used dimly to consider, that the Church of England 
had always hit off precisely the right solution in so 
many and such tangled controversies I " 

At King's College, Fitzjames was much at- 
tracted by Professor Maurice, and for the time 
fancied himself more or less of a Mauricean. 
Afterwards, in his skeptical days, he used to 
say, picturesquely enough, of Maurice's preach- 
ing that it was like '^ watching the struggles of 
a drowning creed." 

In 1847 Fitzjames entered Cambridge. The 
Cambridge of those days, says Mr. Leslie Ste- 
phen, had merits now too likely to be under- 
valued ; but the course was strangely narrow. 
To adapt a phrase of Hume's, she virtually 
said to her pupils : " Is this a treatise upon 
geometry or algebra ? No. Is it, then, a treat- 
ise upon Greek or Latin grammar, or on the 
grammatical construction of classical authors ? 
No. Then commit it to the flames, for it con- 
tains nothing worth your study." In both these 
arenas, Fitzjames was comparatively weak. He 
had neither head nor heart for mere scholar- 
ship, was clumsy at calculation, and lacked the 
docility which so often enables a merely clever 
and teachable boy to outfoot rivals of ten times 
his real power and originality — the latter a 
quality which '^ tempts a man outside the strait 
and narrow path leading to the maximum of 
marks." So, despising at heart what he con- 
sidered the trivial standards and empty pedan- 
tries of the place, Fitzjames left Cambridge 
without academical honors. 

Three times in life Fitzjames performed du- 
ties thoroughly consonant with his talents and 
temper : as journalist, as legal member of the 
Council at Calcutta, and as a judge on the crim- 
inal bench. 

In the last capacity the characteristics which 
impeded his fortunes at the bar — where his 
career is described as a series of '^tantalising 
half-successes" — became distinctly advantages. 
His contempt of trickery ; willingness to give, 
and determination to have, fair play ; and his 
inbred disdain of all arguments not going to 
the substantial merits of the issue, were com- 
patible at least with high judicial qualities. 
Woe to the pettifogger who tried to eke out a 
flimsy case by playing on the foibles or throw- 
ing technical dust in the eyes of Judge Ste- 
phen ! Viewing himself as in some sort the 
organ of the moral sense of the community, he 
leaned rather to severity than mercy; and 
when, after a fair trial, a man had been clearly 
proved before him to be a scoundrel, so far 
from affecting the usual reluctance in passing 
sentence, he showed rather the g^im satisfac- 
tion of a man crushing a noxious reptile. Yet 
he showed, in doubtful cases, an almost pain- 
ful anxiety to secure fair play to the accused. 
One incident out of many of his love of exact 
justice may be quoted : 

<* A man accused of stabbing a policeman to avoid ar- 
rest, pleaded guilt j and was sentenced to seven years' 
penal servitude. On being removed by the warders, he 
dun^ to the rail, screaming, < You can't do it. You 
don't know what yon are doing I ' Fitzjames shouted 
to the warders to put him back; discovered by patient 
hearing that the man was meaning to refer to some cir- 
cumstance in extenuation, and after recalling the wit- 
nesses found that the statement was confirmed. * Now, 
you siUy fellow,' he said, <if you had pleaded <<not 
guilty," as I told you, all this would have come out. It 
is true that I did not know what I was doing, but it was 
your own fault.' He then reduced the sentence to nine 
months, saying, * Does that satisfy you ? ' < Thank you,' 
my Lord,' replied the man, * that's quite right,' and left 
the court quite cheerfully." 

Stephen rigidly suppressed anything in the 
court-room tending to lower the dignity of the 
proceedings ; and it is recorded &at when a 
spectator once laughed at a piece of evidence 
which should have disgusted him, he promptly 
had the fellow placed by the side of the pris- 
oner in the dock, and kept him there till the 
end of the case. The promiscuous attendance 
of ladies at ^' sensational " trials was the sharp- 
est of thorns in his side ; and he once gave 
offence by speaking of some persons of that sex 
who were fighting for admission as '* women." 
Possibly this was during the trial of Mrs. May- 



[Sept. 1, 

brick, a cause cSlibre at which he presided. 
It will be remembered that Mrs. Maybrick was 
convicted of the murder of her husband, and 
that her sentence was commuted (with Ste- 
phen's approval} to imprisonment for life, on 
the ground that, although there was no doubt 
that she had administered poison, it was pos- 
sible that her husband had died from other 
causes. Says Mr. Leslie Stephen : 

** A great deal of feeling was aroused; Fitzjames was 
bitterly attacked in the press, and reoeiyed many anon- 
ymous letters full of the vilest abase. Hatred of wo- 
men generally, and jealousy of the counsel for the de- 
fense, were among the causes of his infamous conduct 
suggested by these judicious correspondents. . . . But 
as attacks were made io public organs upon his behavior 
AS judge, I think it right to say that they were abso- 
lutely without foundation. His letters show that he 
felt the responsibility deeply; and that he kept his mind 
open till the last. From other evidence I have not the 
least doubt that his humanity and impartiality were as 
conspicuous in this as in other cases, and I believe were 
not impugned by any other witnesses, even by those 
who might doubt the correctness of the verdict." 

The author gives a detailed account of his 
brother's career in literature and journalism, 
at the bar and on the bench, and of his official 
work in India. The chapters anal^ical of his 
somewhat involved religious, philosophical, and 
political convictions are full of interest and sug* 
gestion. The work is finely mounted, and con- 
tains two excellent portraits. ^^ q^ j^ 

Vbancb and England in N'orth 


Dr. Winsor's <^ Mississippi Basin," like his 
*^ Cartier to Frontenac," immediately suggests 
comparison with odc of the best and most favor- 
ably known contributions to American history. 
Reference is made, of course, to Mr. Parkman's 
series of works that are collectively known as 
"France and England in North America." Save 
that Dr. Winsor, as befits his earlier title, passes 
by the Huguenots in Florida, to whom Mr. Park- 
man devotes ten thrilling chapters, the two writ- 
ers run side by side from first to last. The 
parallel is a suggestive one, and we shall follow 
it a little distance, since it will enable us to 
point out clearly the characteristic excellences 
and defects of Dr. Winsor's two works. 

Mr. Parkman's volumes are marked, in the 
first place, by the results of laborious and suc- 
cessful research. They are real contributions to 

*Thb liississiPPi Basot. The Stragsrle in America between 
Eoffhuid and France, 1697-1763. With fnU cartographical 
illostratioiis from contemporary sonroeB. By Justin Winsor. 
Boston : Houghton, Mifflin St Co. 

knowledge. But, more than this, Mr. Parkman 
has used his materials, so conscientiously gath- 
ered, with excellent effect, combining and pre- 
senting them with such admirable literary skill 
that the series is a brilliant picture, on a great 
canvas, of the competition of England and 
France for dominion in North America. In 
the first of these particulars, Dr. Winsor is fully 
Mr. Parkman's equal : he is quite as thorough 
in investigation. Indeed, his books are not 
unlikely to impress some readers as the more 
learned of the two. But to literary art Dr. 
Winsor can lay no claims. He is often for- 
cible, and occasionally animated and pictur- 
esque ; but, on the whole, he carries his nar- 
rative as heavily as Mr. Parkman carries his 
lightly. It is owing in part to this difference, 
and in part to differences in ideal and subject- 
matter, that the unpracticed reader is likely to 
overrate, comparatively, the intrinsic value of 
Dr. Winsor's books, as suggested above. Ow- 
ing to these three causes — ideal, matter, and 
style — Dr. Winsor's volumes are not likely to 
prove attractive to the conventional general 
reader; but historical students and scholars 
will hold them in highest estimation. 

It must be said that Dr. Winsor's researches 
have run mainly in a different channel from 
Mr. Parkman's ; or, to be more exact, that they 
have run mainly in one of the two channels in 
which the earlier writer moved. The sub-title 
of the earlier work, " Geographical Discovery 
in the Interior of North America in its Histor- 
ical Relations, with full Cartographical Illus- 
trations from Contemporary Sources," indi- 
cates what this channel is. Dr. Winsor is here 
seen at his best in a field that is peculiarly his 
own. It is a part of the field that he culti- 
vated with such good results in the '^ Narra- 
tive and Critical History of America " and in 
the *^ Christopher Columbus." He now returns 
to it for the purpose of a richer and more 
thorough tillage. It is true that the present 
work has the alternative title, '^ The Struggle 
in America between England and France"; 
but geographical discovery and exploration are 
still kept at the fore, and the cartographical 
illustrations, partially changed indeed in char- 
acter as the progress of history compels, are 
as abundant as ever. In a word, the writer's 
main purpose is to exhibit to his readers that 
gradual uncovering or disclosure which explor- 
ers of the North American continent made 
to the eyes of the civilized world from 1634 
to 1768, or at least so much of it as was in- 
volved in the competition of the two powers 




with which he deals. The properly equipped 
reader who will read these pages, and study 
the acoompanying maps, will see unrolled be- 
fore his eyes a panorama of events that, of their 
kind, are perhaps the most interesting that the 
world has seen. It is true that Mr. Park- 
man is also strong in this field ; but his work 
is much less minute, while the cartographical 
studies and illustrations are meagre indeed 
when compared with Dr. Winsor's affluence of 
such material. It is also to be said that, in 
respect to discovery, the one writer dwells more 
upon the merely historical aspects, the other 
upon the scientific aspects. The further re- 
mark is to be made that, although Dr. Win- 
fior's present sub-title is the same as the title 
of Mr. Parkman's series, the struggle, even 
relatively, is far less prominent in his pages. 
The value of Dr. Winsor's account lies far 
more in the indication of the causes that made 
the struggle inevitable, and that also predeter- 
mined its character and result, and especially 
the geographical causes, than in his handling of 
proper historical material. Parkman has given 
far more attention to the human, or strictly his- 
torical, aspects of the story. A few illustrations 
of the difference in method will be given. 

Parkman gives a chapter of thirty -eight 
pages to Deerfield ; Winsor barely alludes to 
it. Parkman finds two volumes necessary for 
dealing with the last act of the drama ; Win- 
sor dispatches it in one hundred pages. Park- 
man devotes three long chapters to Wolfe's 
great exploit ; Winsor, barely as many pages. 
Parkman lengthens out his account of the fall 
of Louisbourg into the hands of Pepperell and 
Warren, in 1745, until it fills two chapters of 
fifty-four pages ; Winsor finds a single para- 
graph of eleven lines sufficient. On the other 
hand, Winsor gives a much more minute and 
careful account of the establishment of the 
French settlements on the GuU of Mexico and 
on the Lower Mississippi, and has a sharper 
eye for the progress of discovery in that quar- 
ter. Parkman, indeed, gives nearly forty pages 
to the heroic achievements of the La V^rend- 
ryes in the far West, which is about twice the 
space Winsor thinks necessary ; but the ca- 
reers of these adventurous and self-forgetting 
men gave Parkman one of his good opportu- 
nities for the multiplication of historical detail 
and picturesque writing. And so we might go 
on, were it necessary to go further. 

It will be seen that we have chosen to char- 
acterize the work that Dr. Winsor has done 
in his present field rather than to deal partic- 

ularly with the book before us. This is because 
his qualities as historian are the same through- 
out. Respecting the new book, it will suffice 
to say that he begins with defining the position 
of the rival claimants to North America at the 
close of the seventeenth century, indicating also 
the titles upon which they rested ; that he then 
draws the boldest and most comprehensive out- 
line of the grand natural features of our con- 
tinent to be found in any book of history ; that 
he then takes up the work of Iberville and Bien- 
ville on the Lower Mississippi ; that he closes 
with the completed occupation by the English, 
in 1765, of the empire that the French had 
yielded to them two years before ; and that 
every intervening chapter and page is filled 
with valuable information and discussion, the 
whole illustrated with such wealth of maps as 
to show that the author has really laid all lit- 
erature under contribution. An abstract of 
two of his later pages will at once illustrate his 
method, and at the same time show why the 
boundary which the Treaty of Paris gave to the 
United States in 1782 was an impossible one. 

While tbe upper waters of the Mississippi were not at 
this time [1763] supposed to be connected with the water- 
system oiHudson's Bay, fhe contemporary cartographers 
placed the river's source anywhere from latitude 45° to 
55°. Jefferys thought it somewhat above 45°. Samuel 
Dunn put it, a little later, under 46°, and he clusters sev- 
eral la\es about the source. Buache, the French map- 
maker, places the fountain at 46°, among the Sioux. 
A map based on Danville, and using material gathered 
by Governor Pownall, puts the source in a lake at 47°, 
due south of the Lake of the Woods. The Dutchman, 
Yander Aa, in 1755, puts the springs doubtfully at 55^, 
but in 1763 he finds reason to place a little group of 
three lakes, out of which the river flows from a triple 
source under 49°. A French map, prepared for the 
Company of the West, establishes the head under 50°. 
Bowen, in a map produced to show the treaty bounds, 
says the position of the source ia uncertain, but that 
the Indians report it under 50°, and in a marshy region. 
Robert Rogers says the Mississippi rises in a lake ** of 
considerable bigness " into which flows a stream through 
a notch in the mountains, carrying a red substance. 

Some geographers stiU clung to an older notion of in- 
terlinking inland waters, flowing in different directions. 
It was common for these to connect the upper wa- 
ters of the Mississippi with a reticulation of lakes and 
streams having a dependence upon Hudson's Bay, and 
sometimes upon that mysterious channel which formed 
a union with the western sea. Roberts, an English car- 
tographer, in 1760, nuikes the Mississippi rise in Lake 
Winnipeg. Palairet, a French map-maker, connects the 
sources with Lake Winnipeg, though he acknowledges 
the upper parts of the channel are little known. He 
adds that some suppose there is a connection between 
the Mississippi or Missouri and the Manton (Mandan) 
River, which he represents by a dotted line as flowing 
ultimately into the Sea of the West. Thb same de- 
vice of an uncertain dotted line is used by Emanuel 
Bowen, in 1763, to join the upper Mississippi with the 



[Sept. 1, 

Red River of the North. The Neptune Fran(:€nse has 
no hesitancy in connecting the Mississippi with Lake 
Winnipeg, and a most wonderful network of waters is 
supposed by Yander Aa on a map of 1755, where the 
Mississippi, Winnipeg, Lake Superior, and Hudson's 
Bay are aU brought into a single system of communica- 
tion. In 1776 Jeffeiys connects Winnipeg with a fan- 
ciful inlet on the Pacific coast, which D'Aguilar is sup- 
posed to have entered in 1603. Explorers were still 
beguiled by the Lidian tales of the connection of the 
Missouri by means of a string of interjacent lakes with 
the South Sea, and there were stories which induced 
Carver to believe that the Shining Mountains (Rockies) 
stretched from about 48° north latitude toward the soutl^ 
and divided the waters flowing into the Gulfs of Mexico 
and California. He suspected that north of 48° there 
was a water-system somehow connecting Hudson's Bay 
with the Pacific, and lying somewhere thereaway were 
the Straits of Anian, ** which, having been discovered 
by Sir Francis Drake, belong of course to the English." 

Even the most careful scholars commit blun- 
ders. Dr. Winsor brings La Salle to the shore 
of the Gulf of Mexico in 1681 (page 4), and 
Pineda to the mouth of the Mississippi in 1579 
(page 6). On page 279 he names the south 
branch of the Potomac where he evidently 
means the north branch. The index to the 
work is perhaps as complete as could reasona- 
bly be expected, but the lack of an analytical 
table of contents is a great drawback. Then 
Dr. Winsor, of all writers, should be the last 
to omit from such a work as this all references 
or other indications of his sources, save the 
very general ones that are found in the text. 

B. A. Hinsdale. 

Ths Ijowest of the BACK-B0N£D 

A nimal s.* 

Since the discovery of the vertebrate nature 
of the Lancelot, by Gabriel Costa, in 1884, this 
little creature has been an object of special in- 
terest to anatomists, to taxonomists, and to evo- 
lutionists alike. It is a vertebrate animal re- 
duced to its lowest terms, being deprived of 
all those structures with which the name ver- 
tebrate is usually associated. The Lancelet, or 
Amphioxus (in technical nomenclature, Brarir 
chiostoma) is fish-like in form and ha1)it, but 
it is as far below or behind the fishes as man 
is above or beyond them. It lacks limbs, 
scales, skull, brain, jaws, eyes, ears, heart, red- 
blood, and vertebrae. Its existence shows that 
all these structures are results of special de- 
velopment — additions not essential to the 

* Akphioxus akd thb Anobstbt of thb Vebtsbratbs. 
By Arthur Willey, B.So., Tutor in Biology, Colombia Col- 
lege, Balfonr Student of the Uniyersity of Cambridge. With 
a preface by Henry Fairfield Osbom. (Columbia Uniyersity 
Biological Series, II.) New York : ICaemillan & Co. 

primitive definition of a ** back-boned animal." 
Of late it has been supposed that Bran- 
chiostoma is of the type of the primitive ver- 
tebrates, and that the study of its structure 
and embryology would g^ve a clue to the steps 
by which the chordate or vertebrate animals 
had risen from worm -like forms. But this 
has not been certain, nor have the features of 
degeneration been clearly separated from those 
of primitive simplicity. 

In his work on ** Amphioxus and the An- 
cestry of the Vertebrates,'' Dr. Willey treats 
in detail all these matters, with also an account 
of the Asddians^ Balanoglossus^ and other 
types near the border-line between vertebrates 
and invertebrates. His final conclusions are 
thus expressed : 

** The proziinate ancesto r of the yertebrates was a 
free-swimmiiig aaimal intermediate in organization be- 
tween an Aseidian tadpole and AmphioxiUf possessing 
the dorsal month, hypophysis, and restricted notochord 
of the former; and the myotomes, coslomic epithelium, 
and straight alimentaiy oaoal of the latter. The ulti- 
mate or primordial ancestor of the Tertebrates would, 
on the contrary, be a worm-like animal whose organi- 
zation was approximately on a level with that of the 
bilateral ancestors of the £chinoderms." 

The eight species of Amphioxus are all 
placed by Dr. Willey in one genus, Amphi- 
oxus. As Dr. Gill has shown, the secondary 
modifications of this group are better shown, 
for purposes of classification, by its division 
into four genera, — Branchiostoma^ Epigonr 
ichthySj Asymmetron^ and Amphioxides. 

The book is a very valuable risumi of our 
knowledge of a branch of zoology especially 
interesting in its relations to evolution. 

David S. Jordan. 


Few persons have ever made up their reckoning 
so completely without their host as the earlier scep- 
tics of the last century and of the present century. 

^AsOthxbsSawHim: ARetroapeet, a.d.64. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin A Co. 

A Crebdlbss Gospbl and thb Gospbl C&bbd. By Henry 
T. Satterlee, D.D. New York : Charles Sorihner*s Sons. 

The UmTXD Chuboh of thb Unitbd Statbs. By Charies 
Woodruff Shields. New York : Charles Serihner's Sons. 

Rats of Light fbom Ajx Lands : The Bihlea and Be- 
tiefs of Mankind. Editors, Rev. B. C. Towne, B.A., A. J. 
Canfield, D.D., and George J. Hsgar. New York : Gay Broth- 
ers & Co. 

Lmc Hbrb and Hkrbaftbb. By Maloohn MaeCoU, M.A. 
New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Thb Foundations of Bbubf. By the Right Hon. Arthur 
J. Balfonr. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Tbouohts on Rbuoion. By the late George John Ro- 
manes, M. A. Edited hy Charles Gore, M.A., Canon of West- 
minster. Chicago : The Open Court Puhlishing Co. 




Attacks, which they thought would he destructive 
in a high degree if not finid, have passed hy as mere 
episodes in a general development of religious he- 
lief . Conventional rites and creeds — that seemed 
like barren fields exhausted by careless and routine 
tillage — broken in on, no matter where or how, 
have shown a soil full of seeds, capable of astonish- 
ing life. If any faith has been stripped away, it 
has given place, like a felled forest, to another and 
equally abundant form of growth. This pertinacity 
of life has shown itself, on the one side, in the able 
and sturdy defence, even with a backward trend, 
of older forms of faith ; and on the other side, in 
the eagerness with which every new position is 
taken up in the spiritual world and fortified as if it 
had something of the nature of a finality. No bands 
of inquirers, even in science, are disposed to pitch 
their camp for a single night without throwing out 
some defensive works on the side of religious belief. 
The one omnipresent thought with men, more than 
ever before, b : How do these facts bear on man's 
spiritual hopes? We are impressed anew with this 
perennial flow of faith by the range, force, and 
depth of the works before us for review. With all 
the diversity of tendencies they present, there is no 
languor nor indifference. 

'* As Others Saw Him '' is a well-written, agree- 
able book. It is not a product simply of the imag- 
ination, but an effort to construct, pictorially and 
historically, the farther side, the more unfamiliar 
side, of the life of Ghrbt. The *' others " in the 
title stand for those not his disciples, yet those whose 
interested attention was called out by Christ. The 
author strives to restore the impression which the 
presence and words of Christ must have made upon 
them. In doing this he avails himself, not merely 
of the Grospel narrative, but also of all sayings and 
representations afloat in *< patristic literature." 
Works of this cast encounter a di£&culty hard to 
escape. Events that are intensely momentous, pre- 
eminently historical, can accept only with some con- 
fusion of impression, and shock of feeling, an im- 
aginary form. Earnest minds prefer a severely 
critical method that does not admit of any slurring 
of the facts, or of the evidence on which they rest. 
The author, however, uses the freedom of an imag- 
inary restoration of the life of Christ with forbear- 
ance and good taste. 

^< A Creedless Gospel and the Gospel Creed " is 
a comprehensive, able, and — abating one's own be- 
lief that it is inadequate — a profound work. It is 
an earnest plea for the supernatural character and 
force of the leading facts and doctrines of Christian 
faith as presented in the Apostolic Creed. It is 
divided into three parts. The first part endeavors 
to show the inadequacy of the grounds of belief 
which have been given by science, philosophy, ethics, 
natural religion, and social growth. The second 
part presents, on the positive side, the chief events 
on which Christianity rests, as the author conceives 
it : the self-revelation of God, the incarnation, the 

crucifixion, the resurrection, the ascension, the Holy 
Ghost, the church, the judgment. The third part 
is a brief enforcement of Christian courage, knowl- 
edge, joy in the presence of this supernatural light. 
The book is well-fitted to impress the mind with a 
sense of the zeal and the redemptive power of the 
old forms of faith. Here is the true seed — broken 
indeed for many of us and left behind by the divine 
process of growth — out of which emerges the spir- 
itual life of man. The work is too wide and thorough 
in its scope to be criticized hastily, or to be advan- 
tageously found fault with, in single details.. We 
draw attention to a few of the general considerations 
which have made, and still make, against an inflex- 
ible defence of the supernatural as hitherto con- 
ceived. The words of Christ, defining our relations 
to Grod, are the very essence of natundism. If we 
make religion a field foreign to science, to philoso- 
phy, to morality, to society, we, at the same time, 
make science, philosophy, morality, and society in 
the same measure fields foreign to religion. We 
break the harmony of the universe. We oppose 
religion to the universe. Evolution, rightiy ren- 
dered, must find its way, does find its way, into 
religious faith. Faith can not be opposed to rea- 
son or put above reason. Reason must be ultimate. 
When faith at any point transcends reason, it owes 
its acceptance in that relation to reason itself. 

'« The United Church of the United States " is a 
volume made up chiefly of essays addressed, at var- 
ious times, to (tistinguished assemblies and to the 
public on the question of Church Unity. The au- 
thor has been, for a long time, a prominent ex- 
pounder and advocate of this unity. The book is 
a full and accumulative presentation on the writer's 
part of this discussion. It seems to us character- 
ized by an extravagant estimate of the importance 
of the theme, and by vagueness in its presentation. 
The first assertion of the preface is : '< It has been 
becoming evident to many thoughtful observers that 
the chief Christian problem of our ag^ is the Re- 
union of Christendom." This, in view of the social 
and spiritual questions at issue witii us, seems a 
very extreme assertion. The autiior misconceives 
the value of an outer unity. ''But surely, if 
social ills are fast coming to a crisis, it is f oUy to 
ignore them ; and if organized Christianity is their 
only perfect remedy it is madness to withhold that 
remedy " (p. 260). The vagueness of the work is 
in keeping with the over-estimate of its subject. 
The unity of the Church may be spiritual or formal. 
The two, however, in clear discussion must be kept 
apart. We may dwell at liberty on the need of 
spiritual unity, and nobody will say us nay. The 
moment we propose some distinct formal union, 
most persons will lapse into indifference ; many will 
violentiy oppose it ; and the advantages to be gained 
by it will rapidly disappear. The author seems to 
us to stand witii one foot on the land — the firm 
land of spiritual unity — and the other on the sea 
— the sea of rites and creeds still indeterminate in 



[Sept. 1, 

men's minds, — and to be very caref nl not to throw 
his weight forward into the position next in order 
— a distinct form of union. The dispersive results 
of intellectual activity are not jet complete. The 
truly vital forces are still explorative and devisive. 
It is vain to try to bring them together till they 
begin to come together. If Episcopacy in England 
were to-day to be disestablished, it would be very 
likely to drop into three parts, — a high church, a 
low church, a broad church. Formal unity is to be 
gained by interior growth and lies far in advance 
ef us. 

<<The Bibles and Beliefs of Mankind" is an 
after-clap of the Parliament of Religions. It is 
made up of three parts : The Bibles and Beliefs of 
Mankind — with liberal quotations ; Churches and 
Communions associated with Christianity; Parlia- 
mentary Utterances. It is popular and pictorial in 
form, and has especially some fine portraits of those 
who took part in the Assembly of 1893. It is an 
effort still farther to utilize the wide impressions 
made by that expressive, fruitful, and somewhat 
scenic assembly — The Parliament of Religions. 

^< life Here and Hereafter " is a volume of ser- 
mons; the earlier ones on immortality, the later 
ones on various subjects. They are republished from 
corrected newspaper reports. They are not remark- 
able for literary excellence, for critical investigation, 
or for unusual spiritual insight. Taken, however, as 
sermons, as plain, practical, and earnest enforcement 
of accepted truths, they are much to be commended. 
There is nothing in them conventional on the one 
side, nor sensational on the other. There is only 
a simple, well-proportional effort to draw from the 
truth, as apprehended by speaker and listener, its 
appropriate impulses. They are good sermons. 
They do credit to the integrity of mind and heart 
both of the speaker and of his audience. They have 
also a fair breadth of theme, touching on such top- 
ics as Party Spirit, Capital and Labor. They are 
such discourses as do most men good to hear or read. 

The last two volumes on our list rightly claim the 
attention of all whose view of the world in which 
we are has first received the expansion of scientific 
thought, and is now coming under its limitations. 
The human mind by being too long or too exclus- 
ively occupied with one class of themes, or one 
method of inquiry, suffers something very like atro- 
phy. This atrophy, unfortunately, lies, most of it, 
in our time, in the direction of spiritual truth. 
These two books in very different ways should at 
least serve to disclose this atrophy to those who suf- 
fer from it, and to correct it with those not con- 
firmed in it. «' The Foundations of Belief " is the 
product of a very active, wide-ranging mind, and 
one fairly familiar with, and impressible by, the 
facts and argruments of naturalism. Without this ap- 
preciation, nothing can now be said to much purpose 
in defense of faith. The drift of the book is well put by 
the author at the opening of the fourth part. " We 
have*now| considered beliefs, or certain important 

classes of them, under three aspects. We have con- 
sidered them from the point of view of their practical 
necessity ; from that of their philosophic proof ; and 
from that of theirscientific origin. Inquiries relating 
to the same subject-matter more distinct in their char- 
acter it would be difficult to conceive. It remains for 
us to consider whether it is possible to extract from 
their combined results any general view wluch may 
command at least a provisionid assent" (p. 241). 
The treatment will constantly call out dissent, but 
it will also as constantly open up wider views than 
those which become habitual in naturalism, and will 
confront its assertions with corrective principles. 
The author, without dogmatism, has a strong hold 
on the spiritual elements in our nature, and walks 
by reason, not as a veiled lantern, which casts its 
entire light on the particular path pursued, but as 
one which sends some disclosure in all directions. 
We commend the book as well fitted to help the 
mind out of narrow and positive opinions into wide, 
open possibilities. The naturalism, whose weak- 
nesses Mr. Balfour exposes in many effective ways, 
is that complete naturalism which rests on a purely 
empirical philosophy. This naturalism, as a final 
and adequate theory, receives no quarter at Ins 
hands. The gist of the book is found in the relation 
of reason and authority as sources of belief. The 
author magnifies authority. Tet the ninety-nine 
persons and opinions resting on authority have less 
philosopfaacal interest and importance than the one 
hundredth person and opinion making an appeal to 
reason. These are the points of growth. Mr. Bal- 
four's enforcement is the enforcement of a states- 
man rather than of a philosopher. 

'* Thoughts on Religion" is remarkable in the 
same direction, but in anether fashion. Greorge 
John Romanes, during his whole life, was closely 
identified with inquiries involved in evolution, espe- 
cially with those which unite in development the 
intellectual powers of animals and of men. Unlike 
Darwin, however, he constantly interested himself 
in the speculative bearings of the facts under dis- 
cussion. << Theism," published by him some years ago 
under the designation of <« Physicus," was a very 
thorough presentation of the grounds of unbelief. 
It showed no hesitancy in reaching its conclusions. 
He was a man of candor and of restless inquiry, 
and the present volume presents accumulated mem- 
oranda of beliefs slowly forming in his mind, that 
looked toward a complete — even more complete 
than many believers would accept — reconstruction 
of faith. As this reconstruction is as purely ra- 
tional as the destruction which preceded it, the fact 
is most significant. Both books will make the mind 
a broader and better instrument in the search for 

truth. Y ^ 

John Bascom. 

Messrs. W. E. Henley and T. F. Henderson have 
undertaken the editorship of a four-volume centenary 
edition of Bnrns, to be published in Edinburgh. 




Becsnt Pobtby.* 

Among the English poets of the later Victorian 
period, contemporary criticism has made a fairly 
sharp distinction hetween the six dii majores of song 
and the host of minor versifiers. The consecrated 
g^up that includes Tennyson and Browning, Ar- 
nold and Rossetti, Mr. Swinburne and Mr. Morris, 
seems now to be separated by a pretty deep and 
definite gulf from the other occupants of the hill of 
Parnassus, and it is not probable that posterity will 
take a different view of the situation. Here and 
there a plea will doubtless be made for the admis- 
sion of some outsider or other into the charmed cir- 
cle of the elect, but we doubt if any of these wiU 
obtain the requisite suffrages. Among those who 
will, however, come the nearest to such apotheosis 
are two or three whose work has been practically 
unknown to the generation in which they have lived, 
for the simple reason that they have not chosen to 
strive for the plaudits of the crowd. Such a poet 
is Mr. Robert Bridgres, who has until recently been 
but a name — and hardly that — to lovers of poetry ; 
another such is Mr. Theodore Watts, who has only 
just now consented to the publication of a volume 
of his work. Still another is the author of the fol- 
lowing lines, descriptive of the ambition of Pha^ 

" As when the rathe and poignant spring diyine 
Sis^ all too soon among the hoaiy woods, 
And from the fleecy drifts of sodden snow 
With promise and with perfume oalls her bads. 
And the buds open when they hear her feet, 
And open bat to perish. So his heart 
Bloomed in a bust of immortality, 
Nor feared the onward rolling Tans of doom. 
Yearning he had and hanger to ascend, 
To sit at endless feast with purple robes 
To fold his limbe in sheer magnificence, 
With rays of glory round his radiant hsir, 
And deity effulgent in his brows : 

* PoBMS, Dbaicatio akd Ltbioal. By Lord De Tabley. 
Second Series. New York : Maomillan A Co. 

PoBMS. By Lionel Johnson. Boston : Gopeland A Day. 

HomwABD SoNos BT THB Wat. By A. E. Portland : 
TDiomas B. Moeher. 

Ballads akd Othkb Vsbss. By A. H. Beeely. New 
York : Longmans, Qreen, A Co. 

Ths Nbw WoBLD. With Other Verse. By Louis James 
Bloek. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

SoNKKTS AiTD Ltbics. By Katriua Trask. New York : 
Anson D. F. Randolph A Co. 

P0SM8. By John B. Tabb. Boston : Copeland A Day. 

PmLOOTSTBS, and Other Poems and Sonnets. By J. E. 
Nesmith. Cambridge : The Author. 

DiaxATF AUD Spiin>LB. Sonnets by Mary Ashley Town- 
eend. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Chooobua'sTsnaivts. By Frank Bolles. Boston : Hough- 
ton, Mifflm A Co. 

Ik Woods akd Fislds. ^y Augusta Lamed. New York : 
O. P. Putnam's Sons. 

A Bakk of V10UET8. Verses by Fanny H. Runnells Poole. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

God's Pabablb, and Other Poems. By Susanna Maasey. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Blitb akd Gold. By William S. Lord. Chicago: Hke 

A dream diTine, whose passionate desire 

Flooded his soul, tiU in the golden car 

He trembled at the vision : as a leaf 

MoTed by a gale of splendour, that comes on. 

When, at the point of sunrise, the wind sweeps 

With sudden ray and music across the sea. 

So in that rapture of presumptuous joy 

He spake a dreadful and impious word ; 

That he was nature's lord and king of gods, 

He oared not now for Zens, how should he care ? 

Let the old dotard nod and dose aboTC. 

He rode the morning in unchecked career, 

Apparelled in his sire's regalities. 

The new Hyperion, greater than his sire ; 

YHiile the swift hooves beat music to his dream : 

And for a little while his heart was glad. 

Throbbing Olympian ichors. For an hour 

Elate, he bore an ecstasy too great 

For mortal nerve, and Imew the pride of gods." 

This passage occurs in one of the longer of the sec- 
ond series of '* Poems, Dramatic and Lyrical," hy 
Lord De Tabley. It is blank verse that will bear 
a close examination ; that needs careful scrutiny, in 
fact, to disclose all of its subtle beauty. Its affini- 
ties seem to be partly Landorian and partly Ten- 
nysonian, although it misses the severity of the 
earlier and the exquisite dreamy languor of the later 
poet. More strictly Tennysonian are these stanzas : 

** I fain would have thee at my side. 

When Spring is reaching out her hands. 
When April, like a weeping bride. 
Sails o*er the rosy ordiard lands. 

*' When May winds bathe the reedy isles. 
Where swans axe nesting with their broods, 
And sheets of sapphire pave for miles 
The floors of hyaeinthine woods." 

Elsewhere, there may be found a touch of the sweet 

paganism that Mr. Swinburne so often sang for us 

in his earlier years. Swinbumian, although with a 

passion tuned to lower and more decorous pitch, is 

" A Hymn to Aphrodite,!' from which this stanza 

comes : 

"To thee, enwreathed with passion flowers, 
Our nnrelnotant prayers are given : 
Thon art so near, when other powers 
Seem worlds away in frigid heaven : 
They know not, for they live apart. 
The craving tumult of the heart.** 

In << The Wine of Life," on the other hand, we hear 
such a grave philosophic note as Arnold so often 
gave us : 

" How idle for a spurious fame 
To roll in thom-beds of unrest ; 
VHiat matter whom the mob acclaim, 
If thou art master of thy breast ? 

** If sick thy soul with fear and doubt. 
And weary with the rabble din, — 
If thou wouldst seom the herd without. 
First make the discord ealm within. 

" If we are lords in our disdain, 

And rule our kingdoms of despair. 

As fools we shall not plough the main 

For halters made of syren's hair.** 

Tet with all these suggestions of other poets, we 
never feel that Lord De Tabley is an imitator. He 
speaks with his own voice, and we must hold either 
the Zeitgeist or the spirit of classical culture respon- 
sible for whatever similarities may be noted be- 



[Sept. 1, 

tween his work and that of his contemporaries. 
The dignity of his thought and the knowledge which 
he displays (particularly of the intimate aspects of 
nature), added to the true poetic feeling that per- 
vades his work, warrant the belief that his place at 
the Victorian banquet-board will prove a high one, 
late-comer though he be at the feast 

Mr. Lionel Johnson is one of the youngrer En- 
glish men of letters, and has heretofore been known 
by a number of delicate critical studies, mostly pub- 
lished in the English reviews. He now puts forth 
a volume of *< Poems," gleaned from the work of 
something less than ten years, and bearing much 
evidence of thoughtful workmanship. The main 
current of the thought which they embody is one 
of religious mysticism, adorned with the symbols 
of the Romanist faith. Other influences at work 
in his verse are the racial feeling of the Celt, and 
the ideals of Greek and Latin literature. An elegiac 
strain pervades the work, and may be detected in 
many of the poems besides those that are frankly 
commemorative. The blending of classical and 
Christian motive is happily illustrated in the two 
poems, << Men of Assisi " and '^ Men of Aquino,'' the 
one singing of Propertius and St. Francis, the other 
of Juvenal and St. Thomas. We quote the open- 
ing and closing stanzas of the former poem : 

" A orown of raaes and of thorns ; 
A crown of roses and of bay : 
Eaeh orown of lorelineaB adorns 
Asnsi, flrloaxning far away 
On Umbrian heights, in Umbiian day. 

" One bloomed, when Cynthia's loTer eang 
Cynthia, and rerelry, and Rome : 
And one his wounded hands did hang 
Whoee heart was lorelier Lore's dear home ; 
And his, an holier martyrdom. 

" city on the Umbrian hills : 
Asnsi, mother of sooh sons ! 
What glory of remembranoe fills 
Thine heart, whereof the legend runs : 
These are among my vanitked fOfu." 

The purely elegiac strain may be illustrated by the 
lines " To a Traveller." 

" Fare thee well, strong heart I The tranquil night 
Looks oalmly on thee : and the son poors down 
His glory orer thee, O heart of might ! 
Earth gives thee perf eot rest : 
Earth, whom thy swift feet pressed : 
Earth, whom the vast stars crown." 

The religious vein of Mr. Johnson's verse, in one 
of its simpler aspects, finds beautiful expression in 
a prayer to the Virgin on behalf of a fishing hamlet 

"Mary, Star of the Sea I 
Look in this little place : 
Bless the kind fisher race, 
Mary, Star of the Sea I 

" Send harvest from the deep, 
Mary, Star of the Sea I 
Mary, Star of the Sea I 
Let not these women weep.'* 

We might illustrate another of the marked currents 
of the author's thought by the fine poem on *' The 

Classics," but prefer to take the briefer *<Sortes 
Virgilianss," a sonnet in aleosandrines. 

" Lord of the Golden Branch, Virgil I and Caaear's friend : 

Leader of pilgrim Dante 1 Yes, thing$ have their tears : 

So sighed thy song, when down sad winds pierced to thine ears 

Wandering and immemorial sorrows without end. 

And things qf death toudi hearts, that die : Tes ; bot joys hlead. 

And glories, with our little life of human fears : 

Rome reigns, and Caasar triumphs I Ah, the Golden Yean, 

The Ctolden Years return : this also the Gods send. 

" O men who have endured an heavier burden yet ! 

Hear you not happy airs, and voices augural ? 

For yon in these last days by sure foreknowledge set. 

Looms no Italian shore, bright and imperial ? 

Wounded and worn I What Virgil sang, doth God foiget ? 

Virgil, the melancholy, the majestical.'* 

Arnold is the only other poet that we know of who 
has made such beautiful use of the 9utU laorymm 

" The Virgilian cry. 
The sense of tears in mortal things." 

The masterpieces of modem literature have inspired 
some of Mr. Johnson's best verses, and notably the 
poem upon the Bronte sisters, which has the follow- 
ing close: 

''Children of fire I The Muses filled 
Hellas with shruies of gleaming stone ; 
Your wasted hands had strength to build 
Gray sanetoaries, hard-hewn, wind-blown. 

'* Over their heights, all blaonohed in storm. 
What purple fields of tempest hang ! 
In splendour stands their mountain form. 
That bom. the sombre quarry sprang. 

" Now the high gates lift up their head ; 
Now stormier music, than the blast. 
Swells over the immortal dead : 
Silent and deeping, free at last. 

" But from the tempest, and the gloom. 
The stars, the fires of God, steal forth : 
Dews fall upon your heather blo<nn, 
O royal sisters of the North I '* 

Our last citation shall be a fragment from the beau- 
tiful tribute to our own Hawthorne. 

''Hesperian soul I Well hadst thou in the West 
Thine hermitage and meditatiTC place : 
Li mild, retiring fields thou wast at rest. 
Claimed by old winds, touched with aSrial grace : 
Fields, whence old magic simples filled thy breast, 
And unforgotten fragrance balmed thy face.'* 

We have sought, in making the above quotations, 
to represent Mr. Johnson, as every poet should be 
represented, by his best work, and there is litUe 
need to state how good that work is. But it is dae 
in justice to say that much of his work is faulty, 
either in technique or in thought. There are many 
poems in which, while we are conscious of a profu- 
sion of poetical material, we must recognize that 
the material has not been properly elaborated ; the 
expression is diffuse and the thought far from clear. 
How imperfect the technique may be, a single verse 
will show. *<Well couldst thou justify severe 
thoughts then '' is a phrase which one would hardly 
suspect of being a verse, did it not occur in what is 
clearly meant for a poem. Such a verse may fairly 
justify a few severe thoughts on the part of the 
critic, however well he may wish its author. 




A deep feeling of the unity of the universe finds 
expression in ^< Homeward Songs by the Way." To 
pierce through the veik of sense, discerning the 
transcendental realities beyond ; and then to inter- 
pret these realities in half-mystical language, yet 
with all the glow of sensuous imagery, — this has 
been the essential task of the true poet whose per- 
sonality is modesUy hidden beneath the initials that 
alone acknowledge authorship of the beautiful little 
book before us. " I moved among men and places," 
so runs the preface, " and in living I learned the 
truth at last I know I am a spirit, and that I went 
forth in old time from the Self-ancestral to labours 
yet unaccomplished ; but filled ever and again with 
homesickness, I made these songs by the way." One 
is reminded over and over again of such poems as 
£merson's <' Brahma " and Mr. Swinburne's " Her- 
tha," even more, perhaps, of Vaughan's mystical 
song. ^^Dusk" is an exquisite example of this 
writer's work. 

" Dusk wraps the villase m its dim oaress ; 
Eaeh ohimney^s vapoiir, like a thin grey rod, 
Moimtiiisr aloft throngh miles of qoietnees, 
PiUan the skies of God. 


Far «p they break or seem to break their line, 
Mingling their nebnlooa oreets that bow and nod 
Under the light of those fierce stars that shine 
Out of the calm of God. 


Only in olonds and dreams I felt those souls 
In the abyss, each fire hid in its clod ; 
From which in olonds and dreams the spirit rolls 
Into the vast of God.'* 

A second note of this collection, or rather a corol- 
lary of its main thesis, is foreshadowed in the words 
already quoted : " In living I learned the truth at 
last." The ultimate harmonies of thought must 
come to the soul as the resolution of the discords of 
life. Says <' The Man to the Angel ": 

** I have wept a million tears. 
Pore and proud one, where are thine ? 
What the gain, though all thy years 
In unbroken beauty shine? 

** All your beauty cannot win 
Truth we learn in pain and sighs : 
You can never enter in 
To the Circle of the Wise." 

One more example must suffice us, and this pair of 
quatrains it shall be : 

" I heard them in their sadness say 
* The earth rebukes the thought of God ; 

We are but embers wrapped in clay 

A little nobler than the sod.' 

**' But I have touched the lips of day : 
Mother, thy rudest sod to me 
Is thrilled with fire of hidden day, 
And haunted by aU mystery." 

This is the poet's even nobler way of saying what 
Tyndall so nobly said in the Belfast address, when 
he swept away the reproach of materialism by bid- 
ding us view the material world in the new light of 
modem physical science. 


A few bluff and stirring ballads, some lyrics and 
meditative pieces in rough or unconventionid metres, 
and a few classical echoes, are the contents of Mr. 
Beesly's « BaUads and Other Verse." The work, 
as a whole, displays poetic energy rather than poetic 
art, and but a moderate degree of either quality. 
The influence of Browning is very marked, as in 

Life worth living?' Well, maybe 

Not by you, I agree, 
If the best of it yon pawn 

For a yawn," 

or in the dramatic piece, "A Woman's Last Word " : 

"Dead? Tes. I see him stark there on the bed. 

Thank God, stoneniead. 
Nor can I, as you preach to me I ought. 

Think one kind thought. 
Or say one soft word to his memory, 

Howe'er I try. 
* De MortuU ' — it is a fool who writes 

For hypocrites ; 
Better without false tear or feigned ruth 

The whole, black truth. 
God I how I always hated him, and how 

I hate him now. 
By him, I tell you, even from the first, 

My life was cursed : 
He made me traitress to dxyineet trust, 

And his hands thrust 
Away whatever nobleness I had 

And made it bad, 
Whatever sweetness took my fancy thrall 

He turned to gall, 
Whatever woke in me of steadfast will 

He stifled still. 
Whatever spark was struck of generous flame 

He quenched in shame : 
Had he but made my body loth to live 

I could forgive. 
But not the mocking thief who stained and stole 

My very soul." 

The quotation must end here, but the whole piece 
is finely conceived. 

One half of Mr. Block's new volume of verse is 
made up of a single poem — << The New World " — 
published two years ago as " £1 Nuevo Mundo," and 
then reviewed in these pages. Of the remaining con- 
tents, the most important, or at least the most am- 
bitious, are the long poems upon Groethe, Dante, 
and Plato, and '< The Friendship of the Faiths." 
The latter work, which was read at the Parliament 
of Religions in 1893, has also had previous publi- 
cation. Besides these lengthy productions, the vol- 
ume contains several carefully-finished sonnets, po- 
etical tributes to Lowell, Whitman, David Swing, 
and Alice Gary, and a few short lyrics. We hardly 
need to repeat upon this occasion the high estimate 
previously given of Mr. Block's work, of its opulent 
vocabulary, its dignity, its high seriousness, and, in 
the longrer poems, its largeness of utterance. The 
defects of these qualities sometimes appear, indeed, 
for the vocabulary includes some words that had 
better have been spared, and the utterance, while 
laige, is sometimes also a little thick. Mr. Block 
is best when his expression is most nearly simple, 
as in the following paraphrase of certain familiar 
Goethean ideas : 



[Sept. 1» 

" He oaly wins his freedom truly, 
Who daily wins it fresh and fair ; 
He only rises erer newly 
Into the regions of the purer air 
Who falters not for hhyne nor praise. 
But lives in strennons and Tietorions days. 
Past the times that hore and held him 
Looked the gray poet with his qnenohless gase, 
Some dear vision hovered and oompelled him 
Toward the Fnture's sonnier ways. 
Over the ocean's welter westward 
Sped his hope and strengthening thought, 
Where each tenth wave rolled higher to crestward 
Even as Fate rose nobler wrought." 

This stanza from the poem on Dante is also an 
example of sincere and heartfelt expression : 

" We climbed that Mount where pain is held and sought 
As expiation of the luckless deed. 
We heard the hymns of deep contrition wrought. 
We saw the stars that glowed for each one's need ; 
We felt the mountain thrill. 
And knew some happier will 
Had found release from its long^harbored grief, 
And in the Heavens its fit and sure relief." 

Perhaps the most satisfactory thing in the whole 
volune is the Dante-suggested sonnet, ^< The Grarden 
Where There Is No Winter," which readers of The 
Dial will remember. 

A delicate spirituality is also the predominant 
note in the << Sonnets and Lyrics " of Mrs. Trask, 
whose post -Arthurian idyls (''Under King Con- 
stantino " ) we had the pleasure of praising two or 
three years ago. This fine sonnet exhibits Mrs. 
Trask's work at its best: 

" I wander in the desert of this world. 
See God's effulgenoe for a moment's spaoe 
Ou some Mount Sinai, then oome face to fate 
With altars to the Golden Calf . Thus hurled 
From holy heights, my soul in depths is whirlsd ; 
Tea, from the Blessed swiftly to the base. 
Ah I 'tis a desolate and barren place ; 
My heart is weary ; — but, behold I unfurled 
Before me floats a fleecy cloud of light, 
A roseate pillar through the toiling day. 
Illumining the desert's arid sand ; 
And, lo I a vivid guiding flame by night. 
'T is Love that goes before me on my way. 
And leads me onward to the Promised Land." 

Hie chaste and tender diction of the poems from 
which this selection comes is unfailing in its charm, 
and the beauty of the soul which can thus express 
itself is everywhere manifest. 

The « Poems " conUined in Father Tabb's mod- 
est little volume are the merest seed-pearls of song, 
so simple and unpretentious they are. Many of 
them are only quatrains, and few (the group of son- 
nets excepted) fill more than eight or ten lines. 
<< Narcissus " is a good example : 


The god enamoured never knew 
The shadow that beguUed his view. 
Nor deemed it less divinely true 
Than Life and Love. 

** And so the poet, while he wrought 
His image in the tide of thought, 
Deemed it a glimpse in darkness caught 
Of light above." 

The author is certainly an adept in the compact pre- 
sentation of detached thoughts ; his taste is well-nigh 
f anlUess, and the stamp of spirituality is upon every 
pag^ of his book. 

Some one has cynically remarked that almost 
anyone can write sonnets, but that few can read 
them. Certain it is that the writing of sonnets i» 
becoming more and more affected by the minor 
poets of England and America, and it is equaUy 
certain that many of these attempts at one of the 
most difficult of verse-forms serve mainly to illus- 
trate the well-known saying about reckless fools and 
timorous angels. The << Distaff and Spindle" of 
Mrs. Mary Ashley Townsend, for example, is a vol- 
ume containing nothing but sonnets — sixty-nine of 
them ; and, while her verse displays much poetie 
sensibility and fineness of perception, it should have 
been cast in any mould other than that of the son- 
net. We do not now speak of such technical im- 
perfections as the scant verse << Odorous invisibil- 
ity," or of such lapses from poetic diction as *^ The 
phonograph, that marvel of our age," but rather of 
the fact that these pieces, far from being <^ moments' 
monuments," are nothing more than so many short 
didactic and discursive poems, among which one 
would seek in vain for other than accidental illus- 
trations of the fundamental principles of sonnet- 
structure. The example which we are about to 
quote comes far nearer than most of the poems to 
what a sonnet ought to be, and is chosen because it 
is always our wish, in these reviews of current verse, 
to represent a writer by the best that he has to 
give us. 

" Gome forth. Beloved I the hour has grown so still 
That I ean almost hear the violets blow. 
And hear the sap stir in the palms below 
The lawn, and, listening, seem to hear that thrill 
The lily feels when, bending down to fill 
From urns of dusk her petals with the slow 
Sweet-odored dews that out of darkness grow, 
One ardent star oomes trysting o'er the hUl ! 
I believe that I oould hear if even a thought. 
Or yearning glanoe, of thine this way should pass, 
C^ if thy white soul beokoned me apart ; 
Love has a sense so delioately wrought 
That it oould hear thy shadow cross the grass. 
Or thy ohill nlenee drifting toward my heart I " 

We would say of this volume, in conclusion, that it 
would have been the gainer had the effort expended 
in searching for strange expressions and verbal 
effects been directed to the more important tasks 
of polishing the rhythm, illuminating the structure, 
and reducing by one the number of rhymes that the- 
author has idlowed herself in her sestets. 

What we have just said of Mrs. Townsend's son- 
nets applies also in considerable measure to those — 
fifty or sixty in number — ^in Mr. Nesmith's volume. 
Yet in this case the poetic energy is so marked, the 
stuff so various and well-fitted for treatment, and 
the thought so compact, that the failings of the 
poems considered strictiy as sonnets become less 
apparent. Mr. Nesmith has studied good models 
— Rossetti, Wordsworth, Milton — and echoes from 




them all at times strike the ear. What, for exam- 
ple, can be more Boesettian than this : 

" Wlukt drear enosmpment of eneuQliiigr glooms, 
Or riok BiiTmiM of calminatiiig fate, 
Can bid To-day put off ber eddying plames. 
Her orb, her omamenta, and purpled state " ? 

A certain austerity of feeling also not infreqaently 
suggests Matthew Arnold or E. R. Sill, with the 
latter of whom the author seems to have no slight 
degree of spiritual kinship. One of the best of the 
sonnets is ^' Subtle Spring ": 

** What subtle tonch upon what secret string, 
What naked bleakness of wind-withered bowers. 
What frozen barrenness of wintry honrs. 
What siok sormise, forlorn imagining, 
Makes sad the hanntiiig melody of Spring ; 
Her songs, her pomp, her rerdnre and her blooms, 
Her friends, her coronals, and eddying plumes, — 
While all the ehembs of the morning sing ? 
Subtle as Sphinx is she, too subtly wise 
To dull the sonl with undisturbed content ; 
But with suggestions sad and subtly blent. 
She weaves in her enchanting mystery 
Musings and thoughts that touch eternity, — 
The songs of April and the breath of sighs." 

The spirit thus described is very different from the 
riotous Spring invoked by Mr. Charles Leonard 
Moore's magnificent sonnet, but it represents with 
no less fidelity its own temperamental point of view. 
It will be noticed from the quotations above made 
that Mr. Nesmith takes all sorts of liberties with 
the form of the sonnet, that if a phrase pleases his 
fancy he does not hesitate to use it more than once, 
and that he is not careful to avoid pressing a word 
too often into service in the same context. Five 
poems which are not sonnets are included in the 
volume, and one of them, <^ Philoctetes at Lemnos," 
gives it a title. We are less impressed by this frag- 
mentary imitation of Greek tragedy than by the 
fine " Hymn of Nature " that follows — a poem of 
unusual imaginative power and felicity of phrase. 
On the whole, although the present volume hardly 
exhibits an advance upon the *< Monadnoc " of six 
years ago, it sustains the note sounded by that note- 
worthy volume, and we are glad to repeat some- 
thing of the praise then bestowed by us upon the 
author in these pages. 

A copy of verses left among the manuscripts of 
the late Frank BoUes has just been published, and 
reveals that lover of nature in a new light. It is 
called ^^ Ghoooma's Tenants,*' and deseribes the say* 
ings and doings of a dozen or more of the birds of 
New England. It cannot be said that the author 
had the poetical gift in any marked degree, and 
these verses, in the trochaic metre of ^ Hiawatha," 
may be praised, not as verses, but simply as a new 
illustration of the author's fine and sympathetic 
quality of observation, of his intimate feeling for 
the message of nature — of birds, and flowers, and 
ragged mountain fastnesses. One example is as 
good as another for our present purpose of illustra- 
tion, and hence, opening the book idmost at random, 
we pluck from its pages these lines : 

** Midway in the month of 
When beside the brook is blooming, 
Pnze and shy, the sweet linnna ; 
In the pines, among the beeches. 
On the boulders, cawing, scolding. 
All the crows in Crowlaads gather. 
Then it is the young are learning 
How to stand and beat their pinions. 
How to caw, and croak, and bluster. 
Happy days those days in June-tide ; 
Days of feasting, days of plunder." 

Not upon mountain slopes, but *' In Woods and 
Fields," are set the scenes of Miss Larned's mus- 
ings. They are pretty, tasteful lyrics, soaring to 
no heights, but tender with reflections of the beauty 
of nature in her restful moods. Let us take, for 
example, some verses written <' At Evening ": 

" Within this hushed and sacred hour 
The silence blossoms like a flower, 
And color melts unseen away, 
And leaves the nlrer and the gray ; 
So thought gires place to vague content, 
The soul of music twined and blent 
With reveries dim and pleasing throng, 
A soundless chant, a wordless song.*' 

Another thin volume, Mrs. Poole's <' A Bank of 
Violets," has natural beauty for its keynote, although 
the fancy sometimes wanders into the world of books 
and men. We cannot do better than reprint the 
opening triolet : 

** Were Poetry the sweet south breeze, 

To breathe upon my violets. 
Delight would thrill tiie neighboring trees 
Of Helicon ; and Fancy ease 

Her heart in far-heard triolets, — 
Were Poetry the sweet south breese 

To breathe upon my violets I '* 

Miss Susanna Massey's volume, " Grod's Parable 
and Other Poems," takes a wider range than the 
collection just mentioned, and finds inspiration in 
life rather than nature. Its contents include the 
long titular poem — a sort of dramatic idyl — some 
bits of French verse, a translation from the *^ Chan- 
sons de Guzla," echoes of European travel, songs, 
and sonnets. We reproduce the irregular sonnet 
called '< An Aspiration." 

" Peak piled on peak, like dim eathedral spires. 

Prick the light lace-work of the amber sky. 

On the green slopes weird, twisted shadows lie. 
Cast, dark and writhing, from the sun's fleroe fires. 
Upward we strain our gaze, the sonl aspires 

Unto those heights I Oh, but for wings to fly. 
To mount and mount with zeal that never tires — 

To burst Earth's clod and live, though we should die. 

" To reach the vast Beyond — ah, that Beyond, 
Which only once was bared to mortal eyes 

On Pisgah's mount I To knit the unseen bond. 
That twixt the Infinite and Finite lies 1 

The pent soul struggles, and the heart grows fond, 
Whilst dimmer through our tears, the dim peaks rise.*' 

It is a pity that so unpardonable a license of form 
should mar what is oUierwise an excellent sonnet. 
A lack of technical finish, we should add, is fr^ 
quently to be observed in Miss Massey's poems. 

Our final word shall be given to the sheaf of un- 
pretentious verses called " Blue and Gold." They 
are hardly more than the recreations of a few idle 



[Sept. 1, 

hoan, bat are marked by good taste and kindly 

sentiment, and are pleasant enoagh to read. Mr. 

Lord is most engaging when he sings of childhood, 

as in << Nantical Ned." 

" I rinff of a toddling mariner chap. 
With wide flowing; trousers and sailor^s cap ; 
His little warm jacket, with buttons and braid, 
Bespeaks the bold rorer to mn a blockade. 
No longer miscall him — when all has been said, 
His name is not Edward, bat Nantical Ned ; 
A wee little, £ree little, fellow is he. 
And yet he 's a regular man of the sea." 

Mr* Lord has also written some acceptable sonnets, 
one of which, on " The Sonnet " itself, would be 
deserving of much praise did its author not fall into 
the pit dug for those who have not learned to dis- 
criminate in the use of ^^ shall " and ^* will." 

William Morton Payitb. 

Bribfs ox Netw Books* 

Anwthidynf ^ ^* volume entitled '^Man and 
theoapabuuutof Woman/' Mr. Havelock Ellis, the 
man vemu wman. ^ifcor of the " Contemporary Science 
Series " (Scribner) in which the book appears, pre- 
sents data resulting from a dozen years' reading in 
sociological and anthropological literature. The au- 
thor has tried to gather and to present clearly our 
actual knowledge regarding the secondary sexual 
characters in the human species. The work is a 
timely contribution. Just at this time it is com- 
monly asserted that woman is capable of undertak- 
ing and accomplishing almost anything and every- 
thing that man can do. The idea is necessarily 
erroneous. Inherent differences due to sex are 
present in the whole of human life. Woman can 
never do man's work ; man can never do the work 
of woman. Each sex is adapted to a particular 
sphere of activity. This is not to assert that woman 
is man's inferior, either wholly or in most respects. 
But man and woman are necessarily unlike. The 
male is everywhere militant, active ; the female is 
everywhere industrial, passive. This fundamental 
distinction exists not only in humanity; it goes 
throughout the animal and vegetable series until 
one gets very far down. No number of social ex- 
periments or emancipations will ever do away with 
it. Militancy demands the harmonious combination 
of certain characteristics: industrialism demands 
an equally happy combination of other characteris- 
tics. Neither is superior, neither inferior ; for race 
perpetuation and progress, both must be present, 
and both well characterized. To study these com- 
binations of qualities is a legitimate task in science. 
In his book Mr. Ellis breaks ground in this direc- 
tion. Anatomical, physiological, psychical com- 
parisons are made. Too little definite work has 
been done by original investigators for the book to 
give much of final conclusion. But it is an excel- 
lent compilation of present knowledge, and points 
out hopeful lines for future work. Mr. Ellis him- 

self appears to conclude that women are nearer like 
children than like men ; that women are not unde- 
veloped men ; and that the child represents a higher 
degree of evolution than the adult. He appears 
also to expect a gradual approximation between the 
sexes, in which man may go further to reach the 
common ground than will woman. While not very 
fully agreeing with the author's deductions, we can 
heartily commend the book to thoughtful readers. 

That stanch Tory and amusing quid- 
^^^ nunc, Mr. G. W. Smalley, signalizes 

his return to democracy and his na- 
tive heath by reprinting in book form a number of 
his London letters to the New York << Tribune," 
under the title '< Studies of Men " ( Harper). The 
papers are all chatty and readable, and filled with 
a certain unconscious humor for which the writer is 
noted. Thackeray should have known Mr. Smalley. 
The *< Studies " are largely concerned with the no- 
bility and gentry, with whom the author seems to 
have been on almost as good terms as " Mrs. Jar- 
ley "; and the name of that eminent layer of comer- 
stones and glass of fashion, the Prince of Wales, 
crops up wiUi agreeable frequency. Literary and 
political lights are not neglected, there being some 
very good papers, in the journalistic way, on Ten- 
nyson, Professor Jowett, Mrs. Ward, Mr. Parnell, 
Mr. Balfour, and others. One of the best of them 
is '' A Visit to Prince Bismarck," reprinted from 
the << Fortnightly Review." Mr. Smalley tells a 
story of Lord Granville, then Foreign Minister, 
which he thinks very characteristic of him, and 
which we quote as very characteristic of Mr. Smal- 
ley. Lady Granville was giving a party at the 
Foreign Office, and host and hostess were receiving 
their guests on the landing of the great staircase. 
It was a notably grand idfair. Mr. Smalley was 
there, and the Prince and Princess of Wales were 
momentarily expected. At this solemn juncture 
were announced — " let us say Mr. and Mrs. Jones 
— two very humble units in the brilliant procession 
which was advancing up the staircase. In another 
country than England it would hardly be under- 
stood, but here a g^est not known to the Foreign 
Minister or his wife may easily enough pass both of 
them in the crush without recognition. Lord Gran- 
ville knew Mr. Jones, and shook hands with him. 
Mrs. Jones, with a dozen other ladies equally unre- 
marked, was passing on. The first notes of ' Grod 
Save the Queen,' proclaiming the approach of the 
royalties, were heard just Uien. Lord Granville 
heard them, but he stopped Mr. Jones, with that 
leisurely manner which he had in such perfection, 
and said : < Pray introduce me to Mrs. Jones before 
you go up.' And he found time to murmur a polite 
greeting in Mrs. Jones's ear, while the music swelled 
and the Prince and Princess drew near ; and he 
reached the hall to receive them, with an infinitesi- 
mal fraction of a second to spare." Of such small 
phenomena Mr. Smalley is the keenest of observers 
and most unctuous of chroniclers. 




A hop^M view ^'* Arthur Henry Jones is not only 
tiftk^fium tif the aathor of successfol phiys, sach as 
BngUA dnma. u The Middleman," " The Tempter," 
etc., bat he is also an agreeable writer on subjects 
pertaining to the dramatic art. His lectures and 
essays of the last ten years hare covered nearly 
every phase of the dramatic situation in England ; 
and these he has now published in a volume called 
'* The Renascence of the English Drama " (Mac- 
millan). At a time when so much is said and 
written of the hopelessness of the dramatic outlook, 
it is pleasing to find one well-informed writer tak- 
ing a cheerful view of the case. Mr. Jones pro- 
nounces the present a very critical period in the 
history of the English drama, the two most recent 
schools having perished because they failed to fur- 
nish any satisfaction to the artistic sense, and sup- 
plied only amusement. But in the last few years an 
improvement in public taste begins to be manifested ; 
audiences have become educated at least up to the 
point where they can detect artificiality and insin- 
cerity in plays. He has hopes for the foundation 
of a school of modem English drama, for a school 
of plays of serious intention, plays that implicitly 
assert the value and dignity of human life, that deal 
with its great passions and great aims, and show 
that it is full of meaning and of moment. Another 
interesting feature of the book is Mr. Jones's con- 
tention that the chief tests of a good play are " lit- 
erature and character-painting." The test of a good 
play, we are usually told, is, '^How will it act?" 
Our author grants only that this is the test of a 
popular play ; that the test of a really ffood play is, 
"Can it be read as well as acted?" Mere inge- 
nuity of situation, dramatic surprises, and complica- 
tions of a story, are at bottom worthless unless they 
illustrate and develop human character ; and every 
dramatic work of lasting value will stand the test 
as literature and as character-painting, though it 
may not stand any other test. The author has a 
great admiration for Matthew Arnold, as is ap- 
parent not only by his direct tributes occasionally, 
but by his imitations, probably unconscious, of At' 
nold's literary style. There is, in both, the same 
fondness for reiteration of a happy phrase (for ex- 
ample, the " billy-cock-hat criticism "), the same 
tendency to humor of a somewhat frisky order, the 
same tjrpe of allusions, as well as the same high 
qualities of directness, simplicity, and insight. 

The second volume of " Moods " (" a 

emdUh^ Moods.'* ^^^^^^^ Intime, wherein the Artist 

and the Author pleaseth himself ") 
is upon us before we have noticed the first. We 
hasten, therefore, with a slight remark on the sec- 
ond, in order that the third may not find us still 
among those who are unimpressed by this manifesto 
of the youth of the day. Certain things about this 
pnbliea^on will be remarked by everyone : we need 
merely note that such an aridstic publication is 
always, in a general way, a good thing, as showing 
some moyement of ideas ; t^at this particular one 

is an imitation of the *< Tellow Book "; that it is 
quite amateurish, especially in its pictures ; that the 
Jenson Press ("Makers of Unique Volumes") is 
kept rather too prominently before the reader ; and 
that it must be pleasant for the young artists of this 
country to have some city of refuge from those 
cold encouragers of youthful grenius, the " Century 
Magazine" et aZiis, Having said so much, the 
whole contents of ^* Moods " may well enough pass 
without special comment, and one or two general 
remarks on the publication will be sufficient for 
practical purposes. The first is that, while there 
are several things that one may easily acknowledge 
to be quite clever, there is nothing from cover to 
cover (in Volume Two) that absolutely compels ad- 
miration. This is a pity ; a few such things give 
sufficient reason for a publication of this kind. One 
would think that in such a movement of greneroufr- 
hearted young men and women, there would surely 
be sometiiing which would make one say, " That *8 
the real thing; that fellow has the right stuff in 
him ; there 's a lot of rubbish about it, but it 's a 
thing you have to acknowledge, whether you like it 
or not." But no such grenuine feeling has disturbed 
the mind of any reader of " Moods." There's not a 
spark of real life. The second thing to observe is 
that there is a tone of indelicacy and immodesty in 
the book which is unbecoming. We use these mild 
words, because stronger ones would seem to indicate a 
certain virility or manliness which is absent. The pub- 
lication is by no means wholly improper ; but about 
half of the young men of the day have written things 
which their mothers will be pained to read. Mr. 
Owen Wister and Mr. Walter Blackburn Harte give 
rather slight assistance in counterbalancing the child- 
ishness of the rest, but they have much to contend 
with. We have then, on the whole, a book without 
anything of commanding excellence, and with a 
great deal that really demands the contempt that 
such ventures as " Moods " are too apt to receive. 

Volume II. of a useful series of studios 
1"SJ^1J*«.,. of "PublicMenof T^ay"(Warne) 

IS a <<Life of Li Hungchang," by 
Professor Robert K. Douglas. Considering Qie ob- 
vious difficulties in the way of the biographer of a 
Chinese statesman, the author has done his work re- 
markably well, tracing intelligibly the military and 
diplomadc career of the Viceroy from his first active 
services at the time of the T'aip'ing Rebellion, down 
to the late ruffianly assault upon him in the streets 
of Shimonoseki. With many admirable qualities, 
and even a certain sense of the superiority of West- 
em nations in point of practical science and the me- 
chanical arts, Li has never been able to shake off 
the chains of the fatal conservatism which have 
bound his countrymen for ages. The evidence of his 
senses has forced upon him the unwelcome fact that 
in the appliances of industry and warfare the '^ bar- 
barians " of the West and their facile imitators in 
Japan have far outstripped his countrymen; but 
never for ao insUmt baa been shaken bis implicit 



[Sept. If 

belief in '< the ineffable wisdom of the founders of 
Chinese polity, or in the superiority of the ciyiliza- 
tion of China oyer that possessed by any other na- 
tion on the face of the earth." Neyertheless, Li 
Hungchang has rendered his country signal ser* 
vices. It is a pity that his long and heretofore rel- 
atively useful career should close with a series of 
national disasters due to his fatal inability to read 
aright the drift of Japanese policy in Korea. With 
China and Japan in accord, and Korea streng^- 
ened and developed into an effective ^^ buffer '* state, 
Russian advance to the southward would receive a 
serious check ; and it is plainly the Russian Drang 
naeh SUden that furnishes the key to Japan's ac- 
tivity in the ^< Hermit State." Heinrich Heine once 
predicted that the time would come when all Eu- 
rope would <* smell of Russian leather." The spirit 
of the prediction, or the thought that inspired it, has 
long pervaded the diplomacy of the Orient ; and 
that so astute a man as Li, filled moreover with a 
wholesome dread of the *< grasping policy of Rus- 
sia," should have failed to join hands with Japan 
in the Korean matter, is surprising enough. The 
volume contains portraits of Li Hungchang and of 
Yice-Admiral Ito. 

Dr. 6. F. Browne's ^ Off the MiU " 
j/;:!!r:^. (Macmman) is chiefly made up of 

papers on Alpine subjects, which first 
appeared some thirty years ago in various periodicals. 
These productions will be of some interest to the 
present generation of Alpine climbers as reflecting 
the conditions that faced the amateur mountaineer 
before Einspdnners and the like valetudinary helps 
had made the ascent of Mont Blanc comparatively 
a rather commonplace, not to say cockney, affair. 
Your genuine mountaineer nowadays, men like 
Messrs. Conway and Whymper, are content with 
nothing short of the Andes and the Himalayas. Dr. 
Browne's Alpine sketches, we learn, were orig^inally 
printed with illustrations, *< the earliest, or almost 
the earliest, of Mr. Du Manner's work "; and these 
ehefs-d^ceuvre have, we regret to say, been omitted 
from the reprint on the singular plea that ^Hhe 
g^at change which has taken place in the ladies' 
dress would cause the illustrations to seem unreal.^* 
The creator of *^ Trilby " is not just the man, per- 
haps, to do justice to tiie Alps ; but we should very 
much like to see what he would make of them. 
Other papers in the volume are : ^' A Night with a 
Salmon," «*The Engadine," <' Collecting Ancestors," 
*^ Arehnolog^cal Frauds in Palestine " (a very good 
one), *^ Pontresina," etc. 

the early novel. 

Professor F. M. Warren's *' History 
of the Novel Previous to the Seven- 
teenth Century " (Holt) is a useful 
contribution to literary history, although it is a 
somewhat discursive production, and not as well 
written as it ought to be. The idea of the book was 
suggested by KOrting's "History of the French 

NoY^ in the Sey^oteentb Ceotury," and the method 

of study derived from Rohde's ^^ History of the 
Greek Novel." After an introductory chapter, which 
aims chiefly at distinguishing between the terms 
" story," ^< romance," and " novel," the author dis- 
cusses in successive chapters the Greek novel, the 
romance of chivalry, the Italian and Spanish pas- 
toral, and the Spanish picaresqtte noveL Lengthy 
analyses are given of such works as the " Amadis 
of Gaul," the " Palmerin of England," the '' Ar- 
cadia " of Sannazaro, the ^ Diana " of Montemayor, 
and the " Lazarillo de Tormes." The author de- 
serves much credit for the patience with which he 
has read and summarized these wearisome produc- 
tions, and for the measure of success with which he 
has traced the ancestry of the typical forms of mod- 
ern fiction. For a large part of the ground covered 
by this work, we had, previous to its appearance, 
nothing better than Dunlop in English ; and Dun- 
lop, viewed in the light of modern criticism, leaves 
much to be desired. 

swinge from ^wo volumes of "Readings from 
old English the Old English Dramatists" (Lee 

dramauets, ^ Shepard) have been compiled by 

Mrs. Erving Winslow, the selections being con- 
nected and introduced by some discussion of the 
successive dramatic periods thus represented. Be- 
grinning with a chapter called *' Miracle to Masque," 
the subject is carried through the " Comedy of the 
Eighteenth Century." The compiler has shown 
much skill and taste, together with occasional orig- 
inality. The chapter on '* Minor Elizabethan Dram- 
atists " is noteworthy because it is an appreciative 
tribute to a class of men that commonly have scant 
justice done them. The readings here are from 
Ben Jonson's *< Every Man in his Humour," from 
Dekker's <* Shoemaker's Holiday," and Heywood's 
<< A Woman Killed with Kindness." Spelling of 
the first appearance on the stage of women actors, 
in place of the boys who had previously played the 
women's parts, the author makes this striking ob- 
servation : '< Here is a mystery, — with all the ad- 
vantages offered to the modem dramatist by the 
greatest actresses, it is but rarely that he moulds 
a perfect woman for the stage ; while the ancient 
poets were inspired by these beardless youths to 
some of their most delicate productions, and sex 
seems never to have been forgotten." 


We take pleasure in calling attention to the excep- 
tionally neat and well-edited German texts that have 
recently been published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 
They include Schiller's ** Jungfran von Orleans," edited 
by Mr. A. B. Nichols; Scheffel's «Trompeter von Sfik- 
kingen," edited by Miss Mary A. Frost; a volume of 
** German Prose and Poetry for Early Reading," edited 
by Mr. T. B. Bronson; and a selection of << Deutsche 
Gedichte,** edited by Dr. Camillo von Klenze. Mr. 
Bronson's volume includes Hauff's «E[arawane" and 
many shorter pieces; Dr. von Klen^e's book is devoted 




to ** ehanusteristio Grerman literary ballads and lyrics 
since the dawn of the classical period/' 

Professor B. A. Hinsdale's work on « The American 
Grovemmenty National and State " (Werner) was first 
published four years ago, and now reappears in a re- 
vised edition, printed entirely from new plates, and 
embodying many alterations and improvements. The 
work must be regarded as one of the best of our college 
text-books, and as an invaluable aid to teachers of the 
subject in our lower schools. Compactness, careful 
arrangement of matter, and a plain forcible style, all 
commend the book to both teacher and student. The 
treatment is throughout historical, and the State govern- 
ments get their due share of attention. 

The constant and increasing demand for Dr. Mas- 
pero's ** Manual of Egyptian Arohieology " has caused 
the publishers (Putnam) to issue a new edition << in as 
light and portable a form as possible." This new edi^ 
tion has been revised and enlarged by the author him- 
self, and made more useful than ever to the traveller in 
Egypt, or to the student at home, as a work of refer- 
ence. The text of the translation is that made by 
the late Amelia B. Edwards, subject, of eourse, to the 
modifications that have been found necessary to bring 
the work to date. There are over three hundred illus- 

The excellent new English edition of Balzac (Dent- 
Macmillan), the initial volume of which was noticed in 
our last issue, has been extended by two more volumes 
— « The Chouans," translated by Miss Ellen Marriage, 
and « At the Sign of the Cat and Racket," translated 
by Miss Clara Bell, and supplied with a preface by Mr. 
George Saintsbury. The new edition of Defoe, edited 
by Mr. George A^ Aitken and illustrated by Mr. J. B. 
Yeats, and bearing also the Dent-Macmillan imprint, 
reaches its ninth volume in « A Journal of the Plague 
Year." It is a pleasure to commend such beautiful 
books as are contained in both these sets. 

Mr. A. P. Gage's << Elements of Physics " has been 
for the past dozen years the best American book of its 
kind accessible for high school use. It is now supple- 
mented (we can hardly say replaced) by the more com- 
prehensive and up-to-date << Principles of Physics" 
(Ginn), which exemplifies the same admirable methods 
of presentation as the earlier work, and offers material 
enough for both high school and college courses. It is 
a book of between six and seven hundred pages, with 
all sorts of helpful illustrations in abundance. 

liiTERARY Notes. 

<< A Pair of Blue Eyes " has just been added by 
Messrs. Harper & Brothers to their handsome library 
edition of the novels of Mr. Thomas Hardy. 

The Dent-Lippincott imprint is borne by the title- 
page of a new and revised edition of Mrs. Alfred Bald- 
win's « The Story of a Marriage." 

A pleasant surprise for the Fall Season is announced 
by Messrs. Honghton, MifBin & Co. — a new volume of 
poems by Lowell, with a new portrait as frontispiece. 

Notwithstanding the almost innumerable editions of 
De Amicis' ** Cuore," a new one, illustrated, is nearly 
ready for publication by Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. 

The International Literary and Artistic Association 
will hold its seventeenth congress at Dresden from Sep- 

tember 21 to 28, under the patronage of the King of 

Mrs. Humphry Ward's new novel, ** Sir George Tres- 
sady," upon which she has been at work for the past 
two years, will appear as a serial in ** The Century," 
beginning with November. 

The first story by Michael Field to appear in an 
American periodical is begun in the September ** AUan- 
tic " with the title of « Tiger Lilies." Is not this, by 
the way, the title of Sidney Lanier's earliest novel ? 

A new edition of Shakespeare's plays, intended espe- 
cially for high school and college classes, will be begun 
at once by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. There are sev- 
eral editors, and the text is based on that of the Globe 

It is reported, from London, that Li Hung Chang, 
the Chinese Viceroy, desires to spend next winter in the 
United States. A book of ** impressions " by him dur- 
ing his sojourn here would be an interesting literary 

The ** Literary World " of Boston has changed editors, 
Mr. N. P. Gilman retiring to become a professor of 
sociology in the Meadville Theological School, and the 
Rev. Edward Abbott, who was editor of the paper for 
abont twelve years previous to 1889, resuming his old 

The committee of the Incorporated Society of Au- 
thors (London) have adopted a resolution conveying to 
Mr. G. H. Putnam ** their recognition and appreciation 
of the services he has rendered to the cause of interna- 
tional copyright, in conjunction with Mr. R. Under- 
wood Johnson and the American committee." 

The recent death of the artist Hovenden, in Phihu- 
delphia, has inspired a movement, on the part of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, for a memorial 
exhibition of his works, together with those of two other 
Philadelphia artists also lately deceased, P. F. Roth- 
ermel and I. L. Williams. The Academy would be glad 
to hear from owners of pictures by these artists, as it 
is desired to make the exhibit a full and representative 
one. The address is Philadelphia. 

The following monographs have just appeared in the 
" Science Series " of the " Bulletin of the University of 
Wisconsin": ''On the Quartz Keratophyre and Asso- 
ciated Rocks of the North Range of the Baraboo Bluffs," 
by Mr. Samuel Weidman; « Studies in Spherical and 
Practical Astronomy," by Mr. George C. Comstook; 
« A Contribution to the Mineralogy of Wisconsin," by 
Mr. W. H. Hobbs; and "An Experimental Study of 
Field Methods Which Will Insure to Stadia Measuro- 
ments Greater Accuracy," by Mr. Leonard S. Smith. 

A gap is left in the ranks of the publishing fraternity 
of America by the death of H. O. Houghton, head of 
the house of Houghton, Mifflin & Co., which occurred 
suddenly at his home in North Andover, Mass., August 
25, at the age of seventy years. Mr. Houghton began 
life as a printer, and after building up one of the fore- 
most printing houses of America, the '* Riverside Press," 
he entered &e publishing field as a member of the firm 
of Hurd & Houghton. A few years later he acquired an 
interest, with J. R. Osgood, in the firm which succeeded 
the historic houses of Ticknor & Fields, and Fields, Os- 
good & Co., and which afterwards, on Mr. Osgood's re- 
tirement, became the house of Houghtou, Mifflin & Co. 
It is a house which possesses the highest traditions and 
associations in American literature; and these were 
worthily maintained under Mr. Houghton's regime. 



[Sept. 1, 1895. 

Topics ik i^sading Fbriodicals. 

September, 1895 (Firgt List). 


Americft'i *' Cup, The, and Its ContastB. McClure. 
Arabia — Islam, and the Eastern Question. Harper, 
Child Stndy. Annie Howes Bams. Forum. 
Clay, Reoolleotions of. Madeleine McDowell. Century, 
Onbs. Lawrence Irwell. Lippincott, 
Constantinople. J. P. Mahaffy. Chautauquan, 
Country Clubs in Amerioa. E. S. Martin. Scribner, 
Cow-Pnncher, Eyolution of the. Owen Wister. Harper, 
Crabbinflr* CalTin D. Wilson. Idppineott. 
Criminal Anthropology. C. Lombroso. Forum, 
Cuba, The Freeing^ of. Clarenoe Kiag. Forum. 
Education, A Few Words about. Dial. 
Eyolution and Education. Joseph Le Conte. Educational Rev, 
Faith, The Irrepressible Nature of. John Basoom. Dial, 
Gardening, Aquatic. J. H. Connelly. Century. 
German Schools. Mrs. M. A. W. Itodger. Chautauquan, 
Ghady, Henry W. Clark Howell. Cftattfaii^iMifi. 
Hard Times, Benefits of. Edward Atkinson. J^orum. 
History, The Writiuir of. Woodrow Wilson. Century, 
Huxley, Professor. Richard H. Hutton. Forum. 
Indian Art. Edwin Lord Weeks. Harper. 
Inns around London, Notable. Nettie L. Beal. Chautauquan, 
Law, Enforcement of. Theodore Roosevelt. Forum. 
Low, Win H. Cleyeland Moffett. McClure, 
Matterhom, Climbing the. Garrett P. Serviss. McClure, 
Mental Telegraphy. Mark Twain. Harper. 
Military Park, The National. H.y. Boynton. Century. 
Mississippi Basin, The, 1097-1763. B. A. Hinsdale. Dial. 
Bfoli^re. Ellen Duyall. Lippincott. 
Poetry, Recent. William Morton Payne. Dial, 
Rural School Problem, The. Henry Sabin. Educational Rev, 
Stephen, 1^ James Fitsjames, The life of. Dial. 
Superstition, SorviTal of. Elizabeth F. Seat. Lippincott. 

liiST OF Xew Books. 

[The following list, containing S4 titles, includes books re- 
ceived by Thb Dial since its last issue.] 


The History of Greece from its Commencement to the 
Close of the Independence of the Greek Nation. By 
Adolf Hohn. In 4 vols. Vol. II., The Fifth Century, 
B. C; 12mo, gilt top, pp. 535. Macmillan A Co. $2.50. 


Dictionary of National Bioerraphy. Edited by Sidney Lee. 
Vol. XLHI., Owens— Passelewe. Large 8to, pp. 451, gilt 
top. Maimiillan A Co. $3.75. 

Spenser's Faerie Queene, Book III., Cantos I.— IV. Ed> 
ited by Thomas J. Wise, illus. by Walter Crane. 4to, 
pp. 525 to 630, uncut. Maomillan A Co. Paper, $3. 

Robert Louis Stevenson : A Study by A. B. With a Pre- 
lude and a Postlude by L. I. G. 8to, pp. 46, uncut. 
Copeland A Day. Boards, $2.60. 

The Child in the House: An Imaginary Portrait. By 
Walter Pater. 24mo, pp. 48, uncut. Copeland A Day. 
Paper, $1.50. 

The Choice of Books. Br Charles F. Richardson. 12mo, 
pp. 208. LoTcll, Coryeu A Co. 75 ots. 

Leirends of Fire Island Beach and the South Side. By 
Edward Richard Shaw. lUus., 12mo, pp. 212. LoTeli, 
Coryell A Co. 75 cts. 

Lively Plays for Live People. By Thomas Stewart Den- 
ison, author of ** An Iron Crown." 12ido, Chicago : The 

Irving's Tales of a Traveller. With Introduction by Bran- 
der ICatthews, A.M^ with Notes, etc., by George Rice 
Carpenter, A.B. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 406. Long- 
mans"' English Classics." $1. 


Robert Louis Stevenson: An Elegy. And Other Poems, 
chiefly Personal. By Ricluud Le Gallienne. 8to, pp. 36, 
uncut. Copeland A Day. Boards, $1.25. 


The Heart of LlflB. By W. H. BCallock, author of ** Is Life 

Worth LiTing?" 12mo, pp. 397. G; P. Putnam's Sons. 

Lyre and Lancet: A Story in Scenes. By F. Anstey, au- 
thor of " Vice Versft." 18mo, pp.256. Maomillan & Co. 

Queenshithe. By Henrietta G. Rowe, author of ** Re-Told 

Tales of the Hills of Maine." 16mo, pp. 184. Buifalo : 

Charles Wells Moulton. $1.25. 
Dot^- Dontoare : A Story of Uie Qarden of the Antilles. By 

Mary Farrington Foster. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 187. 

Estes A Lauriat. $1. 
When Love Is Done. By Ethel Davis, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 

301. Estes A Lauriat. $1.25. 
Mrs. Musffrave— and her Husband. By Richard Marsh. 

16mo, pp. 208. D. Appleton A Co. $1. 
The Honour of the Fla^. By W. Clark Russell. 18mo, pp. 

196. Putnam's " Autonym Library." 60 cts. 


At the Slcrn of the Oat and Backet. By H. de Balzac ; 

tians. by Clara Bell ; with preface by George Saintsbury. 

Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 277. Maomillan A Co. 

A Journal of the Plaffue Year. By Daniel Defoe ; edited 

by George A. Aiiken. Illus., 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 

308. Maomillan «fe Co. $1. 


Maomillan's Novelists' Library: Grania, by the Hon. 

Emily Lawless ; 12mo, pp. 355, 60 cts. 
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Adapted to any series of Written Arithmetics. 

THE WERNER PRIMER -(For Beginners in 
Reading:) — I ij pages, price 30 cents. 

By P. Lilian Tatlob, Prin. Training School, Galesbnrg, HI. 
This small Tolnme is based npon new and ori^;inal lines of 
thonrht and method, and will enlist immediate mterest from 
all eancators who are looking for help and guidance in teach- 
ing beginners to read. 

VERTICAL EDITION-$i. per doz. 

SLANTING EDrnON-$i. per doz. 

The copies are nnif orm in oorresponcUng Nos. of each edition. 


— 96 pages. Introduction price 30 cents. 

—112 pages. Introduction price 35 cents. 

These new and interesting Tolnmes contain mnch fresh ma- 
terial properly arranged for work in the lower grades. (Book 
III. in preparation.) 

Under the editorship of B. A. BuxfSWiiA, UniTeisity of Mich. 

SOURI- 1 75 pages, price $1. 
By J. U. Babnabd, Professor off Pedagogy, UniT. of Miss. 
This book treats tiie sabjeot in a dear, comprehenaiTe, and 
scholarly manner. A similar work is in pteparation for each 
State by competent local authorities. 


PHILADBLPHIA, 812 Chesimtt 8lnet. \ 
MINNEAPOLIS, 405 Ceniury BuUding. ) 

CHICAGO, 160-174 Adamt Streti. 

( NSW YORK, 5-7 Bast Sitl^mik Strta. 
\ BOSTON, 110-116 BopUlom Birt$L 



[Sept. W,' 


Important Autumn Announcements- 


Literary Shrines. 

The HanntB of Some Famous Amerioan Anthon. By Thko- 
DOES F. WOLFB, M.Dm Ph.D. lUoBtrated with lour 

ShotograTures. 12mo. Gnuhed bnokram extra, gilt top, 
eekle edges, $1.26 ; half oalf or half mocoooo, S3.00. 

A Literary Pilsrrimage. 

Among the Haunts of Famous BritiBh Authors. Bv Thbo- 

DORB F. Woif B, M.D., Ph.D. Illustrated with four 

photograyures. l2mo. Omahed buokram extra, gilt top, 

deckle edges, $1.25; half oalf or half moroooo, $3.00. 

Two Tolumes, in a box, $2 JIO ; half oalf or half moroooo, $6. 

Most ohanning and TaluAble boolu are thoM graphic aooounts of 

t]»e homas and hannta of the moat oelebrated American and Britiah 

men of lettera. They are the ontcome of months spent among thaae 

acenea, and, ahowfaig as they do, the Influence which their 8urround« 

inga have had upon the Tarioua authors, are Indispensable to the reader. 

The Land of the Musiceg. 

By H. SoiCBBS SoMBB0BT. With orer one hundred illustra- 
tions and maps. Crown 8to. Cloth, $4.00. 
Thia record of Mr. Somerset's expedition hito the lieart of the Hnd- 

son Bay Comnany's territory, through AIb«ta,| Athabasca, and British 

Columbia, wul be of interest to aU lorers of sport and adTentura. 

The work is prof uaely iUoatrated with over one hundred engraringa. 

Advance, Japan! 

A Nation Thoroughly in Earnest. Btr J. Mobbu, author of 

**War in Korea." With eighty-three illustrations, and 

cover, by R. Isayama, milita^ ardst of the Busen Clan, 

Southern Japan. Crown 8yo. Cbth. Illustrated, $4.50. 

Tlie object of the writer has been to illustrate, both in words and 

in picture, the habits and customs of this interesting people. The 

oommeioe, the raOwaya and telegraphs, development of miixing and 

ahip-buildhig, politics and religion, work and plav, town and country, 

are alike brought before the reader in words and uluatrattona. 

The Complete Worics of Charles Lamb. 

Edited, with notes, by Pbbot Fxtzobbald. A new edition, 
in six Tolnmes. Cloth, extra, with eighteen portraits of 
Lamb and his friends. 16mo. Cloth, $6.00 ; half oalf or 
half morocco, $13 JM). Published in connection with Gib- 
bings A Co., Limited. 

Thia new edition is very carefully edited, with copious notes by ICr. 
Fitwerald, a prominent Sngliah critic. The books are very tastefully 
printed on rough-edged papw, with specially deaigned title-pagea. 

The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe. 

In eight volumes. 12mo. Cloth. Illustrated with twenty* 
four photogr av u r es. To be puUiahed two volumes per 
month, commencing September, 1895. Suhicriptioru re- 
e^ivifoT complete $eU only, 

TbiB edition will be published in connection wltii a well-known Lon- 
don Arm, and wQl be an example of the best Tfaiglish book-making. 

Hill Caves of Yucatan. 

By Hbkbt C. Hbbobb. Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $1.50. 
13iis is a olcTer and interesting account of the Oorwith Xzpedition of 
the University of Pennsylvania in Tuoatan, for the exploration of 
human culture layera in the mountain caverns, and of proving the 
antiquity and character of the Mava dviliwtion in the peninsula. The 
work is profusely Illustrated by pnotographs of oavea and drawings of 
cavern refuse exposed in the explontiona. 

Hans Breitmann in Germany. 

ByCflABLBS GODFRBT Lbiand. 12mo. Ornamental title 
and cover, $1.25. Published in oonnection with T. Fisher 
Unwin, of London. 
Ux, Leland has been selaed with a renewal of the old inspiration ; 

hence this further instalment oi the excellent Dog>BngUah of Hana. 

The old book la a olasaic : all the new book wanta is time to become so. 

Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World. 

Bevised Edition of 1895. With Tables of Latest Census Re- 
turns. One volume. 8vo. Sheep, $12.00 ; half Turkey, 
$15.00 ; half Russia, $15.00. Two volumes. Sheep, $15.00 ; 
half Russia or half Turkey, $18.00. With Patent Index, 
75 cents additional. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that In the present edition aU the ehar- 
aoteristio exceUenoes of former issues have been retained, but In addi- 
tion to these f^M^res many Improvementa such as are neoessarv to the 
perfection of a work of reference on a progressive science, Uke the 
sdenoe of geograj^y, will be found embraced therein. It la confidently 
bdieved tort the recent revidons of the work and the many improve- 
ments now first embraced in the volume will render this issue of 1896 a 
worthy successor to preceding editions. 

From Manassas to Appomattox. 

Being the Memoiis of James Longstreet, Lt.-€kn., C. S. A. 

One volume. 8vo. By tiubecription anlp. 

General Longstreet waa the most prominent military leader In the 
ConfMerate ranks, next to General liee, with whom his relations were 
most oonfidentiaL His story of the war is consequently of great value, 
and necessarily contains much new materiaL 

Turning on the Light. 

A Dispassionate Survey of President Bucbanan^s Adminis- 
tration, from 1800 to its close. Including a Biographical 
Sketch of the Author, Eight Letters from Mr. Buchanan 
never before Published, and Numerous Miscellaneous Ar- 
tieles. By Horatio EiiKo, ex-Postmaster-General of the 
United States. Crown 8vo. Cloth, $2.00. 

Napoleon's Last Voyages. 

Being the Diaries of Admiral Sb Thomas Ussher, R. N., 
EiC.B. (on board the *' Undaunted "), and John R. Glover. 
Secretary to Rear -Admiral Cockbum (on board the 
**Nordiumber]and*'). With explanatory notes and illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. Cloth, $3.00. 

Bismarclc's Table Talk. 

Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by Chablss Lows, 
M.A., author of "Prince Bismarck: an J^torical Bio- 
graphy," etc. With portrait. 12mo. Cloth, $2.00. 
The author's previous volume bears witness to his thorough knowl- 
edge of the life and character of the greatest modem diplomat. In this 
work, however, the anttior deals with the more tnHinate aide of Bis- 
marck's character ; and his eccentricities, amndng chapters in his life, 
and witty sayinga are fully dealt with. 

The Evergreen. 

A Northern Seasonal. Part I., Spring, 1895. 4to. Full 
leather, stamped, $2.00. Part II., Autunm, 1895. 4to.Fu]l 
leather, stamped, $2.00. 

As the "Yellow Book" has been the exponent of the Decadent 
School in literature and art, so does this beautiful quarterly represent 
the new Scottldi School, which now has the latest attention of the 
public both here and abroad. The literature is moat attractive, and 
the revival of Celtic ornament and design is one of the features of 
the book. **The Bvergreen*' will be printed on rough paper, by 
Measra. Ccmstable, of Edinburgh, with colored cover, fashioned in 
leather, 1^ C. H. HacUe. The Book of Summer will appear in May, 
1896, and the Book of Winter in November, 1896. 

The American in Paris. 

By Db. Euobke C. Savzdoe, author of the " Life of Ben- 
jamin Harris Brewster." 12mo. Cloth, $1.00. 

Dr. Savidge haa made a comprehenslTe picture of the military and 
diplomatic phases of the Franco-Prussian War, including the battle of 
Sedan, the mege and Commune of Paris, and has woven them into a 
romance which throws into prominence not only the figures but the 
actual authenticated utterances of Bismark, Moltke, Wllltem, Napoleon 
IIL, Eugenie, Favre, Thiers, Oambetta, MacMahon, Basaine, Louise 
Michel, and the Americans Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and Washington. 

*«* The above books are for sale bp all Bookedlers, or will be sent postpaid, on receipt qf price, by the Publishers, 






Important Autumn Announcements 


A Colonial Wooing. 

A NoTel. By Dr. Charles Conrad Abbott, author of 
''The Bir«b About Us," ^'TraTels in a Troe-Top,'* etc. 
12mo. Cloth, $1.00. 
Much interest hu been excited In thia new yenture of Dr. Abbott's, 

by tbe ftet thut it dtronicles the doings sad adventures of some of his 

own ancestors. 

A Love Episode (Une Pag^e d' Amour). 

By Emxji Zola.. Tianalated. with a preface, by Ebnbst 
A. ViZBTKLLT, Profoaely illustrated. Crown Svo. Extra 
cloth, gilt top, $2.00. 

Fromont Junior and Risler Senior. 

By Alphonsb Daudbt. Translated by Edward Vizbtbllt, 
and iliostrated with ^hty-^ight wood-engravings from 
original drawings by Gborob Rouz. Extra cloth, gilt 
top, $2.00. 

The Novels of Tobias Smollett. 

Edited by Gborob Saintsbubt. With portrait and illus- 
trations by Frank Richards. To be completed in twelre 
16mo volumes. Subscriptions received for complete sets 
onlv. Cloth, $12.00 ; half calf , $27.00 ; half morocco, $27.00. 
A large-paper edition, limited to one hundred and fifty 
copies. Twelve volumes. Svo. Buckram, $36.00. Issued 
in connection with Gibbings A Co., Ltd. 

RoDBRiOK Random. 3 vols. Now ready, 

Pbrborxnb Picklb. 4 vols. Now ready. 

Count Fathom. 2 vols. Sm Launcblot Grxavbs. 1 vol. 

Humphrey Clinkbr. 2 vols. 

The principles of edltlns adopted in this issue of Smollett are tbe 
same aa those which tihe eoitor applied in his presentations of ITielding 
and Sterne. 

Fate at the Door. 

A New Novel of New York Societv Life. By Jbssib Van 
Zhjb Bvu>ms. 12mo. Crushed buckram, ornamental, $1 .00. 
A brUUaat novel of contemporary society in New York. 

The Black Lamb. 

By Amna Robbson Brown, author of **Alain of Halfdene," 
etc. 12mo. Cloth, ornamental, $1.25. 

The Story of a Marriage. 

Bv Mrs. Alfrbd Baldwin. Volume I. of a new illustrated 
Verias of novels. Published in connection with J. M. Dent 
& Co. Six illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

The Track of a Storm. 

ByOwBNHALL. 12mo. Qoth, $1.25. 

Althoogh this is the author's first attempt in writing a long novel, 
he has socoeeded in fashioning a story of adTenture which compares 
favorab^ with the best work of Weyman or even Pumas. 

The Secret of the Court. 

A Tale of Adventure. By Frank Frankfort Moorb, 
author of " They CaU It Love," "A Grey Eye or So," " I 
Forbid the Banns," '* Daireen," etc. 12mo. Goth. Blue- 
tiated. $1.25. 

A Spoilt Qirl. 

By Florengb Wardbn, author of **A House in the Marsh," 
etc. In LippincotVs Series of Select Novels for September. 
12mo. Paper, 50 cents ; Cloth, $1.00. 

Cousin Mona. 

A Story for Girls. By Rosa Nouohbttb Carbt, author of 
''little Miss MufTet," ''Aunt Diana," etc. Illustrated. 
12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

A Last Century Maid. 

By Annb H. Wharton, author of '* Through Colonial Door- 
ways," *' Colonial Days and Dames," etc. Quarto. Illus- 
trated. Cloth, ornamental. 

Tbe demand for ICias Wharton*s preriona works bear witness to her 
popularity as an author, and this work will show her to be as warmly 
welcomed by the young folks as she has previously been l^ their elders. 

A Wedding:, and Other Stories. 

By JuuBN Gordon, author of "A IXplomat^s Diary.*' 
" PoppsBa," etc. Tall 12mo. Buckiam, $1.00. 
A collection of the shorter works of this popular author, none of 

which haye preyiously appeared in book form. They comprise some of 

the strongest work she has d<me. 

A New Alice in the Old Wonderland. 

A Fairy Tale by A. M. Richards. Profusely Illustrated by 
Anna M. Richards, Jr. 12mo, doth, gilt top, $1.50. 
The book is full of the absurd whimsicalities made famous by Lewis 

Carroll^s masterpiece, and is as amusing for tbe old as entertaining for 

the young. 

Trooper Ross* and Si^rnal Butte. 

Two stories in one volume. By Captain Charlbs King, 
U. S. A. With illnstratioiis by Charlbs H. Stbphbns. 
Crown Svo, doth, $1.60. 

Two exciting stories for boys, from the pen of the well-known mil- 
itary writer, Captain King. 

The Young Castellan. 

A Tale of the English Civil War. A Book for Bk^s. Bv 
Gborob IfANYiLLB Fbnn, authored **■ The New Mistress," 
etc. Blustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, $1.50. 
This well-known author has shown his versatility hi a wonderfully 

interesting historical tale of adventure. 

Popular History of Animals 

For Young Pboplb. Translated from the German. With 
14 colored plates. Cloth, $3.00. 

Qlrls Together. 

By Amy E. Blanchard, author of ** Two Girls," etc. Illus- 
trated by Ida Waugh. 12mo, doth, $1.25. 
TUs book introduces the same characters as in "Two Girls" so pop- 
ular last year. 

Chumley's Post. 

A Story of the Pawnee Trail. By William O. Stoddard. 

With illustrations by Charlbs H. Stbphbns. Crown Svo, 

cloth, $1.50. 

An exciting Indian story for boys, and elder people as welL Pro- 
fusely illustrated. 

Book of Nursery Songs and Rhymes. 

By Rev. S. Baring-Gould. Blustrated. Crown Svo^ $2.00. 

Uniform with Baring-Gould's Fairy Tales. 

Rev. 8. Baring-Oould has oolieoted all the nursery thjwam extant, 
and has edited uiem with critical notes. Tlie book Is profusely illus- 
trated, and printed <a hand-made PH^r. 

Hugh Melville's Quest. 

A Boy's Adventures in the Days of the Armada. By F. M. 
HoLMBS, author of " Winning his Laurels." Blustrated by 
W. BoucHBR. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
A sea tale of adrenture. 

The Wizard King. 

A Story of the Last Modem Invasion of Europe. By David 
Kbrr, author of *' Cossack and Czar," etc. With- 6 full- 
page illustrations by W. S. Stact. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
An excitim^ book of adventure for older boys, 1^ the well-kaown au> 

thor, David &err. 

*«* The above books are for sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent postpaid, on receipt qf price, by the Publishers, 




[Sept. 16, 1895. 

Macmillan & Co/s New Publications. 

•«One of the real books of the year/'-THG OUTLOOK. 


Now Ready. The Twentieth Thousand. Mrs. Hwmphry Ward^s New Novel. 


By Mrs. Humphry Ward. Uniform with << Maroella." 1 vol., 12mo, doth, 75 oeDta. 

** Hep very he«t work."— lAfe. 

*' Ib the beet iroik Mn. Wa^l has doae."— Philadelphia Prest. 

**His. Ward's neir etory is one of the duntiest little gems I hare oome aerooB in my weekly litenttnre hunts.'* — Alak 
DxLEy in the New York World, 

NOVEL SERIES. New Fo/ume*. 
Ormond. A Tale by Mabia Exkibwobth. Dlostrated 
by Gabl Sohlobssbb. With an Introdnotion by Amrs 
Thackwrat Ritchib. 

Jacob Faithful. By Captain Marbtat. Blnstrated 
by HsvBT M. Brock. With an Introduction by David 
Haknat. Eaoh, 12mo, oloth, $1.20. 

/., No, 5. 
Mr. Isaacs. A Tale of Modem India. By F. Marion 
Crawford, author of " Saracinesoa," " Don Orsino," etc. 
12mo, paper, pp. 320, 5d cents. 

ENS'S NOVELS. New Volume. 
Qreat Expectations and Hard Times. By Charueb 
DicKBNS. With IlluBtratioiis by BIarcub Stone, F. A. 
Frabxr, and F. WAiiKSR. A reprint of the edition cor- 
rected by the author in 1869, with an Introdoodon, Bio- 
graphioal and Bibliographical, by Charles Dickens the 
X oungOTi 12mo, doth, pp. zxi.-661, $1.00. 

J., No, 6, 
The Pleasures of Life. By Sir John Lubbock. 
18mo, paper, pp. 370, 25 cents. 

ANSTEV. Lyre and Lancet. A Story in Scenes. By 
F. Anstbt, author of '' Vice Versa," " The Giant's Robe," 
'' Voces I*opuli," etc. Blostrated. 12mo, doth, pp. 256, 

Fathers and Children. A Novel. By Ivan Tur- 
OBNBV. Translated from the Russian by Conbtancb Gar- 
NBTT. 16mo, doth, pp. zxi.-3d9, $1.25. 

LASSAR-COHN. A Laboratory Manual of Or- 
ganic Chemistry. A Compendium of Laboratory Meth- 
ods for the Use of Chemists, Physicians, and Pharmacists. 
By Dr. Labsab-Cohn, Professor of Chenustry in the Uni- 
versity of Konigsburg. Translated, with the Author's 
Sanction, from the Second German Edition by AiiBXANdbr 
Sboth, B jSo., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of General Chem- 
istry in the University of Chicago. 12mo, doth, pp. xiz.- 
403, $2.25 Mt. 

LONEV. The Elements of Co-ordinate Geometry. 

By S. L. LoNBT, M.A., late Fellow of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Professor at the Royd Hdloway College. 
12mo, doth, pp. Z.-419, $1.25 net. 

CHASE. The Syro- Latin Text of the Gospels. 

By Frederic Hbnrt Crabb, D.D., Lecturer in Theology 
at Christ Church College. Prinoi^ of the Clergy Training 
School, Cambridge, ana Examinmg Chaplain to the Lord 
Archbishop oil York. 8vo, doth, pp. z.-148, $2.50 net, 

CONWAY. The Alps from End to End. By Sir 

WiLUAM Martin Conwat. With 100 Illustrations by A. 
D. McCorxick. Large demy 8vo, cloth, $7.00. 

The Herschels and Modem Astronomy. By 

AoNEB M. Clerkb, author of " A Popular History of As- 
tronomy during the Nineteentii Centunr," " The System of 
the Stars," etc. 12mo, doth, pp. vi.-2S4, $1.25. 

GRADUATE COURSES. A Handbook for Grad- 
uate Students. Lists of Advanced Courses Announoed 
by Twenty-one Colleges or Universities of the United States 
for the Year 189&-96. CompUed by an Editorid Board of 
Graduate Students. C. A. Duniwat, Harrard, editonn- 
chief . 12mo, limp, pp. 136, 25 cents net. 

WALKER. The Greater Victorian Poets. By Hugh 
Walker, M.A., Professor of English in St. David's Col- 
lege, Lampeter, author of *^ Three Centuries of Scottidi 
Literature." 8vo, doth, pp. 332, $2.50. 

Nelson. By John Knoz Lauobton. 12mo, doth limp, 
out edges, pp. viii.-240, 60 cents ; 12mo, doth limp, nnout 
edges, pp. viii.-240, 75 cants. 

FITZGERALD. Letters of Edward Fitzgerald to 
Fanny Kemble, L87 1-1883. JSdited by Wiujax 
Aldis Wright. 12mo, cloth, pp. viii.-261, $1.50. 

DORR. The Flower of Engknd's Face : Sketches 
of English Travd. By Julia C. R. Dorr, author of 
" Friar Anselmo," "Afternoon Songs," etc. 18mo, doth, 
pp. 259, 75 cents. 

A Rlngby Lass, and Other Stories. By Mart Beau- 
mont. With Illustrations by I. Wai/tbr Scott. 12mo, 
linen, pp. 221, 75 cents. 

NITTI . Catholic Socialism. By Francesco S. Nim, 
Professor of Politicd Economy at the University of Naples, 
author of ** Population and the Socid System." etc. Tnrns- 
lated from the Second Italian Edition by Mart IL^ckin- 
TOBH. With an Introduction by David G. Ritchib, BLA., 
Professor of Logic and Metad^ysics in the University of St. 
Andrews. 8to, cloth, zx.-432, $8.50. 

RANSOME. An Advanced History of En]^famd, 
from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. 

xviii.-1069, $2.25 net. 

CORNISH. Wild Ens:bind of To-day and the 
Wild Life in It. By C. J. Cornish, author of '* Life 
at the Zoo." With Illustrations from Drawings by Lan- 
celot Speed and from Photographs. 8vo, doth, pp. iz.- 
310, $3.50. 

MARSHALL. The White Kinsr's Daughter. A 

Story of the Princess Elizabeth. By Ehka Marshall, 
author of " Under Salisbury Spire," etc. 12mo, cloth, pp. 

298, $1.25. 

MACMILLAN & COMPANY, 66 Fiith Avenue, New York. 



Jottmal of Iritenng Ctftidgm, SimiMion, anb Intomatioiu 

THB DIAL (/mmdedin 2880)UpvUiihed(mtheltiand26ih<iif 
«aeA flnMUL Itaott ov BuHOsmio*, B2,00 a year in odvanM^ pottage 
pwyaW im ll< UnUad 8ialt», CamadOj and Mealeo; in ethtr eomirtBe 
■■■pHutf in the PMtal Unten^ 60 eeni* a fear /er extra pettage wnuM 
be added, Unlett ethenvUe ordered, tubeeriptiont wiU begin with the 
eurreni wumber. BMrnatAacm ihould be by eheds, or by eaqpreti or 
potlal order, pagaNe to THS DIAL, SnoAL Ra» to Clum and 
for iobeoripttont vHk other piMieathne teiU be tent on appUoaHon; 
endBAmoMeononreeeiptilflOoents. A ii f miiuw lUsm /k raieked 
en appHedtton. AU oommanioaHont ^oald be addreeeed to 

TBS DIAL, 325 Wabash Ave,, CMoago, 

No, ttt. SEPTEMBER 16, 1895. Vol. XIX. 




land 136 


Lmgnago and Ltter»tiire in Japan. JSmest W. 

A FINANCIER OF FRANCE. D. X. Shoreg ... 138 


OF SPECIES. David 8. Jordan 140 


Edward E. HaU, Jr 141 

SEVEN BOOKS OF TRAVEL. Hiram M. Stanley . 143 
Swettenham'a Malay Sketohea. — Jackson's The 
Great Frozen Land. — Bfiaa Hapgood'a Rnauan Ram- 
bles.— Bigelow^s The Borderland of Czar and Kaiser. 
—Parkin's The Great Dominion.— field's Our West- 
em Arohipelago.— Stanley's My Early Trayels and 
Adventores in Ametioa and Asia. 


A sennble book abont Amerioa, by a Frenchwoman. 
— The remarkable life-story of a Russian woman. — 
Questionable editing of Poe.— Far West sketches by 
Mr. Remington. — Safe adTioe about books and read- 
ing. — Spedmens of the humor of Russia. 





If we may judge from the announoementfr 
of new books made by the publishers for the 
season just opening, the trade of the bookman 
is anticipating its full share in the revival of 
prosperity that seems to be close at hand, if it 
has not already begun. Following our usual 
custom, we print in this mid-September issue 
of The Dial a classified list of the announce- 
ments already made by American publishers, 
and, although there are doubtless many more 
to come during the next few weeks, the list as- 
it now stands is considerably more extensive 
than any that we have previously had occasion 
to present. The object of the present article 
is to single out from the multitude of books 
already definitely promised a few of those that 
are likely to attract the most widespread atten- 
tion and find greatest favor with book-lovers. 

The most important work of the year, at 
least from the strictly literary point of view,, 
will be the long-deferred collection of Matthew 
Arnold's letters, edited by Mr. George Russell. 
Nothing promised us of late years has been sa 
impatiendy awaited as this collection, and we 
haU with delight the prospect of its early ap* 
pearance. In the same category come three 
other collections of letters, all soon to be pub- 
lished : the '' Vailima " letters of Robert Louis 
Stevenson, the letters of Edward FitzGerald 
to Fanny Kemble, and the ^^ Family Letters "^ 
of Dante Rossetti, edited by his brother, Mr. 
W. M. Rossetti. Here, indeed, are four books 
that will be read with avidity by all lovers of 
literature. Literature and literary history are 
also to be represented by ^' Anima PoetsB,'' a 
series of hitherto unpublished passages from 
the note-books of Coleridge; ^^An Introduc- 
tory to the Study of Literary Criticism," by 
Professor C. M. Gayley ; a work on ^^ Modem 
German Literature," by Dr. B. W. Wells ; 
^^ Books and Their Makers during the Middle 
Ages," by Mr. Greorge Haven Putnam ; ^^ The 
Literary History of the American Revolution,"' 
by Professor Moses Coit Tyler ; a volume of 
^^ Miscellaneous Studies," by Walter Pater ; and 
the long-promised ^' Victorian Anthology " of 
Mr. Stedman, a work which will, we doubt not^ 
surpass in taste, judgment, and knowledge all 



[Sept. 16, 

previous attempts to represent by a series of se- 
lections English poetry of the last half -century. 

Of new literature, in the narrower sense, it 
seems that we shall have our full share. Vol- 
umes of poetry by Thoreau, Mrs. Stoddard, 
Mr. Frederick Tennyson, James Russell Low- 
ell, Mr. Francis Thompson, Mr. William Dean 
Howells, Christina Rossetti, and Mrs. Marriott 
Watson, are a few of the many gifts to be 
brought us from the kingdom of song. We 
suppose that ^^ The Wood beyond the World," 
by Mr. William Morris, must be described as 
fiction, although it is sure to have more of the 
characteristics of poetry than many a volume 
of rhymed and rhythmical utterance. A few 
titles of forthcoming novels are the following : 
'' The Stark Munro Letters," by Dr. A. Conan 
Doyle ; <^ Clarence " and <^ In a Hollow of the 
Hills," both by Mr. Bret Harte ; " The Mys- 
tery of Witch-Face Mountain," by Miss Mary 
N. Murfree ; <^A Gentleman Vagabond," by 
Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith; ^^The Amazing 
Marriage," by Mr. George Meredith ; <' The 
Second Jungle Book," by Mr. Rudyard Kip- 
ling ; ^* Joan Haste," by Mr. H. Rider Hag- 
gard ; " Casa Braccio," by Mr. F. M. Craw- 
ford ; « The Red Cockade,"^' by Mr. Stanley J. 
Weyman ; " The Day of Their Wedding," by 
Mr. W. D. Howells ; « His Father's Son," by 
Professor Brander Matthews ; and '^A Three- 
Stranded Yam," by Mr. W. Clark Russell. 

Among biographical works, the most inter- 
esting to Americans will be the memoir of Fran- 
cis Parkman, by Mr. C. H. Famham; the 
*^ Recollections of Abraham Lincoln," by Mr. 
Ward H. Lamon ; and the story of Townsend 
Harris, our first envoy to Japan, by Dr. W. E. 
Griffis. A " Life of Gustave Flaubert," by Mr. 
J. C. Tarver, is an extremely interesting an- 
nouncement, and hardly less interesting are the 
promised life of Hans Christian Andersen, by 
Mr. R. Nisbet Bain ; of W. H. Seward (in the 
^' American Statesmen " series), by Mr. T. K. 
Lothrop ; of Agassiz, by M. Jules Maroou ; of 
Cardinal Manning, by Mr. E. S. Purcell ; and 
of Cardinal Wiseman, by Mr. Wilfred Ward. 
Mr. F. Marion Crawford's book on ^' Constan- 
tinople " is sure to be among the most popular 
works of travel and description published dur- 
ing the year, and many readers will also be 
found for ^< Advance, Japan ! " by Mr. J. Mor- 
ris; and for the first volume of Mr. A. H. 
Keane's great work on Africa. One of the most 
ambitious of recent undertakings in the liter- 
ature of art is the great ^^ Cyclopedia of Art 
and Architecture in Italy, Greece, and the Le- 

vant," edited by Mr. W. P. P. Longfellow. 
Other important art-works are Sig. Cattaneo's 
^' Architecture in Italy from the Sixth to the 
Eleventh Century "; " Lectures on Art," by 
Mr. John La Farge ; and ^' The Art of Velas- 
quez," by Mr. R. A. M. Stevenson. Art the- 
ory and criticism will be exemplified by Mr. 
George L. Raymond's ^' Painting, Sculpture, 
and Architecture as Representative Arts," Mr. 
Frank P. Stearns's '^ The Midsummer of Italian 
Art," and three essays, published in separate 
illustrated volumes, by the late P. G. Hamerton. 
In the department of political and social science 
we may mention Dr. Albert Shaw's '* Munici- 
pal Government in Continental Europe," ^^ The 
Principles of Sociology," by Professor F. H. 
Giddings; '< Lectures on Political Science" 
and *' The Growth of British Policy," both by 
the late Sir John Seeley; ^'The Science of 
Finance," by Professor Henry C. Adams; 
" Money and Banking," by Mr. Horace White ; 
and a work on '^ The Poor of Grreat Cities," 
by various hands. In religious history, the 
most important announcements seem to be the 
lectures of Professor Rhys-Davids on '^ Bud- 
dhism," and the popular papers of Professor 
C. H. Comill on " The Prophets of Israel." 
Finally, we may include in this category of the 
works of serious scholarship the promised 
translation, from the Greek of Dr. Crestos 
Tsountas, of his great work on <^ The Mycen- 
aean Civilization," Professor J. P. Mahaffy's 
" History of the Ptolemies," and volumes by 
the late E. A. Freeman upon Western Europe 
in the fifth and eighth centuries. 

Three classes of books yet remain to be 
scanned — the special holiday publications, the 
continuation of works already in part before the 
public, and the reprints of stanoUtrd literature. 
In the first of these classes, the announcements 
now made cover but a small proportion of what 
may be expected as the Christmas season draws 
near. We may mention here the holiday edi- 
tions of Mr. Dobson's poems, of Reade's 
'' Christie Johnstone," of Spenser's ^^ Epithala- 
mium," of " Rip Van Winkle " (by Mr. Joseph 
Jefferson, illustrated by the author!), of Mr. 
Timothy Cole's engravings from the Dutch and 
Flemish master, of Scott's '' The Betrothed " 
and " The Talisman " (edited by Mr. Lang), 
of a collection of " Victorian Songs " (edited 
by Mr. Edmund Garrett), of White's " Sel- 
borne " (edited by Mr. John Burroughs), of 
^' The Manxman," and of Mrs. Jane G. Aus- 
tin's " Standish of Standish." A prominent 
place in this holiday group must also be given 




to Mr. Edwin A. Grosvecor's great illustrated 
work on " Constantinople," which, with Mr. 
Crawford's less pretentious volume, will enable 
us to visit the Golden Horn without leaving 
the library fireside. The important works of 
which publication is to be continued or com- 
pleted during the year form a considerable list 
of their own. Mr. Henry M. Baird's ^^ The 
Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes " will serve to remind us that we still 
have in our midst a historian not unworthy to 
succeed Prescott and Motley. We are to have 
the third volume of M. Leroy-Beaulieu's ^' Em- 
pire of the Tsars and the Russians," the fourth 
volume of Mr. Traill's " Social England," the 
fifth (and last) volume of Kenan's ^^ History 
of the People of Israel," the third volume of 
the ^^ Life and Correspondence of Kuf us King," 
the sixth volume of tiie *^ Writings and Corre- 
spondence of Thomas Jefferson," the fourth vol- 
ume (" Gustavus Adolphus ") of Colonel T. 
A. Dodge's " Great Captains," the third vol- 
ume of Professor Charles S. Sargent's great 
work on " The Silva of North America," and 
the second volume of each of the three follow- 
ing works : — " Darwin and after Darwin," by 
George J. Romanes ; ^^ A Natural History of 
Plant8,"by Professor Kemer von Marilaun ; and 
^* A Literary History of the English People," 
by Mr. J. J. Jusserand. As for the promised 
reprints, they are legion ; and, as they usually 
mean handier or more tasteful editions than we 
have had before, even if they do not incorpor- 
ate new material, they are cordially welcome. 
What could be more satisfactory, for example, 
than a complete Browning, in a single volume ? 
And that is just what is promised us, by a house 
whose name is a guarantee that we shall not 
be disappointed in the mechanical features of 
the book. A complete one -volume Holmes 
(that is, the poetry) is promised us by the same 
house. A five-volume edition of Mrs. Jame- 
son's works on art will supply an obvious want, 
for these books hold their own, although recent 
scholarship has left them less adequate than 
they once were. The new Poe, edited by Mr. 
Stedman and Professor Woodberry, will be on 
the market complete at a very early date. As 
for new editions of Stevenson, they are so nu- 
merous that we have not space even to name 
them all. In old-fashioned fiction, we shall 
have an eight-volume edition of Gait's novels, 
and doubtless many other reprints of like char- 
acter. During the coming months, of course, 
the works above mentioned, together with many 
others, will receive characterization and criti- 

cal treatment, at the hands of the most compe- 
tent American authorities, in the pages of T^E 
Dial ; and it shall be our constant endeavor, 
as it has been for the past fifteen years, to pro- 
vide the prospective buyer and reader of the 
new books with impartial and trustworthy guid- 
ance in his selection of the volumes that he 
may wish to add to his shelves. 


For a considerable part of the present century, 
Denmark was the country of Romanticism. There 
are those who would say that such is still the case., 
Names from that period could be mentioned which, 
if known, would shine among the world's best ; but 
it was their fate to write in a language familiar to 
but a small fraction of the European population. 
After the war of 1864, the disrupted and discour- 
aged country was most concerned with healing its 
own wounds. The patriotism which has always 
distinguished the Danish nation naturally favored, 
after such disappointment, an absorption in the past 
which had somewhat the character of an after* 
growth of Romanticism. The predilection for sub- 
jects of historical and legendary character, with a 
deep feeling for their value because they were na- 
tional and Danish, and the enthusiasm for the peas- 
ant character, with its simple unaffected ways, as 
the core and centre of a national regeneration, have 
left a deep impression on the literature and life of 
th^s period. 

The great change, however, which institutions and 
ideas underwent ^1 over Europe after the Franco- 
German war, together with the establishment of the 
German Empire, has given rise in Denmark to a 
school of distinctly modem writers. The hegemony 
of the German Empire on the continent made clear 
to intelligent patriots the utter hopelessness of any 
dreams of restitution of that part of the conquered 
provinces which the Danes claimed as theirs in ac- 
cordance with the sentiment of nationality. When 
the thought of revenge was recognized to be vain, 
the greater part of the population decided to accept 
the situation as it was, and to make the most of it* 
from a standpoint of absolute neutrality ; to content 
themselves with peaceful efforts in the arenas of 
science, literature, and art, as well as in commer- 
cial enterprise and progress. In such conditions 
the modem literary school has firmly established 
itself, and has gained possession of the Parnassus 
of Danish literature. The present enze for military 
equipment, which ruins the Danbh treasury and im- 
perils its future, brought about as it is by a power* 
f ul but unpopular faction which has the sympathy 
of the crown, but has for years governed against the 
expressed will of the nation at large, is viewed with 
no Uttle grief and indignation by all sensible peo- 



[Sept. 16, 

pie. The actual if not recognized leader of this 
opposition party has heen, and is, Herr Georg 
Brandos, renowned not less for his eminence as a 
writer and critic than for his wonderful versatility 
and troly cosmopolitan interests. The remark of 
M. Zola, that Denmark seemed like a small animal 
with hig feelers stretched toward the general cur- 
rent of European life to find out what was going 
on, is no inadequate simile. And the one who really 
estahlished such a communication hetween the life 
in the great centres of culture outside and the intel- 
lectual circles of his own fatherland, is undoubtedly 
Herr Brandos. Such a thing is usually undertaken 
for private benefit only ; but Herr Brandos has had 
greater and wider aims than personal pleasure or 
fame. Always ready to accept and utilize new 
impulses, never corrupted or crushed in the service 
of the ideas he has advocated through more than a 
generation, Herr Brandos seems imbued with the 
inexhaustible energy of the wonderful Semitic race 
to which he belongs. It is, moreover, a character- 
istic feature of his activity that hardly anything he 
writes or says fails to arouse antagonism among 
his countrymen, and to call out an assault upon his 
veracity, knowledge, understanding, judgment, and 
what not. This in turn rouses his friends and fol- 
lowers to rush to his defence. Thus, amidst the 
dead calm of a government of the utmost reaction* 
ary and absolute tendencies, the spiritual atmos- 
phere at least is frequently renewed, and a steady cur- 
rent of controversy, with an occasional whirlwind, 
keeps things on the move and prevents stagnation. 

It is no wonder that a writer with such idetil aims 
and of so firm a fibre should become the creator 
and chief supporter of a new school of thought and 
culture. That this school has, as its programme, 
sympathy with all modem literature, is only a 
necessary consequence. The aim of this school, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, has been to combat the 
supposition, sometimes expressed, that Denmark in 
its reduced circumstances has played out its part in 
the world's drama, and is on the point of losing its 
individuality, its character, and ite rank among na- 
tions. This aim has been so successfully main- 
tained, that Danish art and literature at least stand 
worthily side by side with the strivings and achieve- 
ments of the general spiritual life of Europe. 

Among the host of younger and older authors of 
this new phalanx, the poet and painter Holger 
Drachmann is indisputably the most gifted, and at 
present — we are glad to say — the most popular. 
He is a painter of no small ability, and a writer of 
much force and originality in his various novels ; 
but by far the greatest manifestation of his genius 
and power is shown in his lyrical poetry, which 
unites a sing^ar freshness of feeling with exquisite 
melody and perfection of form. 

It has been said that Herr Drachmann became 
a painter from love of the sea ; but when he saw 
that his pictures were dumb — that they lacked the 
roar of the gale, the ripple of the waves, the sigh 
of the water on the shore, — ^he began to paint with 

words, and in rhythms. In Herr Drachmann's 
work, the love of the sea is the predominant chord, 
whether he writes songs, novels, or plays, — for he 
has many strings in his lyre. In this respect one 
might think there existed some resemblance between 
Herr Drachmann and Mr. Swinburne. But this is 
not so ; the Greek character so prevalent in Mr. 
Swinburne's poetry is entirely lacking in Herr 
Drachmann's. Dreaminess is not his chimcteristic, 
nor is philosophy, nor pure harmony. Artistic love 
of light and color imbues his poetry with a special 
charm. The rhythm and rhymes flow from his pen 
as easily as from Mr. Swinburne's ; but his verse 
lacks the sombre tint and the peculiar redundancy 
of melody characteristic of the English poet. 

Herr Drachmann made his literary dSbui with a 
little work in prose, entitled <* With Charcoal and 
Chalk "; and in 1872 his first volume of poems ap- 
peared. Little by little the poet became more pow- 
erful than the painter, and after some years the 
brush had wholly to g^ve way to the pen. Since 
then, half a hundred volumes in prose and verse 
have appeared, and among them works that are a 
true ornament of Danish literature. The tendency 
in his works is certunly modern ; but Herr Drach- 
mann can be classed neither with the " naturalists " 
nor with the " symbolists." He has his own indi- 
vidual forte, which is at the same time thoroughly 
popular. He is much attracted by the fantastic, 
but by the fantastic in such measure and form as is 
possessed by the fairy story. His particular aim, 
especially in later years, has been to reach the heart 
of the common people, — ^to draw nearer to them and 
draw them closer to him, in order to find thereby a 
broad field for an activity both encouraging and 
awakening, which he thinks is needed in order to 
rouse their slumbering powers and deadened energy. 
His life with the fishermen at Skagen, his travels 
and conversations, have opened his understanding to 
tiie struggles and the unostentatious bravery shown 
in the existence of the hundreds and thousands 
of men upon whose courage and resistance the ten- 
acity of a nation depend. Herr Drachmann is a pa- 
triot of the most exultant character. AU through the 
earlier part of his productive period he was idmost 
too turbulent in praise of his country and advocacy 
of its cause. In later years, however, the continued 
misgovernment, and the increasing lethargy of the 
people in allowing the ministry to continue their 
absolute ignoring of all constitutional rights, have 
made him more and more distrustful and hopeless 
concerning the future. Accordingly, in 1890, with 
the publication of his largest and weightiest novel, 
<^ Pledged," the poet made up the account between 
himself and his past An attempt to establish in 
Copenhagen a place of public resort of a high in- 
tellectual grade, yet not of an <' academic " charac- 
ter, receiving the ideas and movements of the time, 
and allowing artists and poets to bring their works 
directly to an unprejudiced public, hoping thereby 
to educate the masses, failed utterly. It is the re- 
sult of ideas cherished by Herr Drachmann, that 




the ** free theatre," on the plan of the ThSdtre libre 
in Paris, enjoyed its brief existence. Bat his liter- 
ary-popular ^^caj^'* had not even such fortune. 
Wearied of the hopeless project, which met no in- 
terest and support from the wealthy classes, Herr 
Drachmann left the country, and has since spent 
his time mostly in Germany — the land from which 
he thinks Denmark has much to learn. His stay 
in Hamburg during the cholera epidemic, his cour- 
ageous and helpful conduct during that time, when 
even the inhabitants themselves lost hope and wished 
to desert the plague-stricken city, have been favor- 
ably commented upon in the German papers. His 
productivity as an author has lost nothing during 
his absence from home, and although his health is 
not strong, his friends and admirers may still hope 
to see much from his pen in years to come. 

To English readers, it may be of interest to 
know that Herr Drachmann has made himself 
known also as a brilliant translator of Byron's '^ Don 
Juan," a task not yet finished. Here the translator 
has done his brother poet a service such as few have 
been able to render. It is true of music that no- 
body can render a composer as well as one who is 
himself a composer ; and the same must be true of 
poetry. The masterly handling of the difficult ma- 
terial places this translation of Byron scarcely be- 
low the original. Whether Herr Drachmann him- 
self, and especially in some of his best lyrics, shall 
ever be satisfactorily translated into English, is a 
question time only can answer. Perhaps in his 
most genuine works he is as little translatable as is 
Dr. Ibsen, although some reproductions may be a 
pleasant exception. Of his works the following are 
probably the best known: << Songs by the Sea," 
" Yenezia," « From the Frontier," " The Princess 
and Half the Kingdom," «« Lars Eruse," << East o' 
the Sun and West o' the Moon," «< The Daughter of 
the Waters," « Paul and Virginia of a Northern 
Zone," " Once Upon a Time," " The Book of Songs," 
«< Pledged," <« Yolund the Smith," << Renaissance." 

Herr Drachmann was bom in 1846. It is hoped 
that he will remain for years to come the honor and 
joy of his country. ^^ Wbbgblaot). 


(To the Editor of Thb Diai-) 

An interesting oontroversy is going on, in the col- 
umns of the literary magazines of Tokyo, on the ques- 
tion of the abolition of the Chinese idiographs in the 
written language. The weight of oentaries of usage and 
of economy, through oonciseneas in the expression of 
ideas, is in favor of their retention. But they are so 
complex and so onmbrons, and require so much time 
for study in a ourricolum tremendously oTercrowded, 
that they are felt to be a great drag upon popular edu- 
cation. And especially do they seem to be entirely un- 
snited for the new career for which Japan is eridently 
destined. There is a strong feeling among thinking 

men that the Japanese language and Japanese literature 
cannot adapt themselves to modem thought and attain 
the possibilities of modem civilization with such incon- 
venient and unpractical modes of expressing and com- 
municating thought. It is argued, therefore, that a 
more simple and easy alphabet most be substituted for 
the prevalent mixture of Japanese characters and Chi- 
nese idiographs, if Japan wishes to maintain communi- 
cation with the world at large. 

But the reformers are thus far unable to agree upon 
a substitute. Some urge the adoption of Roman let- 
ters; others are in favor of using only the Japanese 
Kana; ** while yet others propose modifications of the 
Kana so as to meet the requirements of transliterating 
foreign names." These last, who seem to be supported 
by a majority of the literary reformers, also recom- 
mend the mode of writing from left to right in the 
European fashion. 

It is also proposed to make "radical changes in the 
gnunmar of the Japanese language," so as to recognize 
oonstractions that have lately been introduced through 
imitation of Western modes of thought. This proposal 
has, of course, " evoked a loud protest from the votaries 
of classical Japanese," but is *< welcomed by the literary 
public in general." 

These attempts to conform the Japanese language to 
the requirements of foreign intercourse are accompanied 
by an increased interest in the study of foreign lan- 
guages. This extends, in the first place, to the Korean 
and the Chinese languages, and reaches, also, even in 
spite of political prejudices, to the Russian language 
and literature. <<Bnt the language whose status has 
been most extensively and permanently improved is En- 
glish," the importance of which, *' as a medium for con- 
ducting business transactions and international inter- 
course," is now more fully recognized. 

This same tendency to emphasize the necessity of 
** modernizing " is apparent in a recent address on « The 
Future of Japanese Literature," by Professor Tsubou- 
chi, ** one of Japan's foremast literati" He spoke along 
this line: 

" At the present time, unfortunately, there are no 
standard works in the realm of Japanese literary thought. 
Those works which foreigners read in a translated form, 
believing them to be the finest literary products of 
Japan, are without exception old classics, and have 
nothing in common with the trend of modem ideas. It 
is impossible to rest satisfied with this state of aifairs; 
we cannot hope that Occidentals will ever rightly un- 
derstand the Japanese people if they are to have noth- 
ing better than these antique and obsolete works as their 
standards. The encouragement of a national literature 
18 thus at the present moment of prime importance. It 
is the only means which will serve to promote an inti- 
macy with the Western world. We have now to pro- 
duce a series of masterpieces that will show us in the 
true light — the progressive, invincible Japanese of the 
19th century." 

It will certainly be interesting and instructive for all 
scholars, especially for comparative philologists, to wateh 
these attempts to reform a language and a literature 
that are not only of old standing, but that for at least 
two and a half centuries were crystallized. Even 
though radical reforms may not be aecompUshed, great 
changes will be made, have already been made, in both 
the language and the literature of Japan. 

EnincsT W. Clkmknt. 
Tokyo, Augutt iO, 1895, 



[Sept. 16, 

Efie IS^ Booius* 

A Financier of France.* 

To most English readers, the name of Tur- 
got is only one in a group of distinguished men 
who, in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
prepared the mind of France for the transition 
from the old to the new regime consummated 
by the Revolution. His writings, however, 
have not ceased to interest and instruct thought- 
ful readers who desire to learn something about 
one of the most interesting men of his century, 
and to know accurately the condition of France 
in the twenty-five years prior to the Revolution. 
'^ Every science, every language, every litera- 
ture, every business,'^ says Michelet, ^' inter- 
ested Turgot." ^' He took to the work of civil 
government," says Matthew Arnold, ^' in what 
spirit many of us know, and whoever of us does 
not know should make it his business to learn." 
*^ The nineteenth century is the true century 
of Turgot," says L^on Say, '^ because it is that 
in which his ideas have been applied, and in 
which he has borne manifest sway over minds 
and over things." These are quite sufficient 
reasons to justify Mr. Stephens in his ^^ attempt 
to provide English readers with a fuller and 
more exact knowledge of Turgot and his writ- 
ings than they have hitherto possessed." Mr. 
Stephens, within the limits he set, has probably 
condensed, as he says, into a single volume all 
matter of sufficient importance and interest for 
general readers of the present day. Industrial 
students, however, who can spare the time, will 
not be satisfied with selections and condensa- 
tions, but will go to the original fountains — 
the entire works of Turgot. 

Prior to the Revolution, there were only three 
openings for sons of the French nobility — 
civil administration, the army, and the church. 
Turgot, being the youngest of three sons, was 
destined for the church. He was accordingly 
sent to the Sorbonne, where, however, his 
studies took a wide range, including a full 
course in the civil law. At the conclusion of 
these studies, and with his father's consent, he 
announced his determination not to follow the 
ecclesiastical calling. His fellow-students urged 
him, with many reasons, to reconsider his de- 
termination. '^Take for yourselves," he re- 
plied, '^ the counsel you have given me, since 
you can follow it. Although I love you, I can- 

* Thb Lifb akd WsiTiNas of Tuboot, Comptroller-Gen- 
eral of France. Edited for English readers by W. Walker 
Stephens. New York : Longfmans, Green, & Co. 

not enter into your views. As for me, it is im- 
possible to subject myself all my life to wear- 
ing a vefl over my face." 

For a few years after leaving the Sorbonne, 
Turgot held a judicial office. In 1761 he was 
appointed Intendant of the Generality of Li- 
moges, the poorest of the thirty-five Generalities 
in France. But genius makes its own place. 
He refused many offers to transfer him to richer 
and more desirable Generalities. For thirteen 
years he gave the best of his life to the people 
of Limoges, who excited his sympathies because 
they were oppressed and degraded. He began 
at once to institute those reforms with which 
his name will ever be associated. Taxes were 
unequal, and the heaviest burdens were laid 
upon those who could least support them. He 
restored equality and removed the undue bur- 
den. The roads were made by the forced and 
unpaid labor of the peasants. He abolished 
compulsory service, substituted equal taxation, 
and changed the poorest into the best roads of 
the kingdom. The details of his great work 
cannot be given here. He sought from every- 
body information in relation to his duties. 
Through the curates, who were near to the peo- 
ple, he gained the people's confidence. In those 
laborious years he studied profoundly the causes 
of the evils existing in France ; and his reports 
to the Comptroller-General during that period, 
while accurately stating the facts of the cases 
under consideration, were also economic treat- 
ises, good for all time. The reader who cares 
to pursue the subject fully will find the desired 
information in the works of Turgot, and no- 
where besides. 

Turgot had a scholar's love of study. He 
was probably the profoundest thinker then in 
France. He knew the sacrifice he made. His 
friend Condorcet wrote to him : ^' You are very 
fortunate in having a passion for the public 
good, and in being able to satisfy it ; it is a 
great consolation, and of a very superior order 
to the consolation of mere study." ^^Nay," 
replied Turgot, " whatever you may say, I be- 
lieve that the satisfaction derived from study 
is superior to any other kind of satisfaction. 
I am perfectly convinced that one may be, 
through study, a thousand times more useful 
to men than in any of our subordinate posts." 

Turgot was appointed Comptroller-General 
of Finance, July 24, 1774 ; and held the office 
a little more than twenty months. He devoted 
every spare moment of that period, with intense 
and passionate earnestness, to the execution of 
his comprehensive scheme of reform. He nn- 




derstood weU the risk he was taking, the oppo- 
sition he would encounter, and the danger of 
failure in the execution of his plan; but he 
considered that the emergencies of the time 
justified him in taking any personal risks in 
order to avert if possible the greater calamities 
of the then pending Revolution. His method 
was statesmanli^. ^^ If one is not to give up 
the attempt to correct little by little the faults 
of an ancient constitution," he said, ^^it is 
necessary to work to that end slowly and ac- 
cording to the measure in which public opinion 
and the course of events render changes possi- 
ble." He was not a novice. He had been 
twenty-one years in public life, had travelled 
over die provinces of France with his friend 
the celebrated Goumay, then perhaps the clos- 
est living observer of economic conditions. 
Turgot's special studies, as well as his great 
experience, qualified him in the highest degree 
to prepare to explain and to introduce the gen- 
eral scheme of reforms with which his name 
will be forever identified. In a general way it 
may be said that these reforms involved the 
reestablishment of the public finances, then 
deranged to the verge of bankruptcy ; the cor- 
rection of innumerable abuses which were the 
heritage from a worn-out feudal system ; the 
destruction of special privileges, under the 
operation of which the mass of the people were 
reduced to poverty and despair ; freedom from 
the monopoly of the guilds ; and freedom of 
commerce and the industries from intolerable 
burdens and restrictions. Turgot's state papers 
during this period are the best existing exposi- 
tion of all these evils and the measures he took 
to reform them. 

France at that period had no constitution 
in the English or in the American sense. There 
was no organized public opinion to which a 
statesman could make an appeal. The blind 
obstinacy of the privileged classes was such 
that no material reforms could be effected ex- 
cept by the prerogative of the king or by revo- 
lution. Turgot relied only upon the prerogatives 
of the king, whose power was absolute; for 
France at that time was monarchical to the 
core. The king controlled the purse and the 
sword. He could send his parliaments, then 
judicial bodies, into exile or into bastiles. He 
could, by his edicts, make and repeal laws ; and 
he had control of all the offices of administra- 
tion. It was upon this vast power that Turgot 
relied. The king at first resolved to sustain 
Turgot in all his proposed reforms. The queen 
and her courtiers, the nobility and the higher 

clergy who had inherited their privileges, and 
the rich bourgeois who had bought them, would 
not have it so. The weak king yielded to the 
pressure. Turgot was driven from the Minis- 
try, and his reforms were not then accom- 
plished. A little more than eight years after 
Turgot's death, his triumph came, — not, how- 
ever, as the great statesman desired, by the 
peaceful and orderly steps of progressive re- 
form, but through the exaltation of revolution- 
ary feeling, when, on the memorable night of 
the fourth of August, 1789, all feudal rights 
and privileges were abolished, and France 
passed at once and forever from the old to the 
new reffime. 

The selections made by Mr. Stephens give 
a fair idea of Turgot's rank as an economist. 
The average reader has but little conception of 
the restrictions laid upon trade, commerce, and 
the industries, in Turgot's time ; and does not 
appreciate the debt of gratitude we owe to the 
earlier economists who led the way to the com- 
parative freedom now enjoyed in those pursuits. 
The celebrated edicts prepared by Turgot dur- 
ing his ministry were based upon his matured 
convictions that industry and the exchanges of 
commerce, being entirely a matter of individ- 
ual right, should be maintained free from every 
restriction on the part of government, and that 
it was no part of the function of government to 
interfere at any time or anywhere with these in- 
dividual rights ; that the imprescriptible right 
of labor involved as corollaries, first, the right 
to enjoy property as the fruits of labor, and, sec- 
ond, the unqualified right of exchange between 
individuals. All those great edicts were pre- 
ceded by ^^Memoires" fully explaining their pur- 
poses. L^on Say says : '^ That which impressed 
the friends of the minister at first, and united 
the approbation of all men of elevation of mind, 
was tiie care taken by Turgot to explain in an 
extended preamble the reasons of the change 
made by the new decree to the legislation then 
in force. To discuss before the public, was a 
novelty. Turgot was thus the inventor of that 
usage, generaUy practiced since in free govern- 
ments, to preface the projects of laws by that 
which we call to-day an exposition of its mo- 
tives." And Voltaire said : " We have not be- 
fore had edicts in which the sovereign deigned 
to teach his people, to reason with them, to in- 
struct them in their interests, to persuade them 
before commanding them." These great writ- 
ers are, however, not quite accurate in their 
claim that Turgot was the inventor of this ad- 
mirable usage. In the fourth book of Plato's 



[Sept. 16, 

** Laws " (pp. 720 et seq.) the Athenian 
Stranger says : ^^ And is oar legislator to have 
no preface to his laws, but to say at onoe — 
do this, avoid that ; and then, holding the pen- 
alty in terrorem^ to go on to another law ; offer- 
ing never a word of advice or exhortation to 
those for whom he is legislating?" It is 
credit enough for Turgot that he was the first 
to embody in the laws of a great people the 
ideas of the immortal Greek thinker. 

Tnrgot's writings cover a period of about 
thirty years. His first publication, 1749, is a 
letter to L'Abb^ de Cic^ upon Money. In 
that letter he exploded the mischievous brood 
of fallacies that still torment us, based upon 
the same error that the^a^ of government can 
compel commodities of unequal value to be 
taken as equivalents in exchange for each other. 
Mirabeau exploited that fallacy, with his usual 
eloquence, when he misled a small majority of 
the Constituent Assembly into issuing the as- 
signats, and, with the usual result, paralyzing 
the industries of France for six years from 
1790. Seventy-two years later, our practical 
statesmen, who had learned nothing from the 
economists and nothing from the experience of 
the nations, put out the ^^ legal tenders," at a 
cost to the people of the United States, it is 
estimated, of some thousand millions of dollars. 
A great fallacy is sometimes more costly than 
a great war. 

The last state paper of Turgot, dated April 
6, 1776, was a ^^ Memoire " prepared in re- 
sponse to a request from Louis XYI. for his 
opinion in writing in relation to the part 
France ought to take in the American war. 
Vergennes, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, had 
determined to declare war against England, 
ostensibly in aid of the Colonies. Turgot, for 
many statesmanlike reasons which I cannot 
here recite, Advised the king to give the col- 
onies every possible assistance allowed by an 
honorable neutrality, but not to declare war in 
their favor. Vergennes cared nothing for the 
American cause. Turgot cared for all causes 
in which men struggled for freedom. His whole 
official life was a protest against the restrictions 
which monopoly imposed upon industry and 
trade within the limits of France. He did not, 
however, believe that the principle governing 
trade was limited by national boundaries, and 
that restrictions upon it ceased to be injurious 
when they become colonial or international; 
and in his last state paper he declared that the 
independence of the English colonies would dis- 
sipate the delusion which for two centuries had 

led European nations erroneously to believe 
that they could gain wealth by reserving to 
themselves the exclusive right to buy from and 
sell to their colonies. ^^ I firmly believe," says 
Turgot, ^' that all the mother-countries will be 
forced to abandon all empire over their colonies, 
to leave to them entire freedom of commerce 
with all nations, to content themselves in par- 
taking along with the others this liberty, and 
in maintaining with their colonies the ties of 
friendship and fraternity." 

D. L. Shobet. 

OUB Fkesent Knowusdoe of ths 
Origin of Speciss** 

In Professor Marshall's ^' Lectures on the 
Darwinian Theory " we find a simple, direct, 
and accurate account of our present knowledge 
of the origin of species. The matter is cast in 
the form of University Extension lectures — 
eight in number — elementary in character, 
as befits the interest of an intelligent but un- 
scientific audience. In his exposition. Profes- 
sor Marshall follows closely the lines of argu- 
ment laid down by Darwin. In other words, 
he is guided by what is really known, and has 
no hypothesis of his own to be maintained or 

In reading these lectures, one is impressed 
by the self-restraint of the author. He never 
forgets his purpose, never falls into rhetoric, 
never makes points, and never puts himself in 
any degree into a controversial attitude. Out 
of the wealth of his knowledge he draws noth- 
ing that he does not need. Often the results 
of years of investigation are summarized in a 
single paragraph. Matters still under dispute 
— as the inheritance of acquired characters — 
are passed by without mention, as not yet a 
part of science. Every effort is made to con- 
centrate attention on that which is known and 
essential to the doctrine of the development of 
species through natural selection. 

The analogies between changes in words by 
natural selection and changes in species are 
well brought out by Professor Marshall. The 
physical kinship of man with the lower ani- 
mals is very clearly shown. He says : 

** In fact, unless man wishes to oontinoe going about 
the world stamped with living and palpable proof of 

* Lbotubbs on ths Dabwhoan Thbobt. By the late 
Arthur Milnes Marshall . M.A., M.D., D.SeM F.R JS., Profee- 
Bor of Zoology in Owens Collegre, formerly Fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. Edited by C. F. Marshall, M.D., BJSe., 
F.R.C.S. New York : Maftmillan A Co. 




biB kinship with lower animilsy he had better stop up 
hifl ears, or, still better, cut them off altogether; for so 
long as he bears at the side of his head those tell-tale 
flapSi with their aborted and rodimentarj moscles, so 
long as he hears by means of that slit, once a giUcleft, 
now by change of function become an accessory organ 
of hearing, so long does he carry about in sight of aU 
men sure proof of his relationship with lower, even with 
water^breathing, animals. Yet one can scarcely recoup 
mend the operation, for if you were to remoTC one by 
one the yarious parts of your body which proclaim this 
kinship, you would get rid in succession of skin, mus- 
cles, nerves, bones, etc., and all that would be left in 
the end as man's special and peculiar possessions would 
be: (1) certain parts of his brain, and these only doubt- 
fully; (2) the extensor primi intemodii poUicis muscle, 
which straightens the first joint of the tiiumb; (3) the 
peroneus tertius, a small muscle in front of the lower 
part of the leg and ankle, inserted into the base of the 
little toe; (4) certain portions of other muscles. 

** Again, if we turn from bodily structure to the other 
characteristics of man, we find the same tendency to 
over^population, resulting in the same struggle for ex* 
istence and the same survival of the fittest. Indeed, it 
was from the study of Malthus' < Essay on Population' 
that Darwin was led to the theory of Natural Selection. 
So it is with the history of the rise and fall of nations, 
with the evolution of human speech, customs, and cloth- 
ing. All alike conform to the same laws as those regu- 
lating the structure and habits of other animals. And 
so with the influence of man on other animals; the ad- 
vent of man has simply been the arrival of another ani- 
mal, better equipped, and more cunning, more cruel, 
than any other; acting with supreme selfishness; toler- 
ating the existence of other animals only when they can 
be made subservient to his own wants or pleasures; 
ruthlessly exterminating all that offends or thwarts him. 
His only kindness is merely a nominal exception, for if 
perchance he appear kindly disposed to certain animals, 
it is only to satisfy his own selfish ends, that he may 
fleece them of their coats or pluck them of their feath- 
ers to adorn himself; or to fatten them, that they may 
acquire a flavour more acceptable to his palate." 

Again, referring to Language, Professor 
Marshall observes : 

^ Language has been said to be 'the one great differ- 
ence between man and brutes,' and an < insurmountable 
obstacle to the theory of alliance by descent.' This has 
been urged even by those who accept the theory as ap- 
plying to all other animals. 

** But has not language a history, has it not been 
evolved gradually, and is it not constantly, even daily, 
undergoing change? Is not this evolution, are not 
these changes of a nature precisely similar to those which 
have governed the animal kingdom in other branches, 
and have made it what it is at the present day ? " 

The oontroverted questions as to man's spir- 
itual kinship with the beasts are brushed aside, 
perhaps too easily, on the doubtful ground that 
science has nothing to say regarding them. 

"Whether there is anything further than this, — 
whether man has other attributes, either peculiar to 
hiiMftlf or held by him in common with other animals, 
whether these are attributes that cannot be explained 
by these laws, — is a question with which we have no 

eonoern here. Science has nothing to do with sueh mat- 
ters, and has nothing to say for or against them." 

One slight error may be noted. Surely the 
lung of mammals is not derived from the swim- 
bladder of fishes. The swim-bladder is a de- 
generate organ, existing in all stages of degra- 
dation. It was developed from a respiratory 
structure which in land animals has culminated 
in the lung. 

Professor Marshall's lectures are printed in 
a handsome volume, with new and excellent 
mastrations. j,^^ g^ j^^^^ 

Ths Bases of Apfrsciatioii' in Art.* 

Mr. Marshall's more popular presentation of 
the subject of Esthetics has to contend with a 
difficulty that confronts any other book on the 
theory of art. The *^ general reader " does not 
desire instruction on the topic. Political econ- 
omy is one of those matters on which, accord- 
ing to oommon fading, any voter has as good 
a right to an opinion as the most devoted and 
learned student. Such is also the case in mat- 
ters pertaining to the fine arts, with the addi- 
tion that here special thought and exact knowl- 
edge are usuaUy held to cloud and befog the 
freshness necessary to exceUent views on the 
subject. In literature, in painting, and else- 
where, the generally accepted dictum is, *' I 
don't know anything about the rules of art, but 
I know what I like," with which is coupled a 
firm determination not to like anything that one 
doesn't want to of one's own mere motion, and, 
indeed, not to submit to any interference that 
in any respect smacks of thought or knowledge 
of the matter in hand. 

Discussions, then, of the reasons which un- 
derlie our artistic appreciation, and principles 
which may be deduced as to what is better to like 
and what worse, are sure to meet at the outset 
with a good deal of indifference and prejudice 
in the mind of the general reader. The psy- 
chologist, the critic, the art student, may wel- 
come a new theory; a few thinking readers 
may be interested ; but unless it is presented 
in a particularly persuasive manner, the hearts 
of most readers do not warm to it. It is per- 
haps just as well. iBsthetics is a science, and 
so demands in the reader a certain tempera- 
ment and a certain preparation. As most peo- 
ple have neither the temperament, nor the pre- 

^iBsTHsno Pbinoiplbs. By Henry Rnlgen MmhiJI. 
New York : Mufflnillan A Co. 



[Sept. 16, 

pa r ation, the y can no mo r e uuderetaud fully a 
theory of the beautiful than they can a theory 
of the origin of species. 

In spite of this, some books on SBSthetic sub- 
jects have such a charm or power of presenta- 
tion as to have been a good deal read. Taine's 
works, especially the ^^ English Literature," and 
Buskin's ^'Modern Painters," are cases in 
point. These books owed their popularity 
chiefly to their style. Now, unfortunately, Mr. 
Marshall has not any special gift of style. He 
writes clearly aud concisely : he is not (in the 
present book at least) a difficult author. But 
he has not any special gift of popular exposi- 
tion, ^'^sthetic Principles " can be read easily 
enough if one is determined to read it, but it 
has no charm, it does not tempt the indifferent 
to continue ; unless impelled by his own zeal, 
the reader is not unlikely to faint by the way- 
side. Despite the effort to the contrary, the 
book is somewhat arid. 

This is the more unfortunate, since Mr. Mar- 
shall has much that would be of use to just the 
sort of reader whom he will fail to interest. If 
one can emerge from the ckss of readers in 
question and%ealize that we have here a dis- 
cussion of a profoundly interesting topic, one 
will find in ^'^sthetic Principles " a great 
deal that is worth while. Mr. Marshall's first 
book was original and scholarly ; so is this one, 
and also far simpler and less technical. 

One great excellence, on the whole the first 
to be remarked, is that Mr. Marshall not only 
recognizes that there are different points of 
view in this matter, but plans his book on that 
basis. People are apt to read different things 
about art, — a bit from Taine, as has been said, 
something of Buskin's perhaps, and some hard 
saying of Hegel, — and there is generally a bad 
hitch when they try to coordinate their views. 
They seem to be on wholly different topics. 
Everybody doesn't know, or doesn't see at once, 
that Taine is generally concerned with those 
forces which go to produce a work of art, while 
Buskin is apt to be thinking of those forces whi ch 
a work of art tends to produce, and Hegel con- 
siders beauty rather in itself than as a cause or 
an effect. Mr. Marshall begins almost at once 
with ^^ two different standpoints : first, the ^ Ob- 
server's Standpoint,' relating to the field of 
Impression ; and, second, the ' Artist's Stand- 
point,' which deals with the Art Instinct." And 
the first of these is developed into a Critic's 
Standpoint ; which gives us three ways of look- 
ing at the matter. 

The term *' observer " does not seem to me 

a very happy one. — When we have looked at 
a picture, or read a book, or heard music, or 
anything of the sort, we never think of our- 
selves as observers. When we think of an ob- 
server we think of somebody studying the habits 
of the domestic fly, or the tendencies of our 
present social system, or something of the sort. 
Where art is concerned, we are hardly observ- 
ers, we are en joyers. But " enjoyer " is a ridicu- 
lous word, and when we try for another we have 
no easy task in improving Mr. Marshall's ter- 
minology: amateur, art-lover, connoisseur, — 
none of them give us anything of the idea we 
have in mind, of the normal person of cultiva- 
tion who receives enjoyment from the various 
forms of art. In spite of all this, however, one 
cannot remain contented with ^' observer "; it 
introduces into the idea a dry scholastic ele- 
ment, which should be very foreign to it. As 
to the use of the word artist for '^ the aesthetic 
worker in each and all of the varied fields in 
which beauty is of moment," that use of the 
word has been so long habitual to many writers, 
that even those who usually understand by it 
'^ painters and draughtsmen only " will be ready 
to extend their conception. 

Beginning, then, with this division of our 
study into three topics — the Observer's, the 
Artist's, the Critic's Standpoints — we get at 
once a good way out of Egypt, and come to 
Mr. Marshall's special theory. As to this the- 
ory, on which the book is built, it is not nec- 
essary to discuss it now. It is, of course, the 
theory propounded more fully and scientifically 
in the author's ^^ Pain, Pleasure, and Esthet- 
ics," published a year or so ago in book form, 
and before that in one of the philosophical 
journals. It is a theory which calls for the 
special criticism of the psychologist : the gen- 
eral reader is no better off if one authority pro- 
nounces it sound, and no worse off if another 
authority pronounces it fallacious. The chief 
point of interest, I believe, is that it is a theory 
which is stimulating and suggestive. Once get 
hold of the idea, that, for each man, that is 
beautiful which results in pleasurable ^' reviv- 
als," or recollections, and that he will do well 
to think beautiful that which results in pleas- 
urable recollections to the ideal type of the cul- 
tivated man (the aesthetic man, if we do well 
to imitate the Frankenstein of the political 
economists), once get a good idea of what is 
meant by this conception and of the possible 
applications of it, and one finds a sort of spur, 
and at the same time a help, in thinking about 
some things that have been puzzling. 




Many people will seriously object to the as- 
sumption that the aim of art is only to give 
pleasure. The objection comes from the dif- 
ferent ideas of pleasure that people have. Some 
people regard pleasure as being at bottom a 
deceitful, grovelling evil. Others conceive more 
readily of pleasures which are candid and noble, 
which do not lead astray, but carry us to places 
where we say, '^ It is good for us to be here." 
Naturally enough, those who think of pleasure 
as something essentially low do not feel that 
mere pleasure is a very good aim for art or for 
anything else. Mr. Marshall, however, under- 
stands by pleasure a quality which may belong 
to any element of consciousness. It is subject- 
ive : the pleasures of a noble man are noble, the 
pleasures of a degraded man are not. The 
pleasures of a good man are in good things, and 
they lead him to desire them. The pleasures 
of our artistic type are, then, of a fine and in- 
spiring kind ; ^ey are not Capuan in charac- 
ter, nor is their effect relaxing. But the word 
^' Hedonist " has a bad sound in the ears of a 
nation which has not forgotten the Puritans, 
and there will be many who will not be able to 
think with equanimity of pleasure as the aim 
of art. 

However this may be, Mr. Marshall shows 
how the assumption gives a basis to the art- 
lover, the artist, the critic. He then proceeds 
to amplify the last topic in a discussion of ^^ gen- 
eral laws of SBSthetic practice from a consider- 
ation of the conditions upon which pleasure- 
getting depends." Here we may leave the 
subject, with a single remark. 

I have said that Mr. Marshall has not the 
gift of a persuasive and engaging style. He 
has, however, a very nice way of working his 
principles out into applications which take our 
attention at once. We are attracted by his de- 
veloping the conclusion that an early disposi- 
tion to draw pictures does not constitute a di- 
vine call to an artist's life ; we see that we have 
to do, not with a mere theorizer, but with a 
scholar who has his own outlook on the world. 
So, also, when he shows us that bad architec- 
ture is a lasting calamity, that it is impossible 
that everyone should enjoy the best art, espe- 
cially such as have always lived in the ^^ slums," 
that although different people must like differ- 
ent things, some are better worth liking than 
others, and so on. Such points serve a double 
purpose : they are hints to us for our own think- 
ing, and they give us confidence in our author, 
— a confidence in this case not undeserved. 

Edwabd E. Hale, Jb. 

Seven Books of Travel.* 

Mr. Swettenham, the author of *< Malay Sketches," 
informs us that his is '' not a book of travels," but 
rather *' a series of sketches of Malay scenery and 
Malay character, drawn by one who has spent the 
best part of his life in the scenes and amongst the 
people he describes." We judge, however, that an 
account by a foreigner resident in strange lands is, 
in a large and true sense, a book of traveL The 
mere fact that one writes from a foreign country 
from a stationary point of view, as in Mrs. Martin's 
<< Ostrich Farm," Lady Barker's << South Africa," 
or Mr. Swettenham's '^ Malay Sketches," does not 
debar the work from being considered a book of 
travels. One who stops in a country a few years, 
and gives us a book about it, does not radically 
differ from him who stops a month and gives us a 
chapter. Mr. Swettenham is connected with the 
English Government in Perak, a division of the 
Malay Peninsula ; and he has there made the ob- 
servations upon which this book is based. It is his 
object to put before us the real Malay in his own 
enviromnent ; to give us an intimate knowledge of 
his appearance, character, and habits. But we are 
disappointed in finding that this Malay is not, after 
all, thd real aboriginal one, but the Islamized, and 
to some extent Enropeanized, one. This modernized 
Malay, who dynamites fish, who has tricycles and 
music-boxes, who is under police and judges, is de- 
scribed by our author simply and clearly. Still, de- 
scription of scenery and people, even when good, is 
inferior to illustration, which this book entirely 
lacks. A lifelike picture of a Perak Malay would 
save many words of description, and help the reader 
to realize his characteristics. Mr. Swettenham offers 
to ^' the jaded pleasure-seekers of the West " a new 
form of amasement practised by the Malays, namely, 
sliding down a waterfall into a pool at the base. 
He has probably never heard of our water-chutes. 
His chapter on the running dmok does not enlighten 
us much as to its real nature and causes. Again, 
he asserts that the Malays cannot be christianized, 
but still, in his opinion, they are not to be swept out 
of existence by superior races ; two opinions that are 

* Malay Sketches. By Frank AtheUtane Swettenham. 
New York : liaomillan A Go. 

The Geeat Fbozbk Laiid : NarratiTe of a Winter Jour- 
ney aoroea the Tnndraa and a Sojourn among the Samoyada. 
By Frederiok G^ige Jaokaon. Bdited, from hie Joomala, 
by Arthur Montefiore. New York : liaomillan A Go. 

RussiAir Rambles. By Isabel F. Hapgood. Boston: 
Houghton, Mi£EUn & Go. 

The Bobdebland of Gzab aitd Eaiseb: Notes from 
both mdes of the Russian Frontier. By Ponltney Bigelow. 
niustrated by Frederic Remington. New York : Harper A 

The Great Doiuhion : Studies of Ganada. By George 
R. Parkin, M.A. New York : Macmillan & Go. 

OuE WssTEBN Abchipelaoo. By Henry M. Field. With 
Illustrations. New York : Gharles Soribner*s Sons. 

Mt Eablt Travels Ain> Adventures in Amertoa and 
AsLA. By Henry M. Stanley, D.G.L. In two volumes. New 
York: Gharles Seribner's Sons. 




[Sept. 16, 

not sapported by dae evidence. On the wiiole, this 
book does not attain its object ; it is not a deep study, 
and the reader gets merely a few rather saperficial 
glimpses of this interesting people. The writer's 
point of view is, after all, that of an outsider and 
of one in aathority. If some artistic realist, like 
Miss Wilkins, would go to Perak and write tales 
fall of local color, we should gain that complete pic- 
ture of the Malay which this book cannot give us. 

Mr. F. O. Jackson, in the expedition which he 
describes in *<The Great Frozen Land," had two 
objects in view : << the first and more important was 
to experiment with and test a selected yariety of 
equipment, clothing, and food, under the conditions 
of an Arctic winter, in order tiiat the results of this 
experience might be utilized in the more prolonged 
and far more difficult journey contemplated to the 
unknown Arctic area north of Franz Josef Land." 
The second object was <'to visit and, for some 
months, to live with that primitive group of the hu- 
man family, the Samoyads of the Great Frozen 
Tundra of Arctic Russia." These two objects Mr. 
Jackson fairly accomplished in his journey through 
Siberia and Lapland in the winter of 1893-94. To 
the general reader, the most interesting part of his 
book is that which describes the rude Samoyads. 
Mr. Jackson thus pictures a night halt at a wayside 
hut or choom : 

<< As we found three Samoyads there, we made in all 
a party of nine in a <^oom nine by ten. And I must not 
forget — indeed, I cannot forget — that in addition to 
these, there was a Samoyad baby of aboat eighteen 
months, who kept np a vigorous crying and made itself 
generally felt. My companions, including the Russian, 
were soon deep in a feast on raw reindeer, and the Sam- 
oyad lady on my right comfortably seated herself on the 
ground and placed the stomach of a deer on her lap. 
It was full of blood, and she dipped in it the pieces of 
raw meat she was eating. As the coloured oandles — 
the same as they nse before their ikons — ^flared and flick- 
ered, the blood-smeared faces of these hungry eaters 
framed in a strange circle of primitive life. However, 
hunger provided saooe and overlooked surroundings, 
and I supped well, and then tried to thaw the sleeping- 
bag, which had frozen hard after getting wet (we had 
been driving in 14** F. of frost), bat the attempt was 
not very soooessful, and I had eventually to sleep on 
the ground in my clothes. It was amusing to see the 
baby, which had been sitting up and had eaten a fiurly 
good supper of raw meat, put to bed by its mother. She 
first wrapped it in furs, then placed it in a box shaped 
like a coffin, and laced it in with narrow strips of hide, 
so that it was not only impossible for it to fall out, but 
also very difficult for it even to move." 

And yet these people who live on raw meat, and 
who never bathe or change their clothes, are affected 
by the ceramic craze, their chief treasures being 
china cups and saucers. Though publicly Chris- 
tians, in private they are pagans. Mr. Jackson's 
description of the frozen Siberian marsh or Tundra 
IB impressive: 

** Nothing I know of in nature can equal the dreari- 
ness and soUtnde of the Tundra. Mile after mile, as 
you travel along, there is no break in the monotony of 

this great frosen land. Everywhere is snow, everywhere 
the vast white plains. In the perspective of distance, 
the very ridges melt into the general level; and as yon 
look around, everywhere you are met with the same 
great mantle of unbroken snow. The country lies be- 
fore you as an earth that is dead, so still, so motionless, 
so rigid is the landscape. Life has fled before the icy 
winds which draw out of the north, and the land yon 
traverse is surely the land of death. There is scarcely 
the cry of a single bird to break upon the ear in this 
untenanted wilderness; the very streams are motionless 
masses of ice. Track there is none, and you may wan- 
der east, west, north, and south, witiioot a landmark to 
set you right. Day after day and week after week yoor 
deer will gallop along their frozen way, and your com- 
pass, or, if the grey clouds will lift for a while, the stars 
in the heaven above, will be your only guide." 

This book is a conscientious piece of work. It is 
well illustrated, and is provided with very good 
maps. It concludes with chapters on Language and 
an Folk -Tales, and with appendices of scientific 
value. While on the whole it appeals more to &e 
scientist and explorer, the book possesses no little 
interest for the general reader. 

Miss Hapgood is well and favorably known as a 
translator of the works of Tolstdy (as she spells 
the name). In her volume of << Russian Rambles," 
which is largely a reprint of magazine articles, she 
seeks to dispel *< some of the absurd ideas which 
are now current about Russia," that is, ideas of 
Russia as a country full of despotic cruelty, of start- 
lingly strange customs, and where the visitor is being 
constantly dogged by a lynx-eyed police. She de> 
nounces (p. vi.) as an incrodible yam the story that a 
peasant was met on the N^vsky Frosp&t, ^< holding 
in his hand a live chicken, from which he was taking 
occasional bites, feathers and all." However, her 
own story (p. 115) about "people walking along 
the streets with bunches of pea-vines, from which 
they were plucking the peas, and eating them, pods 
and all, quite raw," might seem to some people a 
doubtful tale. Miss Hapgood is too severe in her 
constant polemic against other writers. Others need 
not be disbelieved in order to believe her. If she 
had comparatively little annoyance from the pass- 
port system, and the censorship, for example, this 
was largely due to her tact and knowledge of the 
native language. One official, indeed, was so im- 
pressed by her proficiency that, 
** Rising, drawing himself up, with the heels of his high 
wrinkled boots in regulation contact, and the scarlet 
pipings of his baggy green trousers and tight coat brist- 
ling with martial etiquette, he made me a profound 
bow, hand on heart, and said: < Madam, accept the 
thanks of Russia for the high honor you have done her 
in learning her difficult language.' " 

Miss Hapgood has kept the best wine to the last ; 
her earlier chapters are rather inferior in interest 
and style to the later ones. Four out of the eleven 
pages of Chapter lY., << Bargaining in Russia," are 
taken up with a description of furs and Russian 
houses. For the best remarks on bargaining and 
shopping, see pp. 109 ff. Chapters y.-VIII. and 




X.~XI. may be reeommended as the most entertain- 
ing and instraotiYe in the book. Miss Hapgood 
became quite intimately acquainted with Count 
Tolstoy, and her description of the man is very in- 
teresting and seems quite yeraeious. 

** I am aware that it has become customary of late to 
call Count Tolstdy ' crazy/ or * not quite right in the 
head/ etc. The incTitable conclusion of any one who 
talks much with him is that he is nothing of the sort; 
but simply a man with a hobby or an idea. His idea hap- 
pens to be one which, granting it ought to be adopted 
by everybody, is peculiarly difficult in his own case. 
And it is an uncomfortable theory of self-denial whieh 
very few people like to have preached to them in any 
form. Add to this that his philosophical exposition of 
his theory lacks the clearness which generally — not 
always — ^results from a course of strict preparatory train- 
ing, and we have more than enough foundation for the 
reports of his mental aberration. On personal acquain- 
tance he proves to be a remarkably earnest, thoroughly 
convinced, and winning man, although he does not de- 
liberately do or say anything to attract one. His very 
earnestness is provocative of argument." 

Miss Hapgood falls often into the easy fault of 
travellers, of using foreign words without due ex- 
planation. For instance, on pages 250-251, there 
are ^Ye Rossian words at whose meaning we are 
left to gaess (ef. pages 87, 106, 243, 249). If Ros- 
sian words must be used, there should be a glossary. 
But on the whole, this is a very commendable book. 
Miss Hapgood, by knowing the language and going 
without guides, improved the opportunity, during a 
two-years residence in Russia, of coming to a direct 
knowledge of the people and of the country, and 
she has given expression to these experiences in a 
bright femininely written account. Certain surface 
aspects of Russian life are pleasantly and truthfully 
treated, and if this was the aim of the book it is 
certainly a success. 

If Miss Hapgood gives us the brighter side of 
Russian life, Mr. Bigelow, in '< The Borderland of 
Czar and Kaiser," emphasizes the darker side. To 
Mr. Bigelow, Russia is a *^ sad gray land/* a <* mourn- 
ful empire," where the unmitigated political despot- 
ism of the czar and his officials, the religious despot- 
ism of a fanatical priesthood, and the financial des- 
potism of the avaricious Jew, make life not worth 
the living. Further, he regards the peasantry as a 
hopeless race of dull and shiftless drunkards. The 
book is mostly made up of a series of conversations 
with chance acquaintances. But Mr. Bigelow in 
this way gets too much at second-hand to make his 
work either very reliable or interesting. His studies 
are not independent, unbiassed, first-hand impres- 
sions, and seem hardly candid or thorough. In 
tiliese respects, however, his remarks on Germany 
are more satisfactory than the Russian sketches. 
Most if not all of the material has previously ap- 
peared in << Harper's Magazine." The book is clev- 
erly illustrated by Mr. Frederic Remington. 

In << The Great Dominion," Mr. Parkin has given 
us a good book of information, provided with ex- 

eellent maps, and of especial interest to the intend- 
ing settler or investor. It is for the most part a 
reprint of letters to the << London Times," and takes 
on the whole a very optimistic view of Canada as 
a British possession. He regards the annexation 
movement as practically dead. 

'< In 1892, some remnant of this feeling could yet be 
discovered; in 1894 it was gone. The unparaUded 
wave of business depression which swept over the United 
States during the interval; the spectacle of Coxeyite 
armies of the unemployed moving on Washington; of 
Atlantic steamboats crowded with emigrants returning 
from the United States; of industry paralyzed by strikes 
which divided authority made it difficult to repress,-^ 
all made Canadians more conscious than they had ever 
been before of the serious social and political problems 
which their neighbours have to confront. The fact that 
Canada's industrial condition was meanwhile scarcely 
affected, emphasized the advantages of her independent 
position on the continent" 

The Oreat Canadian Northwest is rapidly filling 
up with desirable immigrants. There are now ten 
thousand Icelanders in Manitoba. Further, there 
is a considerable immigration from the United 
States, especially from Dakota, Nebraska, and 
Washington. This, however, is more than o£bet by 
the emigration of French Canadians into ''the 
States," though Mr. Parkin regards M. Louis Frech- 
ette's estimate, in '* The Forum," of eleven to twelve 
hundred thousand Canadians now resident in the 
United States, as ''much exaggerated." Yet I find 
that the census returns show over one million immi- 
grants into this country from Canada during the last 
thirty years, and it must be apparent that Frechette's 
is rather an under estimate. Moreover, the French 
Canadian \b enormously prolific. On this point, 
Mr. Parkin himself says : 

<< Three or four years ago the government of the 
province, reverting to the policy of the French Kings 
in the early days of Canadian colonization, instituted a 
system of premiums on large families, by offering to 
give a grant of a hundred acres of land to all heads of 
families who had twelve or more children. This grant 
has already been made in nearly 2000 cases, and appli- 
cations are said to be flowing in. Families of twenty 
children are common; families of twenty-five or more 
are not unknown." 

Mr. Parkin emphasizes the perfect security to life 
and property in Canadian frontier life as a contrast 
to the lawlessness so often displayed in the Western 
life of the United States. However, he says noth- 
ing about the Indian difficulties in the Canadian 
Northwest, nor does he even refer to the Indian, 
problem at all. 

Dr. Henry M. Field, the veteran traveUer and 
writer of travels, in his last book, '* Our Western 
Archipelago," gives an account of an Alaskan 
trip. However, less than seventy pages of the two 
hundred and fifty are concerned wiUi Alaska, the 
rest being a description of the outward trip by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and the journey back by 
way of the Northern Pacific and Uirongh Yellow- 
stone Park. These familiar letters of travel con- 



[Sept. 16, 

tain little that is new, or of great interest The 
style is rather diffuse and garmloos, although some- 
times the garrulity may he even attractive, as in 
Chapters Y. and VI. In the opening of Chapter 
XXIII. is a suggestive aocount of a bear who do- 
mesticated himself at a Yellowstone Park hotel as 
readily as a sparrow ; and we quote this account 
as an example of Mr. Field's method of descrip- 

** He was not ao old acquaintance, as he had come 
from the woods only a week or two before, but was of 
such a domestic turn of mind that he made himself at 
home anywhere, whether * under the greenwood tree/ 
or under a house or bam. But in coming to abide with 
men he did not submit to be a servant under bondage, 
to be confined in a cage or held by a chain; but was a 
free and independent citiaen, free in all bis goings out 
and comings in, as if he took the place of a faithful old 
servitor, who has earned the right to have his own way; 
to have the run of the kitchen, or what was thrown out 
from it; and in all respects to live as a pensioner of the 
family. ... I was curious to see this addition to the 
family, and asked * Where is be ? ' with vague suspicions 
that he might be a myth. But * No, no,' said the inn- 
keeper; <by and by he will make his appearance. Per- 
haps he is here now.' With tbat he went about the 
house, looking underneath it, till suddenly he exclaimed, 

* Why, there he is.' I was down on my knees in an in- 
stant, and sure enough, right under the floor, indeed, 
under my very feet, where I had been writing, was what 
might be a bear or a buffalo. The next thing was to 
stir him up, and make him show himself. The master 
of the house tried to poke him with a stick, but had not 
one long enough. Then he threw stones at him. But 
the thick brown hair was proof against stones, and the 
burly old creature slept on with proper contempt of the 
pygpnies that were trying to disturb his repose. I con- 
fess, I rather respected him for his royal indifference 
to his puny assailants. The landlord apologized for his 
want of deference to his visitors, but explained it thus: 

* The old fellow takes his time about everything. He 
has probably been off in the woods to visit his family, 
to see Mrs. Bear and his children or grandchildren, and 
is now a little tired. By and by he will wake up and 
feel hungry, and then he will come round to the door 
for his breakfast, which he will take from our hands as 
if he were a Newfoundland dog.' " 

Dr. Field's pleasant, easy-going, optimistic person- 
ality permeates the whole book. He was accom- 
panied by his niece, and his references to her are 
hardly in taste in a book designed for the general 
reader. Thus, " Oh, dear, oh, dear, my poor little 
chicken, that was hardly out of the hen-coop," etc. 
(p. 235 ). Mr. Field's remarks regarding his friends 
are apt to be rather fulsome ; as, for instance, in 
regard to Lord Dufferin and Mr. Harper (pp. 21, 
26 ). The book is illustrated with process cuts, and 
is provided with a map. 

The first volame of Mr. Henry M. Stanley's la- 
test work, «< My Early Travels and Adventures in 
America and Asia," is a series of letters, which, as 
he himself acknowledges, ** were not written with a 
view to permanent publication, but for the exacting 
and imperious necessities of American newspapers, 
principally for <The Missouri Democrat' of St. 

Louis, and a New York paper." As special corre- 
spondent, Mr. Stanley accompanied General Han- 
cock, and, later. General Sherman, in expeditions 
against the Indians ; and he narrates in vigorous 
and terse style many incidents of Indian and fron- 
tier life. The book throbs with the wild and pro- 
gressive spirit of the sixties in Kansas, Nebraska, 
and Colorado, and will be found very interesting by 
all who have had any experience of picmeer life. 
The story of the Plum Creek Massaere is particu- 
larly vivid. Mr. Stanley's description of the buffalo 
is quotable : 

" Until to-day we were not prepared to accept all the 
statements we heard about the numbers of buffalo on 
the plains, for prairie folk are like sailors, fond of em- 
bellishing the truth. When we were told that the prai- 
rie has been so packed with them that one might walk 
on their backs for ten miles, we set it down to the nar- 
rator's desire to express a countless number, rather than 
as a literal fact. When they swore that, not many years 
ago, military expeditions were compelled to mow a pas- 
sage through them with grape shot from their ho?rit- 
zers, we thought they were taking advantage of the 
credulity of youth, and inwardly lamented their de- 
pravity. We are becoming wiser every day, however. 
We think of all the bales of buffalo robes annually ex- 
ported £a8t, of the many thousands of hides required 
by the 150,000 Indians of the plains for their wigwams, 
of the thousands of robes in use among the military 
and civilians out West; and we are not so skeptical as 
formerly. We bave seen many herds at various times, 
but to-day we had the pleasure of seeing ten great 
herds, of about a thousand head each, guarded by their 
sentries and ridettes, which suspiciously watched our 
advance, and continually snorted the alarm to the re- 
spective hosts. It was to me a thrilling sight." 

Occasionally these letters show defective editing, 
thus (p. 157), a <* first letter " is referred to, which 
nowhere appears. And again (p. 160), there is a 
hiatus after <^ when it had gathered." If most of 
the official speeches and ail the official letters and 
inventories (as on pp. 45, 135, 229), and ail other 
matter of historical value, but of no interest to the 
general reader, had been relegated to an appendix, 
and the remaining matter were disconnected from 
the epistolary form and chronological order, and 
thrown by subjects into chapters, we would have a 
very interesting book. As it is, the reader must do 
some judicious skipping, which is always vexatious. 
Mr. Stanley's second volume contains newspaper 
letters on the inauguration of the Suez Canal, on a 
Nile trip, on explorations in Jerusalem, and on a 
journey to Persia. Some of this material may have 
a historical value, but to the general reader much 
in these reports will appear dry and perfunctory. 
Some portions of the Persian journey may be read 
with interest, particularly the visit to Teheran. 
However, most of the topics discussed have been 
much more fully and better treated by other writers. 
In short, we do not think this book will much en- 
hance Mr. Stanley's reputation. He has given us. 
the scrapings from his barrel, and we find them 

little satisfying. ^ „ « 

HiBAM M. Stanlbt. 




Brlbfs on New Books. 

A muWe bwk "^^ misgiving with which we natar- 
about AmeHeoj ally take up a hook ahoQt the United 
bya^^enckuHmm. g^^^^^^g^ written hy a foreigner after 

a few months' sojoam in the country, is soon dis- 
pelled after opening the pages of Madame Blanc's 
(Th. Bentzon) « The Condition of Woman in the 
United States/' in Miss Alger's excellent transla- 
tion (Boherts). The accomplished author has wisely 
added the modest sab-title, '< A Traveller's Notes," 
thos saving the reader all disappointment at a some- 
what careless composition, or rather disposition of 
the material, for the style is all that could be de- 
sired. Less stimulating to thought than more pre- 
tentious publications of this class by writers with 
whom philosophizing is more of a profession, Mme. 
Blanc's chapters appeal rather to Uie emotions, and 
will be read with satisfaction and profit by those 
not very familiar with the amount of good done in 
this country by individual women and women's or- 
ganizations. For the interest of the book centres 
in its subject, not in its foreign authorship, though 
the latter frequently heightens the relief in which 
things appear. The vivid accounts of repeated 
visits to Hull House, for example, cannot fail to 
awaken the strongest sympathy for Miss Addams's 
noble work. So with regard to other institutions 
in the West and in the East. The generous hos- 
pitality enjoyed by the French visitor at the homes 
of so many distinguished women in the land has 
not, it seems to us, betrayed her into any indiscre- 
tions, though modesly might have prevented some 
of her hostesses from too positively sanctioning all 
of her statements. Neither, do we believe, will 
sensible Americans take umbrage at some instances 
of candid and good-natured disapproval, out-bal- 
anced as they are by the author's unrestrained ad- 
miration for what is good and beautiful. Individ- 
ual readers will no doubt occasionally differ with 
Mme. Blanc in matters of judgment and opinion, 
but her book will give rise to no bitterness of feel- 
ing. Miss Alger contributes to the volume a brief 
bi<^[raphical sketch of the author, and a strikingly 
good half-tone portrait of the latter is inserted as 

The remarkable ^^® ^^^® ^^ ^® remarkable Russian 
life-eiory o/ a woman, Sony a Kovalevsky , who died 
AMite teaman. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ Stockholm, is one 

of very uncommon interest. At the age of twenly- 
four she had received a doctor's degree from the 
University of Gottingen ; at thirty-one she was made 
hprivat-docent by the University of Stockholm, and 
three years later a professor of mathematics (one 
of the most distinguished of the University's posi- 
tions), thus sweeping away the traditions, preju- 
dices, and customs of centuries. This appointment, 
made when the universities of Germany would not 
even consider the question of permitting women to 
study in them, made a marked sensation in the 
learned world. Still another sensation was produced 

when it was discovered that she was the winner of 
the greatest scientific honor ever gained by a woman, 
— one of the greatest, indeed, to which anyone can 
aspire, — the Bordin prize from the French Aca- 
demy of Science. The jury of the Academy made 
the award in entire ignorance that the winner was 
a woman, though it doubled the prize (making it 
five thousand francs) on account of the '< quite ex- 
traordinary service rendered to mathematical phy- 
sics by this work." These brilliant achievements 
were terminated by Sonya Eovalevsky's death, at 
the early age of forty-one. The event called out 
remarkable manifestations of sympathy and appre- 
ciation. Telegrams of condolence poured in from 
nearly all parts of the civilized world ; cartloads of 
flowers were heaped upon her grave ; Russian women 
resolved to erect a monument on her tomb at Stock- 
holm. Yet Sonya Kovalevsky was the last woman to 
be satisfied with being regarded simply as a kind of 
mental giant, a woman with an unusually developed 
brain. Her emotional nature — the hunger of the 
heart for loving and for being loved — was as 
strongly marked as her intellectual development. 
There was thus in her life a sort of double nature, 
at war with itself ; and the story of this life is one of 
fascinating, almost tragic, interest She was never 
happy, even when most honored. Near the close of 
her life she wrote : <^ It is a great misfortune to have 
a talent for science — especially for a woman, who is 
forcibly drawn into a sphere of action where she 
cannot find happiness." She considered her life a 
failure, and said : " Some other human being must 
have received the part of happiness that I longed 
for and dreamed of." This unusual and' engross- 
ing life story — in part autobiographical — has been 
simultaneously published by the Century Co. and 
by Messrs. Macmillan & Co., the first-named using 
the translation from the Russian made by Miss Isa- 
bel F. Hapgood, and the latter the translation from 
the Swedish made by Louise Von Cossel. 

The fifth volume of the new edition 
SSfe^^o*. o* Po«'8 Complete Works (Stone & 

Kimball) is noteworthy for its reprint 
of <<The Journal of Julius Rodman," not before 
included in any collection of Poe's tales. This 
sketch of adventure along the shores of the Missouri 
seems almost to have been written to show what the 
romancer could not do : its incident is meagre, char- 
acterization is entirely lacking, and the style itself 
is hardly to be recognized. The real inspiration of 
the story was doubtless the unpleasant necessity of 
eating. In this volume of the series, and its pre- 
decessor, the promised notes begin to appear. The 
chronological list of the tales will be gladly con- 
sulted by all students of them. An equal amount 
of research has been devoted to showing that Foe 
borrowed his quotations at second-hand, and para- 
phrased much of his material in geography and 
natural history from extant scientific works. The 
value of such scholarship is more questionable. It 
is as if the editor had determined that this luxurious 



[Sept. 16, 

edition, with its special paper, its portraits, its sym- 
pathetic illustrations, shonld not delude the public 
into too favorable opinion of the author. Editoral 
criticism nowadays is not depreciatiYe. Imagine 
an edition of Longfellow which should set itself the 
task of indicating that poet's frequent obligation to 
his sources ! But Foe, since the days of Griswold, 
has been doomed to have his fame reduced to its 
lowest terms. Fortunately, the most scathing re- 
buke cannot invalidate the genius of the man who 
u to-day the commonplace of the literary conver- 
sation of Frenchmen with Americans, and whose 
poems were esteemed by Dante Bossetti along with 

Mr. Frederic Remington's ''Pony 
SjfiTt^lX^ Tracks" (Harper) embraces fifteen 

sketches, the drift of which is indi- 
cated by such titles as '' Lieutenant Casey's Last 
Scout," «A Rodeo at Los Ojos," « Coaching Li 
Chihuahua," « Policing the Yellowstone," << A Merry 
Christmas in a Sibley Tepee," etc. Little need be 
said of Mr. Remington as a delineator of Far 
Western life and types. His studies, descriptive 
and pictorial, of the <' Cow-puncher," the ''Grea- 
ser," the post soldier, etc., are inimitable in their 
way, and the present work contains some of the 
best things he has given us. The volume is a hand- 
some one, and the seventy odd drawings are done 
in the author's usual spirited, if somewhat over- 
literal, style. We have spoken before of the com- 
ical Mnybridge effects of Mr. Remington's more 
miraculous horses. 


" The Choice of Books," by Charles 
F. Richardson (Lovell, Coryell & 
Co.), is one of those curious produc- 
tions that seem the result of spontaneous genera- 
tion. No date of publishing is given, no hint of 
copyright, no preface, no ii^ormation concerning 
the author, beyond his name ; while the contents 
have come together mostly from other publications. 
We believe that the book was originally published 
about fifteen years ago, by an author who has since 
that time given us some more original work. If 
such be the case, the book may have a certain right 
to its title, which, if it were a more recent produc- 
tion, would seem to belong to Mr. Frederic Harri- 
son. Whether this be so or not, it might just as 
appropriately have been caUed "A Choice Jrom 
Books "; for, as is not uncommon nowadays, it con- 
sists almost entirely of quotations. Of the three 
chapters which we have particularly examined, one 
has a sixth original matter, one a fifth, one a fourth. 
In the two hundred pages we have one hundred 
and forty-seven extracts, of which about twenty are 
two pages or more in length, the others being shorter. 
" In this chapter," remarks the author on page 27 
(but the limitation was unnecessary), " I prefer to 
express my own conclusions principally in the words 
of mightier men." Such a practice has decided 
advantages to the reader : it lb much easier to recog- 

nize a good passage than to write one, so the reader 
is surer of getting them. This volume, then, has in 
it a great deal that is interesting about books and 
reading, and may be confidently recommended to 
anyone who desires advice on the subject in hand. 
The cover presents a design having one book in the 
centre between three other books. From the inside 
it would appear that these other books must be re- 
spectively by Noah Porter, Hamerton, and Emerson. 


A fresh and very acceptable addi- 
tion to the " Library of Humor " se- 
ries (imported by Scribner) is the 
" Humor of Russia," admirably translated by B. L. 
Yoynich, and furnished with an introduction by S. 
Stepniak. The translator has aimed to give samples 
not only of the best, but of all, Russian humor ; hence 
her list includes, beside the masters, such names as 
Glyeb, Nikolai, Y. Slyeptzov, and even Grorbonnbv. 
As M. Stepniak observes, " there is hardly a name 
worth mentioning that could be added to these." 
Among the selections are Gogol's " Marriage " and 
"A Madman's Diary," Shchedrin's (Saltykov) 
" The Self-Sacrificing Rabbit," Dostoy^vsky's " The 
Crocodile," Gorboun6v's " La Traviata," and Step- 
niak's delightful " Story of a Kopeck." The book 
sparkles from end to end with good things, and the 
collection is fairly representative. 


Richard Whately wrote his « Historic Doubts ReU- 
tive to Napoleon Bnonaparte " (now reprinted by Messrs. 
Pntnam's Sons) in 1819, to show that theories of eri- 
denoe like those Hume developed in his << Essay on 
Miracles ** break down in quite a ridicoloos fashion when 
applied even to well-known historical facts, and conse- 
quently are not to be trusted in the criticism of the 
Scripture narratives. As a controversial tract belong- 
ing to the first quarter of the century, its reputation 
for acnteness need not suffer. Its interest is, however, 
purely historical, because its argument has no point in 
the controversy about more recent methods of criticism. 

It is not often that a railroad company, desirous of 
providing a seductive handbook for travellers over its 
tracks, presses into its service so distinguished a man 
of letters as Professor Charles G. D. Roberts. This, 
however, is what has been done by the Dominion At- 
lantic Railway of Nova Scotia, and the resulting book, 
called " The Land of Evangeline," is equally good read- 
ing, whether one travels in Acadia or remains at home. 
It is prettily printed and illustrated, and, we presume, 
distributed free of charge by the company that issues it. 

It is a little curious that the sprightly Frenchwoman 
who writes under the name of ** Gyp " should not have 
found favor with English translators. Her bright and 
entertaining stories of up-to-date society have a consid- 
erable degree of literary merit, and are exceptionally 
readable. One of the best of them, <<Le Manage de 
Chiffon," recently published in the ** Revue de Paris," has, 
however, just found not one translator, but two — Mr. 
Henri P^ne du Bois, who calls his version "A GaUic Girl " 
(Brentano's) ; and ** M. L. J.," whose translation is more 




literally styled «< Chiffon's Marriage " (Lovell). Both 
books are neatly and attractively made. 

A recent issue of *< Sound Currency " reprints from 
Mr. W. A. Shaw's ** History of Currency " the chapter 
which discusses bimetallism in France, remarking that 
** of all the Quaker artillery that has been used by our 
friends of the Bimetallic L^igue (alias U. S. silver mine 
owners), none has done better service than the alleged 
experience of France." Of course, every well-informed 
student of finance knows that France never had bi- 
metallism in the sense of concurrent circulation of the 
two metals. The superstition is a hard one to kill, and 
<< Sound Currency" provides some effective ammuni- 
tion, while its gun is not of the Quaker sort. The semi- 
monthly pamphlets of which this is one are doing ez- 
ceUent service in the cause of honest money, and friends 
of that cause will do well to aid in their circulation. 
They are issued by the Sound Currency Committee of 
the New York Reform Club. 

•< Maid Marian " and « Crotchet Castle," combined in 
a single volume of the Macmillan series of old-fashioned 
fiction reprinted, will be welcome to all existing Pea- 
oockians, and will probably bring some new members 
to that select guild! The introduction to this volume 
is by Mr. Greorge Saintsbury, who has recently discov- 
ered in MarmontePs " Contes Moraux " what he believes 
to be the model that Peacock had in view when he 
wrote « Headlong Hall," and who has thus brought the 
whole Peacockian series of tales into at least a shadowy 
oonneetion with the literature of that period. 


Mr. Andrew Lang is at work upon a biography of 

The value of Huxley's estate is a little less than nine 
thousand pounds. 

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons have just added 
<<Leighton Court" to their edition of the novels of 
Henry Kingsley. 

** Hypatia " is the first volume of a new " pocket " 
edition of Charles Kingsley's novels, published by 
Messrs. Macmillan & Co. 

The publications of the Century Co. will hereafter be 
issued in England by Messrs. Macmillan & Co., who 
succeed Mr. T. Fisher Unwin in the agency. 

** Richard III." and «< Henry Y .," the newest volumes 
of the ** Temple " Shakespeare (Macnullan), delight the 
sense no less than have done Uieir many predecessors. 

The long looked for «< Letters of Matthew Arnold," 
as also the *' Letters of Edward Fitzgerald to Fanny 
Kemble," are promised for the present month by Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. 

Holger Draohmann, the Danish novelist and poet, a 
sketch of whose life and work appears in this issue of 
Ths Dial, is shortly to be introduced to American 
readers by a translation of one of the best and most 
characteristic of his shorter stories — *< Paul and Vir- 
ginia of a Northern Zone," to be published by Messrs. 
Way & WiUiams. 

The Litemational Congress of Journalists, now (Sep- 
tember 13-17) in session at Bordeaux, is particularly 
occupied with discussing the desirability of a Bureau 
Central des Associations de Presse, « for the purpose of 
establishing friendly feelings and common action be- 
tween them in regard to all purely professional ques- 

tions, irrespective of creeds, political opinions, races, 
and nationalities." 

The Hakluyt Society will issue almost immediately a 
volume from the pen of its president, Mr. Clements R. 
Markham, C.B., consisting of a translation of the journal 
kept by Pedro Sarmiento during his voyage to Magel- 
lan's strait in 1579-80, supplemented by documents 
procured from the archives at Madrid. Another of 
the Society's volumes, which, under the joint care of 
Mr. C. A. Gosch and Mr. Miller Christy, deals with the 
Arctic voyages of Jens Munk and James Hall, is in the 
press, and may be expected shortly; while a commence- 
ment has also been made with the printing of Dr. Robert 
Brown's edition of the '< Travels of Leo Africanus." 

A meritorious bit of bibliographical work is the *< Bib- 
liografia di Pompei, Eroolano e Stahia," by M. Friedrich 
Furohheim. It presents with great exactness the titles 
of the works, both large and small, that have been 
written about the buried cities of Campania, dealing 
with the popular as well as the scientific side. More 
than five hundred titles are given, in one hundred and 
sixteen attractively printed pages; and there is an in- 
troduction of fifteen pages (in Italian), giving a general 
survey of the literature. It is announced that a simi- 
lar bibliography covering Vesuvius, Capri, and other 
points of interest about the Bay of Naples, is in prepara- 
tion. (Naples: F. Furohheim, 59 Piazza dei Martiri.) 

The « Baconian craze " can hardly be said to be ex- 
tinct, since three new books inspired by it are announced 
— two of them by lawyers: Mr. T. S. E. Dixon of Chi- 
cago (« Francis Bacon and his Shakespeare," The Sar- 
gent Publishing Co.), and the other by Judge Stotsen- 
berg of Indianapolis. The third is a recent Grerman 
work, a translation of which is promised by Mr. Henry 
Brett. The aim of Mr. Dixon's work is stated to bo 
** to present, in a critical exposition, the data (almost 
wholly new) whose consideration has convinced him of 
Bacon's authorship of the plays. The hypothesis is also 
given a crucial test in a novel and striking interpreta- 
tion of the play of < Julius Cesar,' under the illumina- 
tion afforded by Bacon's acknowledged writings." 

The speech made by Professor Charles Eliot Norton 
at Ashfield, Mass., about three weeks ago, attracted 
much attention by its outspoken strictures upon popu- 
lar education in this country. We reproduce the most 
significant passage of the address: ** We speak of popu- 
lar education as the foundation of republican institu- 
tions, and so, indeed, it is. But when we boast that it 
exists in America we delude ourselves. We have indeed 
a very imperfect system of popular education, but of 
true education of the people there is not enough to guar- 
antee the prosperity of the republic. The minds of 
the mass of Americans are stiU in a prehistoric, or at 
least in a mediieval stage. It is foUy to call a com- 
munity educated in which such an organization as the 
A. P. A. can spread widely. Its members have not 
learned the first, the simplest lesson oi good citizenship. 
The records of our recent Legislatures, the records of 
both houses of Congress, give evidence that a very large 
proportion of their members have no claim to be recog- 
nized as educated men. The great body of our news- 
papers in every part of the land not merely display, but 
contribute to, the lack of education of the tommunity. 
The speeches and the acts of many of our most promi- 
nent men, public men, men who have had every advan- 
tage that school and college can afford, give proof that 
their authors belong among the uneducated or the mis- 


[Sept 16. 

Airyoir?«CKMENT9 or FaIjI. Books. 
In aocordaiMe with our Mtsbluhed otutoni, we pre- 
■ent betewith onr umoftl list of the more important 
booki to be iaraed during the Fall MMon bj Amerioan 
pabliaheta. The list contains uearlj seven handTed 
titlea, and reprasenta forty-two publishers; the largest 
nnmber of entries for one honae ia orei a hundred, and 
the amallest is one, the avetage being abont seventeen. 
The onusnal siu of the list makes it neoeasarj to az- 
olnde juvenile books, the most of which appear rather 
late in the aeason, and the annoonoement of which ia of 
minor literary interest In oil other departments, how- 
ever, the list is believed to be full and representative. 
The proper claaaifioatiou into departments is of ooDise 
the dtfficnlt part, and it is made donbl; difficult by the 
inadequate or misleading information sometimes snp- 
plied. Books that have not yet been received by The 
Dial, and hence that have not yet appeared in its regu- 
lar printed List of New Books, are included among the 
booka annonnoed, although in some oases the books may 
have been actually issued by the time this list ia pub- 
lished. The books in the list are presumably all nae 
— new editiona not being inolnded nnlesa having new 
form or matter. Stone analyaia of the liat, and oom- 
ments npon its more interesting features, may be found 
in the leading editorial artiole of this issoe. 


lite United States of Amerioa, lTSB-1861^ br Bdward Chan- 

ning. — The Bevinnine of the Hiddla Ages, by Daaa 

Cbnreh, " Everale; Senas."— Western Enrme m the Elfth 

Mtera Enrme m the Elfth 
Weatan Enion in die 
tao.— HiatoiT ot the CS^ 

CmitaT7, bj £. A. Freeman. 

Eichth CeanuT, by E. A. EVseioao.- 

ot »ori.« In tha WtiSie A.gvs, \>j Ferdinnnil 

Vol. TIL - HistoiT of Oreeoa from its Comr _.._. . 

th» Close of the Iitdenaiiiienoe nf the Greek Nation, froq 
the Oerman of Adolf Holm, Vol. III.- Jewish Life ffi 

the Middle Ages, b; Isruel Abrabams. — EeaBV^ iu Hltttof^ 
ioBl Subjects, by J. B. Liehttool. D.D. — Hiatorj ot the 
PlolDniies. by the Kev. J. P. MahaSy.—A History of MoB- 

ionl Subjects, by 

PloloniieB. by the _._ ^. ^ _. 

kind, by Friedrich Katiel, traus. by A. J. Butler, M.A^ 
illna., 3 vols.— The Politioal History ot EuBland, hy Gold- 
win Smith.- The King's Peace, a historical sketch of the 
English L«w Courts, by P. A. Inderwick, Q.C, illus.- 
Ouiliues of Church HisMry. br Prof. Sohm. tnuw. by MS7 
Sinclair. - The Oxford Chutih MoTBmont, sketches and 
recollections hy George Wakeling. — Virgil in the Middle 
Anes. by DomenicD Comparetti, trans, br E. P. M. Buf 
-'-- {MacmiUan ii CoJ 

life in the Taileriea under the SeeoDd Emnre, by Anna !• 

Bioknell, illna., VS-aB. (Century Co.) 
The Stery of the >"■*■«", by GeoiKe Bird Qrinnell, first volume 

'in the " Story of the West Sariss, " edited by Bipl^ Hitoh- 

iu the " Story of the West Sai 
cook. (D. Appletou & Co.) 
lie Mroennan Qviliiatian 

I. from the Oreek of Dr. 

tion during the Civil War in the United Sutea, bv Eben 
Greenough Soott. — Papen of the Haaaaohusetls Militair 
Society, edited by Theodoie F. Dwight, 2 vols., S4. 

(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 
He Enipira of the Tsars and the RuasianB, by Aaatola LeiOT- 
Beaulien, Vol. IIL, The Religion, »3. — TraiD'a Sodsl 
England. Vol. IV., From the Aooeauou of James I. to the 
Death of Anue, 83. SO.— History of the Fiftli Army Coras, 

hy William H. PowoU, U. S. A., U. (Q. P. Pnb 


Buchanso's admmistratioD. from 1860 to its close, by Hor- 
atio King. — The American in Paris, bj Dr. Eugene C 
Sarid^ a study of phases of the FraDOO-PruBian war 
outlimng the influenoa of the United Statee upon the oon- 
fliot, SI. (J. B. LippinooCt Co.) 

CoDatitntioDalH____, , 

nor Cnrtia. Vol. If., S3. ( Harper A Bros.) 

EMm of the Paopls of Israel, 1^ &iieet Reuan, VoL V., 
Period t£ Jewish IndepeadeDoa awi Judea under Roman 
Rule, S2JW. (Roberta Bros.) 

Eoiope in Afrioa in the Nineteenth Cantnry, by Eliiabeth 
Wormaley Latimei, illua.. SS-SO. (A. C. HoCluiv & Co.) 

Two Tean in the Alabama, by Arthur Sinolsir, lient. 
C.S.N., illus., t3.— Ilie Campaign of Trutou, ITTS-T. br 
Samuel Adama Drake, SO eta. — Hiatrar of the Battle (2 
Rimker's (Breed's) Hill on Jnlr IT, ITTS, by Georse E. 
D.D., new edition with additions, SO ots. — RefereniM 

book of QieeinB Histoir, 

Caroline W. Trask. (ImASI 

Tomb Bearen d History, seooud series, from the Reforma- 
tion to the beginninK of the Frenoh Revolution, by Amelia 
Hutohinaon8terIing,M.A.,80ots. (Thos. Nelson A Sons. ) 


Qitstavs Flanber^ as seen iu his works and oorrespondenoe, 
by John Charies Tarvsr, with portraits, S4. — Generu 
Sherman, by Oen. M. P. Force, in the " Gisat Comman- 
deisSeries.'^ (D. Appletoa & Co.) 

The life of Francos Pukmsn, by Charles H. Fsnham, to 
which is added Mr. Psrkman's UDCoUeoted papen ; with 
portraits, JI3.S0. (Little, Brown, & Co.) 
' a, and his Lest Voysce, ~ ' 
rhomas Umber, R.N., i 

. Raar-AdmirBl Cockbnr , . . 

Great Astronomers, by Sir Robert Ball. S2J)0. — From 
Manasaaa to Appomattox, bwng the memoin of Jamae 
Lmigstteet, Lt.-Geti. C.S.A. (j: R. lippiooott Co.) 

life and Lettera of Louie Asaaaiz, by Jules Manou, 2 vtda., 
with portnuU.— John Euoi, by P. Hume Brown, 2 vols., 
illua. — Dundonnald, by the Hon. J. W. Fortsaoue, " En- 
gliah Hen of Action."- Richelieu, by Prof. Lodge, " For- 
eign Statesmen." — EVaiHois Sareriu Maraean,by T. G. 
JohnsoB. with portrait.— The Private life of Warren Hast- 
ings, by Sir Charles Iawsou, illua. — Life of Henry B. Usn- 
aing, l^ Edmund S. Pnreell, 2 vids., with portraila, (Hao- 
miilffTt A Coi) 

Pen<mal Memoirs of Geoetal Grant, aaw editiao from new 
platea. with netee by Col. Frederick D. Grant, 2 voU., 
illus., SS.— Ws^tingtou in lineoln's Time, reminisceBoea 
of UMB and evenlalv Noah Brooks. tl.2B. (CsntaryCo.) 

Napeleim III., by Rerre de Lano, trens. by Helen Hunt 
Jaokam. with portrait, S1.2S. — Life of Haua Chriatian 
Andeieea, by R. Niabett Bain, with portmit. S3JM).— Ao- 
aodotal Reoollaotiona of Notable People, by Charies K. 
Taokecman. 2 vola., SS. (Dodd. Maad & Co.) 

New vdamea in the '* Heroes of the Nations ": Charies XII., 
by R. Niabett Bain ; Lorenio de' Medicia, by Edward Arm- 
strong, U.A.i Joan ot Arc, by Mre. Olipluuit ; eaoh, illus,, 
8.S0.— Lifa and Correspondenae of Rofus King, Vol. IIL, 
. (0. P. Potnam'aSons.) 

I of Conatant, first tiaitt de change of Napoleon, trans. 

from the Fienoh, with introdnotion by Imbert de Saint 
Amend, 4 vola., SB.— Margaret Winthrop, by Alice Horea 
Earle, witb fao-nmile reproduotioii, tl.25. (Chas. Sorib- 

Fanuma Leaden among Women, by Sarah K, Bolton, $1. SO. 

— Tnming PoinU in Suooeaaf ul Careers, by W. M. Thayer, 

with portraits, tlJM.— Under the Old Elnu. Danoaa] reo- 

oUeotione of Cl 


Claflia. SI. (T. Y. Crowell A Co.) 
RecoUecliona of the Private Life of Nuioleon, by his vaUi 

de diambre, Ccnstaut, trans, by Walter Clark, 3 vols., illua. 

Reoolleotiona of Abraham Lincoln, 184T~186S, by Ward Hill 

Lamon. edited by Dorothy Lamon, Sl.SO. (A. C. Ue- 

M. Stamboloff, by A. Hidme Beaman, in the "Pnblio Men 

of To-iMf Series." (Frederick Waine A Co.) 
A Memoir at the late John L. Nerins, D.D., for forty yean 

aChinaae raiaaiaBary, byhia wife, illoe. from photographs. 


illoi. (Lee A i^epard. ) 




The life of Joseph Wolf, F.Z^., Artut and Nstoraliat, by 
▲. n. Palmer, with photograTure portrait, illos.— The Life 
and Times of Cardinal Wueman, by Wilfrid Ward.— The 
life of Sir Andrew Clark, Bart^ by Maloolm MaoCoU, 
M.A. — Hie life of Foid Madoz Brown, by Ford Madoz 
Haeffer, illvs. — Frances Biary Boss and her Work for 
Education, by Annie £. Ridley.— The life and Times of 
John KetUewell, bj the anthor of **NioholBa Ferrar.*' 
(Lonipnans, Green, A Co. ) 

The Cabells and their Kin, a memorial yolnme, by Alexander 
Brown, D.C.L., with portraits, $7.50. — Grastaims Adcl- 

Shos, and the art of war from its rsTiyal after the Mid- 
le Ages to the end of the Spanish Snooession war, by 
Theodore Ayraolt Dodge, illns., $5. — Townsend Harris, 
first American enToytoJapan«by William E. GrifBs, D.D., 
with portrait, $2.— William H. Seward, by Thornton E. 
Lothrop, in the ** American Statesmen Series," $2.50. — 
John Knox, by Florence A. liacConn in the " English 
Leaders of Keligion Series," $1. — Domenico MorelU, his 
life and work, by Ashton R. WiUard, illns., $1.25. (Hough- 
ton, MiflOin & Co.) 

General Lite&atubb. 

Tlie Spectator in London, essays by Addison and Steele, illus. 
—Letters of Matthew Arnold, 184S-88, collected by George 
£. W. Russell, 2 vols. — ^Function of Criticism, by Matthew 
Arnold, Essay on Style, by Walter Pater, 1 toI. — King 
Arthur, a play, by J. Comyns Carr. - literary TVpes, by 
E. Beresford Chaiioellor, M. A.— History of English Poet- 
ry, by W. J. Courthope. Vol. II.— English Prose, edited 
by Henry Craik, Vol. V.— A Brief History of EiM^lish, by 
O. F. Ihierson, A.M.— The Letters of Edward Fitzgerald 
to Fanny Kemble, edited bv William Aldis Wmfat.— 
Handbook to the Works of Tennyson, with biography, by 
Morton Luce. — Bookbindings, Old and New, by Brander 
liatthews, iUus., *'Ez-Libris Series." — Miscellaneous 
Studies, by Walter Pater. — Parnassus library of Greek 
and Latin Classics, with introduction but no notes. — Hand- 
book of German literature, by Biary E. Phillips, LL.A. — 
Passages from Plato for EagVush Readers, edited by M. J. 
Knieht. — The Song of Roland, a summarv for Enelish 
readers, with Terse renderings by Arthur Way and Jmd- 
eric Spencer. — Prose Treatises of Richard Roile of Ham- 
pole, edited from unpublished MSS. by Carl Horstman, 
^' Old Ei^lish Librax7."-Sheridan's Plays, with introduc- 
tion, ''£^ersley Series."— Ethical Discourses, by LesUe 
Stephen, "Ethical Library." — The Greater Victorian 
Poets, by Hugh Walker.— Works of William and Dorothy 
Wordsworth, 16 vok., each with portrait, "Bvendey 
Series." (Mamnillan A Co.) 

From Shakespeare to Pope, by Edmund Gosse, $1.26. — Sen- 
tences and Paragraphs, by John Dayidson, $1.— Seleotions 
from the Speeehes and Writings of Abraham linooln, by 
L. E. Chittenden, with portrait, $1.25. — Charm and Cour- 
tesy in Letter- Writing, by Franoes Bennett Calloway, $1. 
(Dodd, MeadifcCo.) 

The Ideals of German Literature, by Prof. Knno JBVanbke. 
(Henry Holt A Co.) 

Victor Hugo's Letters to his Wife, trans, by N. H. Dole. 
$1.50. ( Eetes A Lauriat. ) 

little Leaders, by William Morton Payne, $1.50.— Shelley's 
translation of ^* The Banquet of Plato," $1.50.— The Death 
Wake, or. Lunacy, a neoromaunt in three chimeras, by 
Thomas T. Stoddard, with introduction by Andrew Lang. 
—The Miracles of Madame St. Katherine of Fierbois (130O- 
1500), trans., with introduction, by Andrew Lanff. (Way 
A Williams.) ^^ 

An Introduction to the Study of literary Criticism, by Charies 
MUls Gayley, A.B., 2 vols. (Ginn A Co.) 

Anima PoetsB, selections from the unpublished note-books of 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, edited by £^nest Hartley (Cole- 
ridge. — CJolonial Dames and Gbodwives, by Alice Morse 
Earle. — Ruling Ideas of the Present Age, by Washington 
Gladden, D.D. — A Phrase-Book from the Poetic and Dra- 
matio Works of Robert Browning, by Marie Ada Moli- 
neuz, A.M.— Essays in Miniature, oy Alice Repplier, new 
and enlarged edition, $1.25.— A Victorian AnUiology, con- 
taining ropresentatiye poems by the authors disciuised in 
'' Victorian Poets," selected and edited by E. C. Stedman, 
with frontispiece, $2.50.— The Whittier Year Book, pas- 
sagBs from the Terse and prose of J. G. Whittier, with por- 
trait, $1. — Bahama Songs and Stories, a contribution to 
Folk-Lore, by Charles L. Edwards, illus., $3.50. (Hough- 
ton, MifBin A Co.) 

Bismarok's Table Talk, edited by Charles Lowe, with por- 
trait, $2. (J. B. Lippincott do.) 

The Helen Jackson Year-Book, seleotions for each day in the 
Year from Mrs. Jackson's Writings, by Harriet T. Pernr, 
illuSM.$l«60. — Modem German Otorature, by Benjamm 
W. Wells, Ph.D., $1.50.— An Old Conyent School, and 
other papers, by Susan Coolidge, $1.50.— The Fanuly Let- 
tors of Dante Gabriel Roesetti, with memoir by William 
Ifiohael Roesetti. 2 yob., with portraits, $6.50.— Margn ret 
and her Friends, or. Ten Conyersations with Biargaret Ful- 
ler, reported by Caroline W. Healey, $1. (Roberts Bros.) 

Francis Bacon and his Shakespeare, by Theron S. E. Dixon, 
$1.75. ((Chicago : Sargent PubUshing Co. ) 

little Riyers, essays in profiteble idleness, by Henry Van 
Dyke, D.D., illus.— Tlie Art of liying, by Robert Grant, 
illus., $2.50.— American Lands and Letters, by Donald G. 
Mitchell, illus.— English Lands Jjctters, and Kings, Queen 
Anne and the Georges, $1.50.— Keflections and Commento, 
1865-1885, by E. L. Godkin.— Side Talks with Girls, by 
Ruth Asmnoro, $1.— Introduction to Shakespeare, by Ed- 
ward Dowden, 75 ote. — Latin Literature, by J. W. Mao- 
kail. — The Sherman Letters, edited by Rachel Sherman 
Thomdike. new edition, with portraits, $2. (Chas. Sorib- 



Beauties of Shakespearo, by the Rey. Wm. Dodd, 2 yob., 
$2JM>.-Shake8pearo's Heroines on the Stage, by C. E. L. 
Wlngate, $2. — Sunshine for Shut-ins, by a Snut-In, 75 
cents.— Dr. Miller's Year Book. $1.25.— The Blessing of 
Cheerfuhiess, by the Rey. J. K. Miller, 35 cts. (TTY. 
Crowell A Co.) 

The Great Indian Epics, the stories of the Rftmftyana and the 
Mah$bhtrata, by Prof. J. C. Owen, with notes, eto., illus., 
$2. ( G^. Routiedge A Sons. ) 

Writings and Oirrespondenoe of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. VI., 
$5. — About Men : What Women Haye Said, compiled by 
Roee Porter. $1. — The Emc of the Fall of Man, a oom- 
paratiye study of Cndmou, Dante, and Milton, by S. Hum- 
phreys Gurteen, M.A., illus.— Earthwork Out of Tuscany, 
being impressions and translations of Biauriee Hewlett. 
$1.75. — little Journeys to the Homes of Ch>od Men ana 
Great, by Elbert Hubbard, illus.- A literary History of 
the English Peo]^e, by J. J. Jusserand, Part It., From the 
Renaissance to Pope, $3.50. — Wanderings, literary and 
Historical, by J. J. Jusserand.— Israel Among the Nations, 
by Anatole Leroy -Beanlieu, trans, by Franoes Hellman. — 
Impressions and Memories, by J. Ashcrdft Noble, $1.50. 
— Books and Their Makers during the Middle Ages, by 
Geo. Hayen Putnam, 2 yols. — Echoes of the Playhouse, 
by Edward Robins, Jr., illus. — Selected essays from 
Schopenhauer, with portrait. — The Literary History of 
the American Reyolution, 1765-1783, by Moses Coit Tyler, 
2 yob. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

literary Landmarks of Jerusalem, by Laurence Hutton, 
illus., 75 cte.— A Study of Death, by Henry Blills Alden, 
$1.50. (Hflurper A Bros. ) 

Sappho, memoir, tezLselect ronderings, and a literal trans- 
lation, by Henrr Thornton Wharton, with 8 photogray- 
ures, $2.25. — Tlie Journal of Countess Fran^ise Krasin- 
ska in the Eighteenth Century, trans, by Easimer Diie- 
konska, illus., $1.25.— Knowleoge and Culture, by Henry 
Matson.— Menticulturo, or, the A. B. C. of IVne Laying, 
by Horace Fletcher, $1. (A. C. MoQurg A (>>.) 

Vailima Letters, being correspondenoe addressed to Sidney 
Ck)lyin, Noy. *90 to Oct. '04, by Robert Louis Stoyenson, 
2 yols., $2.25. — Plays of Maurice Maeterlinck, trans, by 
Richard Hoyey, Vol. IL (Stone A KimbaU. ) 


Last Poems of James Russell Lowell, edited by C!harles Eliot 
Norton, with a new portrait.— Poems, by Annie Fields.— 
Songs from the Golden Gbte, by Ina D. Coolbrith, illus.- 
The Tower, with legends and lyrics, by Emma Hunting- 
ton Nason.— Ballads of Blue Water^and other poems, by 
James JeffroT Roche. — Poems, by Elizabeth D. B. Stod- 
dard, limited edition. — Poems, by Henry D. Thoreau. 
(Houghton, MifBin A Co.) 

Sister Sonss, by Francis Thompson, $1.50.— Lgrrics of Earth, 
by Arohibald Lampman, $1.25.— Poems, by Alioe Mey- 
nell, $1.50.— The mUsof Song, by Clinton Scollard, $1.25. 
—Esther, a young man's tragedy, together with Uie loye 
sonnets of Proteus, $3.50.— Dumb m June, by Richard 
Burton, $1.— Apples of Istakhar, by William Lindsay, 
$1.26. (Copeland<&Day.) 

Tales of an Engineer, with riiymes of the rail, by Cy War- 
man. ( CJhas. Seribner's Sons. ) 

The Wood Beyond the World, by William Morris, with front- 
iniiece by Bume-Jones, $3. — From Dreamland Sent, by 
LUian Whiting, $1.25. (Roberto Bros.) 



[Sept. 16, 

The Vacant Chair, and other poems, by Henzy Steyenson 
Washburn, illns. (Silyer, Bnrdett & Go.) 

Sonn and OUier Venes, by Mrs. Radford, Imiited edition. 
(J. B. Lippinoott Co. ) 

Rhymes of Onr Planet, by Will Carleton, illns., $1.25. (Har- 
per & Bros. ) 

Volnnteer Grain, by Francis F. Browne, limited edition, 
$2.26. — Queen Helen, and other poems, by John Vance 
Cheney, limited edition, $3. — Vespertilia, and other yerses, 
by Rosamund Marriott Watson (Graham R. Tomson), 
$1.50. — Under the Pines, and other poems, by Lydia Ay- 
ery Coonley. — A Summer Night, and otherpoems, by Mrs. 
Rosamund Marriott Watson (Graham R. Tomson), $1.25. 
— Hand and Soul, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. (Way & 

New yolumes in the " Bibelot Series ": The Sonnets of Mich- 
ael Angelo, now for the first time trans, into English yerse, 

Omar Khayyam, rendered into Finglisb yerse by Edward 
Fiturerald, $1.; Aneassin and Nicolete, done into Fjiglish 
by Andrew Lang, $1. (Thoe. B. Moaher.) 

A new yolume of poems by Christina Rossetti. (Maomillan 

A Pomander of Verse, by E. Nesbit, $1.25. (A. C. McClurg 

Whi£b from Wild Meadows, by Sam Walter Foss, $1.25. 
(Lee AShepard.) 

Poems of the Day and Year, by Frederick Tennyson, $1.60. 
(Stone & EimbaU.) 

The Hawthorn Tree, and other poems, by Nathan Haskell 
Dole, $1.26.— London Idylls, by W. J. Dawson, $1. (T. 
Y. Crowell & Co.) 

Loye and Laughter, by James E. Burnett. — ^Faet and Fancy, 
humorous poems, by ** Cupid Jones,** $1.50. — Mimosa 
Leayes, by Grace Denio Litchfield, illus. — Poems, by Jo- 
seph O'Connor. $1.25. — Poets* Dogs, selected and arranged 
by Elizabeth Richardson, $1.25.— Ballads of the Nations, 
a eeries of 9 yols., each illus., 75 cts. (G. P. Putnam's 


Casa Braocio, hy F. Marion Crawford. 2 yds., illus., $2.— The 
Bf en of the Moss-Hags, by S. R. (>ockett. — A yolume of 
ehost stories, by Bfrs. Alfred Baldwin, iUus. — A Set of 
Rogues, by Frank Barrett.— The Crooked Stick, or, Pollie's 
Probation, by Rolf Boldrewood. — Julian Home, a tale of 
college life, hw Frederick W. Farrar, iUus.— Wild Rose, a 
tale of the Mexican frontier, by Franob Francis. — Tne 
Years That the Locust hath Eaten, by Anne E. Holds- 
worth. — Where Highways Cross, by J. B. Fletcher, iUus., 
75 cts.— The White King's Daughter, by Emma Marshall. 

— A Blind Musician, a story ol Handel^y Emma Max^ 
shall, Ulns. — Country Stories, by Mary Russell Mitford, 
fllns. — Caryed Lions, by Mrs. Molesworth, iUus. — A Son 
of the Plains, by Arthur Pateison. — L& the Smoke of War, 
by Walter Raymond. (MacmiUan & Co.) 

The Stark Munro Letters, by A. Conan Doyle, illus., $1.50. 
— Chronicles of Count Antonio, by Anthony Hope. — The 
Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, $1. — In Defi- 
ance of the Sjoflr, an historical romance, by Chaunoey C. 
Hotchkifls, $1 .—Stone Pastures, by Eleanor Stuart, 75 cts. 
— Chronioles of Martin Hewitt, Liyestigator, by Arthur 
Morrison.- The Riddle Ring, by Justin McCarthy.— The 
King of Andaman, by J. Maciaren Cobban. — A Hard 
Woman, by Violet Hunt. — In the Day of Adyersity, by 
J. Bloundelle-Bnrton. — A Winning Hasard, by Mis. Alex- 
ander. — A Self-Denyuur Ordinance, by M. Hamilton. — 
The Watter's Mou', by Bram Stoker.-Sleeping Fires, by 
George Gissing. — Out of Due Season, by Adeline Sergeant. 

— Soylla or Charybdis ? by Rhoda Broughton, $1.— New 
noyeb by Miss F. F. Montr^sor and Percy White. (D. 
Appleton A Co.) 

A Colonial Wooing, by Dr. Charles Conrad Abbott, $1.— A 
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XxUIj III J\ li 


Fall Announcements '"""^^^j^^ ^^ „^v. 

EMILE ZOLA. Jacques Damour and Other Stories. Six Short Stories Translated by William 
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A Companion Work to Mr. OarreUU beautiful volume qf 

'' Elizabethan Songs.** 

VICTORIAN SONQS. I^rloi of tha Affeottona and Nattm,oollaofead 
and illustrated by Bomuiid H. Gaibrt. With an Introdsekkai 1^ 
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Bditloade LHxe, 0OMk(feiacof9B0iHimba>«d oopiaa. 22Scopiaa 
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Twent j-flve ooplea on Japan paper, with proof platoa on Japan pa- 
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The Romances <if Alexandre Dumas. New Series. 

L ASCANiO. A Ronaanoe of Franoia L and BeuTannto OeUlnL 2 
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n. THE WAR OP WOMEN. A Boinaaoe of the Frgnde. 2Tola., 
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m. BLACK, THB STORY OP A DOO. 12&0, deoorated doth, 
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IV. TALES OP THB CAUCASUS. Oompriaing '•The Ball oC 
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In all, 6 Tda. 12nio. With f rontiaplaoea by B. Van Mnyden and 
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La raqranaa to repeated ragneata, Meaan. Uttle, Brawn, A Oom- 
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A New Volume qf Stories by Nora Perry, 

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The new aeriea of delightful atorlaa hy thia popular author will be 
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An Art Bowuinee by Oeorge Sand. 

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of GnosoB Samd by Charlotte C. Johnston. With aa etehed portrait 

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A Story of Exquisite Beauty and Qreat Power. 

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ThiM exquidte roBBance la perhapa more widely known, through ita 

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By the Author qf'The Head </a Hundred.** 

THB COLONIAL CAVALIER: or, Soutbern Life before the 
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Novels qf Adventure by Charles Lever, A new Series^ issued 

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3 platea drawn and etched by S. Van Muyden. 1 toL 8to, doth, 
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2. SIR JASPER CAREW : Hit Life and Exporlencee. With 3 

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With 7 etched platea and 16 Ofaistratlona in the text from drawiaga 
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The Choice Works qf the Qreat French Novelist, 

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1. PRANCOIS THE WAIP (Prmii«ois le Ctuunpi). Trandated 

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the French by Jaae mnot Sedgwick and Bleiy Sedgwiek. Printed 
at the De Vinne Praaa. With frontispiece drawn and etched by 
S. Abot. 

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letes). Trandated from the French by Charlotte C. Johnaton. 

Printed at the UniTaralty Praaa. With a portrait of Titian, etched 

by W. H. W. BicknelL 
Limited Edition. 700 numbered aeta on Windaor haad-made pa- 
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Edition de Lnxe. 200 numbered aeta on Dlokinaon haad-made 
paper. 4 irda. 16mo, boards, gflt top, 914.00 neL Also 20 numbered 
sets oa Japan paper. 4 vols. lOmo, bowrds, gflt top, 940.00 net 

The recent rerivd of interest among American and Wngliah readers 
in the noTsla and romancea of Dumaa and Balaac Is rapidly extending 
to their oontemporaiy, the gifted geniua who atyled heraelf George Band. 
Although no complete edition of her books in Bngllsh haa erw appeared, 
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lated into Kngliah and have had a wldie circulation. The beat of theae 
— the oiaaterpiecea of George Sand— are the booka here deacribed. 
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Francis Parkman*s Life and UnooUeeted Papers. 

To which is added Mr. Parkman*s UnooUeeted Papera. With a por- 
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youth photogravured by GoupO from a daguerro^pe ; and a view of 
his home. Small 8vo, doth, 92.00. 

Sold by ail Booksellers^ or sent by matV, postpaid^ on receipt qf price, by 

LITTLE, BROWN, & CO., Publishers, No. 264 Washington Street, Boston. 




ITtterat]; Crittcism, Sbmssbn, an)r Infxrrmation. 



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A Novel. By Thomas Habdt. New 
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By Stcabt J. Rbid. Crown Svo, Cloth, 
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THE NIMBLE DOLLAR, with Other Stories. 

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MACMILLAN & COMPANY", 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



[Oct. 1, 1895. 

D. Appleton & Co.'s New Books. 


HU Songs and his Sayings. By Jovl Chakdlbb Habbis. 

New and revised edition, with 112 Dlostrations hy A. B. 

Fsoer. 12nio, oloth, $2.00. 

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By Waltbb J. HoFFMAir, M.D., of the Bureau of Amerioan 
Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. A new volume in the 
Anthropological Series, edited hy Prof. Fbbdbbick Stabb. 
Illustrated. 12mo, eloth, $1.70. 

Ftofessor Hoffman, one of the most successful workers in the field of 
Amerioan ethnology, presents the first steps in the doTelopment of 
writing from tangible reminders like qulpus and wampum belts, through 
picture writing to phonetic writing with an alphabet These first steps 
are described especially as they are shown among North American 
tribes. Our nattve peoples made much use of reminders ; they drew 
truly expreasiTe pictures ; they developed complicated systems of pic- 
tography ; and some peoples of Mexico and Central America were pass- 
ing from the use ot idlograms to phonograms. This transition period is 
most interesting. In dear and popular language Professor Hoffman 
sets forth the latest results of seientiflc study, uid his references are 
illustrated with many helpful pictures. 


And its AppliccUions to Methods of Teaching Arithmetic, By 
Jambs A. MgLxixan, A.M., LL.D., Principal of the On- 
tario School of Pedagogy, Toronto, and John Dbwbt, 
Ph.D., Head Professor of Philosophy in the Uniyersity of 
. Chicago. International Education Series, Vol. 33. 12mo, 
obth, $1.60. 

It is belieTed that this work will supfdy a special want. There is no 
subject taught in the elementary schools that taxes the teacher's re- 
souroes as to methods and derices to a greater extent than arithmetic, 
and none that Is more dangerous to the pupQ in the way of deadening 
his mind and arresting its derelopment, if bad metiiods are used. The 
authors of this bocdc hare presented in an admirable manner the psy- 
chologioal riew of number, and shown its applications to the correct 
methods of teaching the seyeral arithmetical processes. 


Being a Series of TwelTC Letteis written hy J. Stabk Muhbo, 

M.B., to his Friend and Fellow-Student, Herhert Swanho- 

rougfa, of Lowell, Blass., 1881-1884. Edited and arranged 

hy A. GovAH Dotue, author of " Round the Red Lamp," 

^'TheAdTcntures of Sheriock Holmes," etc. With8fuU- 

page Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

This original and dramatic story presents fresh types, extra<»dinary 

situations, and novel suggestions with a freshness and rigor which show 

that the romancer's heart was in his work. How far certain Incidents 

of the story are based upon personal experiences it is impossible to say, 

but the unflagging interest and unexpected phases of the romance are 

no less In eridenoe than the dose personal relations established between 

author and reader. 




"Mother Communings and Mottoes " rendered into ftigiish 
Verse hy Hskbistta R. Eliot, and " Froae Commenta- 
ries" translated hy Subak £. Blow, \inth 48 fuU-page 
Illustrations. Vol. 31, International Education Series. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The increased interest in kindergarten woik and the demand for a 
clearer exposition of Froebel's philosophy than has heretofore ^ipeared 
have made a new version of the ** Mother Play " an Imperathre necee- 
slty. Mo one Is better equipped for such a work than MiM Blow, as her 
late book, ** Symbolic Bducation,** has attested. In the " Mottoes and 
Commentaries ** the original pictures hsTe been faithfully reproduced, 
except where bad drawing rendered slight changes necessary. It is an' 
attraotire volume of a couTenient sixe, and a book of speoiflo value to 
mothers as well as to teachers of every grade. It will be followed 
shortly by another volume containing the songs and games. 


By Tasma. No. 175, Town and Country lahrary. 12mo, 

paper, 50 cents ; cloth, $1.00. 

This novel seems likely to be accounted the most ambitious work of 
its talented and successful author. The literary value ci her woric has 
been abundantly recognised, but " Not